The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, plus those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was never called the Indian Empire, only informally; as "India", it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor.
During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east became: Assam, Bengal and Orissa. In addition, there were a few minor provinces that were administered by a Chief Commissioner: A Princely State called a Native State or an Indian State, was a British vassal state in India with a
Nothing but the Best is a 1964 British black comedy film directed by Clive Donner based on the 1952 short story'The Best of Everything' by Stanley Ellin. James, a young man starting with a large London firm of estate agents and auctioneers, is ambitious to get to the top. In a cheap café, he meets Charles, a drunken layabout who has everything James wants: effortless upper-class arrogance and impeccable tailoring. In return for a room to live in and loans for drink and betting, Charles agrees to tutor James in the life skills he thinks he needs to succeed. By bluff and sabotage, James rises in his firm, catching the eye of the owner and of his only daughter Ann. Disaster threatens when Charles wants to end the deal. James hastily strangles him and his landlady agrees to hide the corpse in her cellar in return for continuing their sexual liaison. After a long courtship, Ann agrees to marry James and her father makes him a partner in the business. Having conveniently sent his lower-middle-class parents to Australia, James anticipates his success being crowned by a grand society wedding.
Ann's father confesses that he has a disreputable son they never see called Charles and developers who have bought the house of James' former landlady find a corpse in the cellar. Alan Bates as Jimmy Brewster Denholm Elliott as Charlie Prince Harry Andrews as Mr. Horton Millicent Martin as Ann Horton Pauline Delaney as Mrs. March Godfrey Quigley as Coates Alison Leggatt as Mrs. Brewster Lucinda Curtis as Nadine Nigel Stock as Ferris James Villiers as Hugh Drewe Henley as Denis Avice Landone as Mrs. Horton Ernest Clark as Roberts Willie Rushton as Gerry Peter Madden as Ex-Politician Nothing but the Best on IMDb Nothing but the Best at AllMovie
Mungolian Jet Seta is a Norwegian electronic music duo consisting of DJ and turntablist Pål "Strangefruit" Nyhus and producer Knut Sævik. The group have created a kind of personal mythology, reminiscent of George Clinton's Funkadelic and Parliament, some of, used in their recordings and website; this includes a fabricated mythical language they call "Mung Su", various characters including a linguist named Ronald P. Hardaker, an ancient order of Knights called "The Knights of Jumungus", numerous others based on occasional collaborators. On their website they have initiated a Halo 3 Clan under the moniker of "The Noble Order of The Knights Of Jumungus" in order to perform battle reenactments from the artificial history of the Mungolians, they have an alleged "Mungolian" providing them with a blog, critical in tone of humanity and its pastimes and various social and political machinations. In contrast, they have a character named "The Dhaqwaan of Po-Lonte" who acts as official bard, scattering epigrams and short poems throughout their website and sleevenotes, as well as contributing "special poetry" to the track "Y Lentokone Mungo" on their second album, "We Gave It All Away...
Now We Are Taking It Back". This poetry appeared as an untranslated sleevenote on their first album, "Beauty Came To Us In Stone." No translation of this text has yet been supplied, although they collectively maintain there is one in existence. Mention is made of a "mad Irish writer" who collaborates with them. Credits on their second and third albums suggest this writer may be named "Dave Mullan," but as no confirmation or denial has been issued by either the band or the writer, this cannot be stated with certainty; the sleevenotes included on their most recent album, "Mungodelics", is from the same source as the rest of their mythology, but as there is no accreditation, it remains uncertain. The artwork of their second and third albums and many of the releases of DJ Strangefruit's own record label, Luna Flicks, was created by Suzie Webb, an English expatriate artist and designer living in Oslo, Norway. For their fourth album, the cover was designed by Kim Hiorthøy, who has designed many of the album covers for the label Smalltown Supersound.
This album is a collective effort, guided by Pål Nyhus and Reidar Skaar with some contributions from Knut Sævik. A commissioned jazz album for Bugge Wesseltoft's Jazzland Recordings label, it soon evolved from the tribute to electric era Miles Davis it was intended to be into a densely woven pastiche of innumerable elements, their second album moved away from the Jazz-based sound of its predecessor, saw Knut Sævik take a leading role in the group replacing Reidar Skaar. The more club-oriented sound meant the band moved from Jazzland Recordings to Smalltown Supersound, a label whose roster and aesthetic seemed to be a better home for the Psychedelic Disco music they were aiming to create; the album consists of a few original tracks interspersed with tracks that began as remixes of others, but were remixed a second or third time to create a more consistent sound. The album covers two CDs with 8 tracks per disk, each disk timed at 59 minutes and 15 seconds, their third album took a different approach from its predecessors in that some of the material had a distinct element of pop music.
While the psychedelic aspects were to the fore on some tracks, traditional disco played a major role in tracks such as "Bella Lanay", "We Are The Shining", "Ties n Downs". Critical opinion was divided by these "lighter" moments, for example, Pitchfork said "Here, the music scales down to more human dimensions, at which point the silliness starts to resemble that of real humans: flushed with an over-enthusiastic pleasure you can observe but not share, at times a bit uncomfortable to be in the same room as". By contrast, Resident Advisor said "'Schlungs' scans more like the art-pop of 10cc's'How Dare You' than an introverted journey like'The Wall'; this is due in no small part to the inclusion of'Bella Lenay'". However, the album was a commercial success, paved the way for a rapid follow-up; the fourth album marked a return to the remix-revised/reclaimed aesthetic of their second album, this time adding some original pieces, some pieces by spin-off project, The Knights Of Jumungus. The overall tone is heavier than releases since their debut for Jazzland Recordings.
Reviews were positive, although some felt that the band were repeating themselves. However, Allmusic.com said "Above all, Mungodelics bubbles with undisguised joy in the moment, a pleasure in activity, the possibilities they explore", a common theme in most reviews. The band are working on a fifth album; the only information thus far available suggests that it will be a full studio album, containing some retro-thematic concepts that go far beyond the 60s/70s/80s references they have littered their work with, music that stretches their expansive sampling and stylistic composing, most indications suggest a heightened presence of the "excess" that has come to define them above all other considerations. The album will be a direct follow-on from "Schlungs" in the same way that "Mungodelics" followed "We Gave It All Away... Now We Are Taking It Back"