British Institution

The British Institution was a private 19th-century society in London formed to exhibit the works of living and dead artists. Unlike the Royal Academy it admitted only connoisseurs, dominated by the nobility, rather than practicing artists to its membership, which along with its conservative taste led to tensions with the British artists it was intended to encourage and support. In its gallery in Pall Mall the Institution held the world's first regular temporary exhibitions of Old Master paintings, which alternated with sale exhibitions of the work of living artists. From 1807 prizes were given to artists and surplus funds were used to buy paintings for the nation; the British Institution was founded in June 1805 by a group of private subscribers who met in the Thatched House Tavern in London. A committee was formed, in September of that year it purchased the lease of the former Boydell Shakespeare Gallery building at 52 Pall Mall, with 62 years remaining, for a premium of £4,500 and an annual ground rent of £125.

The British Institution opened at the Pall Mall site on 18 January 1806. The founding "Hereditory Governors" included Sir George Beaumont, 7th Baronet and Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough, both of whom had employed the services of the leading dealer and picture-cleaner William Seguier, were responsible for his appointment as "Superintendent". Seguier became Surveyor of the King's Pictures and when the National Gallery, London was founded in 1824, was appointed as the first Keeper, holding all three positions until his death in 1843, as well as continuing to run his business. Above Seguier the Institution had a role given to a series of engravers; the Superintendent was responsible for organizing and hanging the shows, a role that gave rise to grumbling and worse from artists – at the Royal Academy a committee was responsible for the hang, which allowed someone else to be blamed, but Seguier had no such opportunity to share the blame. In 1833 John Constable wrote with heavy irony of having received a visit in his studio from "a much greater man than the King—the Duke of Bedford—Lord Westminster—Lord Egremont, or the President of the Royal Academy — "MR SEGUIER"."

When in 1832 two pictures by Richard Parkes Bonington, dead only four years, were included in an "Old Masters" exhibition, Constable wrote that Seguier was "carrying on a Humbugg". Other founding Governors included George Legge, 3rd Earl of Dartmouth as President, the Marquess of Stafford, Sir Francis Baring, 1st Baronet, William Holwell Carr, John Julius Angerstein, Sir Abraham Hume, 2nd Baronet, Sir Thomas Bernard, 3rd Baronet, others, they were the same group who were to succeed in persuading the government to found the National Gallery in 1824, whose gifts to it provided most of the early collection. There was a total group of 125 Governors and Subscribers, paying sums between 100 guineas down to one guinea annually. In 1805 the initial subscribers consisted of "One duke, five marquesses, fourteen earls, two viscounts, nine lords, two bishops, four ladies, seven baronets, twenty-two members of parliament, five clergymen and above fifty private gentlemen and merchants"; the Institution had been discussed with the Royal Academy before it was established, relations were friendly, at least though there were to be tensions.

The Prince Regent was Patron from the foundation, loans from the Royal Collection continued throughout the life of the Institution. In 1822 the hereditary nature of the Governors was eased out, as they were becoming far too numerous, the bottom end of the Subscribership tightened up; the gallery building had been commissioned in 1788 by the engraver and print publisher John Boydell as a showroom for his Boydell Shakespeare Gallery, a large and financially unsuccessful project for a series of paintings and prints of scenes from works by William Shakespeare. The architect was George Dance the Younger, the clerk of the city works; the gallery had a monumental, neo-classical stone-built front, three exhibition rooms on the first floor, with a total of more than 4,000 square feet of wall space for displaying pictures. Boydell ran up large debts in producing his Shakespeare engravings, obtained an Act of Parliament in 1804 to dispose of the gallery and other property by lottery; the main prize winner, William Tassie, a modeller and maker of replica engraved gems sold the gallery property and contents at auction.

When the British Institution took possession, they retained a sculptural group on the façade by Thomas Banks, intended to be used as a monument on Boydell's tomb. The price of admission remained one shilling throughout the life of the Institution. There were some private openings in the evenings, for members and exhibitors, these being divided into two by splitting the alphabet; the number of modern works exhibited grew within a few years to over 500. The first exhibition contained 257 works with a good selection of the leading British artists, including two Turners, two Stubbs paintings and five enamels, fourteen Benjamin Wests, four Paul Sandby's, two by Thomas Lawrence, one a huge history painting, three Copleys including his Death of Chatham, four James Wards, as well as 24 pictures from the Arabian Nights by Robe


Gokalpur is a village in Kapurthala district of Punjab State, India. It is located 10 kilometres from Kapurthala, both district and sub-district headquarters of Gokalpur; the village is administrated by a Sarpanch, an elected representative. According to the report published by Census India in 2011, Gokalpur has total number of 7 houses and population of 39 of which include 20 males and 19 females. Literacy rate of Gokalpur is 62.86%, lower than state average of 75.84%. The population of children under the age of 6 years is 4, 10.26% of total population of Gokalpur, child sex ratio is 1000, higher than state average of 846. The closest airport to the village is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. Villages in Kapurthala Kapurthala Villages List

Winter Fantasy

Winter Fantasy is an annual gaming convention that takes place in the USA every January or February. The convention was held as early as 1977 under the name Winter Fantasy. In 2007 the convention was renamed to D&D Experience. In 2012 Wizards of the Coast announced it would now use the title D&D Experience for the events it held at the Gen Con convention. Baldman Games, the company operating this and other conventions for Wizards of the Coast, decided to continue the tradition and brought back the name Winter Fantasy for the 2013 convention; the convention has been tied to the RPGA, was sponsored by the RPGA from 1989 until TSR went bankrupt. The entire design team of Marc Miller's Traveller met only once before they began writing – at Winter Fantasy, held February 9-11, 1996 in Milwaukee. Winter Fantasy has played host to a wide variety of tournament and organized play games; these include popular living campaign programs such as Living City, Living Greyhawk, Living Forgotten Realms. The 2013 convention included Pathfinder Society games run by Paizo Publishing in addition to Wizards of the Coast organized play events.

Winter Fantasy has featured special events either not available elsewhere or with a limited release. 2013 included a special Pathfinder scenario and multi-table battle interactive events for the Living Forgotten Realms and Ashes of Athas campaigns. Ashes of Athas is a Dark Sun campaign, which started at Winter Fantasy 2011 and concluded at Winter Fantasy 2013; the location of the convention has moved over the years. It is held in Fort Wayne, Indiana, a site it has held since 2009 and several times in the past; the first Winter Fantasy was organized by Rob Kuntz and held January 8 to 9, 1977, at American Legion Hall in Lake Geneva, WI. Other locations have included Milwaukee, New Jersey, Washington, DC. Winter Fantasy official site Wizards of the Coast reviews 2013 events