Train Protection & Warning System
The Train Protection & Warning System is a train protection system used throughout the two UK passenger main-line railway networks, in Victoria, Australia. The UK Rail Safety and Standards Board's definition is: The purpose of TPWS is to stop a train by automatically initiating a brake demand, where TPWS track equipment is fitted, if the train has: passed a signal at danger without authority approached a signal at danger too fast approached a reduction in permissible speed too fast approached buffer stops too fast. TPWS is not designed to prevent SPADs but to mitigate against the consequences of a SPAD, by preventing a train that has had a SPAD from reaching a conflict point ahead of the signal. A standard installation consists of an on-track transmitter adjacent to a signal, activated when the signal is at danger. A train that passes the signal will have its emergency brake activated. If the train is travelling at speed, this may be too late to stop it before the point of collision, therefore a second transmitter may be placed on the approach to the signal that applies the brakes on trains going too to stop at the signal, positioned to stop trains approaching at up to 75 mph.
At around 400 high-risk locations, TPWS+ is installed with a third transmitter further in rear of the signal increasing the effectiveness to 100 mph. When installed in conjunction with signal controls such as'double blocking', TPWS can be effective at any realistic speed. TPWS is not the same as train stops which accomplish a similar task using electro-mechanical technology. Buffer stop protection using train stops is known as ‘Moorgate protection' or'Moorgate control’. TPWS was developed by British Rail and its successor Railtrack, as a development of the Automatic Warning System after a 1994 decision that the nationwide installation of a full Automatic Train Protection system was not practicable. Trial installations of track side and train mounted equipment were made in 1997, with trials and development continuing over the next two years; the rollout of TPWS accelerated when the Railway Safety Regulations 1999 came into force in 2003, requiring the installation of train stops at a number of types of location.
However, in March 2001 the'Joint Inquiry Into Train Protection Systems' report found that TPWS had a number of limitations, that while it provided a cheap stop-gap prior to the widescale introduction of ATP and ERTMS, nothing should impede the installation of the much more capable European Train Control System. A pair of electronic loops is placed 50–450 metres on the approach side of the signal, energised when it is at danger; the distance between the loops determines the minimum speed at which the on board equipment will apply the train's emergency brake. When the train's TPWS receiver passes over the first loop a timer begins to count down. If the second loop is passed before the timer has reached zero, the TPWS will activate; the further the pair of loops is from the signal, the more spaced they will be. There is another pair of loops at the signal energised when the signal is at danger; these will stop a train that runs past the signal. In a standard installation there are two pairs of loops, colloquially referred to as "grids" or "toast racks".
Both pairs consist of a ` trigger' loop. If the signal is at danger the loops will be energised. If the signal is clear, the loops will de-energise; the first pair, the Over Speed Sensor, is sited at a position determined by line gradient. The loops are separated by a distance that should not be traversed within less than a pre-determined period of time if the train is running at a safe speed approaching the signal at danger. Due to different braking characteristics freight engines operate at 120% of the passenger timing; the first,'arming', loop emits a frequency of 64.25 kHz. The second,'trigger', loop has a frequency of 65.25 kHz. The other pair of loops is back to back at the signal, is called a Train Stop Sensor. The'arming' and ` trigger' loops work at 65.25 kHz respectively. The brakes will be applied if the on-train equipment detects both frequencies together after having detected the arming frequency alone. Thus, an energised TSS is effective at any speed, but only if a train passes it in the right direction.
Since a train may be required to pass a signal at danger during failure etc, the driver has the option to override a TSS, but not an OSS. When a subsidiary signal associated with a main aspect signal is cleared for a shunting movement, the TSS loops are de-energised, but the OSS loops remain active. Where trains are signalled in opposite directions on an individual line it could be possible for an unwarranted TPWS intervention to occur as a train travelled between an OSS arming and either trigger loops that were in fact associated with different signals. To cater for this situation one signal would be nominated the ‘normal direction’ and fitted with ‘ND’ equipment; the other signal would be fitted with ` WD' equipment. Wrong direction TPWS transmission frequencies are different, working at 64.75, 66.75, 65.75 kHz. At the lineside there are two modules associated with each set of loops: a Signal Interface Module and an OSS or TSS module; these generate the frequencies for the loops, prove the loops are intact.
They interface with the signalling system. SIM Modules are colour coded red ND TSS Modules are colour coded green WD TSS Modules are colour coded brown ND OSS Modules are colour coded yellow WD OSS Modules are colour coded blue Every traction unit is fitted with a. TPWS control panel (sta
A bogie is a chassis or framework that carries a wheelset, attached to a vehicle—a modular subassembly of wheels and axles. Bogies take various forms in various modes of transport. A bogie may remain attached or be detachable. While bogie is the preferred spelling and first-listed variant in various dictionaries and bogy are used. A bogie in the UK, or a railroad truck, wheel truck, or truck in North America, is a structure underneath a railway vehicle to which axles are attached through bearings. In Indian English, bogie may refer to an entire railway carriage. In South Africa, the term bogie is alternatively used to refer to a freight or goods wagon; the first standard gauge British railway to build coaches with bogies, instead of rigidly mounted axles, was the Midland Railway in 1874. Bogies serve a number of purposes: Support of the rail vehicle body Stability on both straight and curved track Improve ride quality by absorbing vibration and minimizing the impact of centrifugal forces when the train runs on curves at high speed Minimizing generation of track irregularities and rail abrasionUsually, two bogies are fitted to each carriage, wagon or locomotive, one at each end.
Another configuration is used in articulated vehicles, which places the bogies under the connection between the carriages or wagons. Most bogies have two axles. Heavy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars; the train floor is at a level above the bogies, but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies, such as for a bilevel rail car to increase interior space while staying within height restrictions, or in easy-access, stepless-entry, low-floor trains. Key components of a bogie include: The bogie frame: This can be of inside frame type where the main frame and bearings are between the wheels, or of outside frame type where the main frame and bearings are outside the wheels. Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. Common types are coil springs and rubber airbags. At least one wheelset, composed of an axle with bearings and a wheel at each end; the bolster, the main crossmember, connected to the bogie frame through the secondary suspension.
The railway car is supported at the pivot point on the bolster. Axle box suspensions absorb shocks between the bogie frame; the axle box suspension consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up-and-down movement, sliders to prevent lateral movement. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. Brake equipment: Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against the tread of the wheel, disc brakes and pads. In powered vehicles, some form of transmission electrically powered traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter; the connections of the bogie with the rail vehicle allow a certain degree of rotational movement around a vertical axis pivot, with side bearers preventing excessive movement. More modern, bolsterless bogie designs omit these features, instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to permit rotational movement; the Commonwealth bogie was manufactured by the English Steel Corporation under licence from the Commonwealth Steel Company in Illinois, United States.
Fitted with SKF or Timken bearings, it was introduced in the late 1950s for all BR Mark 1 vehicles. It was a heavy, cast-steel design weighing about 6.5 long tons, with sealed roller bearings on the axle ends, avoiding the need to maintain axle box oil levels. The leaf springs were replaced by coil springs running vertically rather than horizontally; the advanced design gave a better ride quality than the BR1. The side frame of the bogie was of bar construction, with simple horn guides attached, allowing the axle boxes vertical movements between them; the axle boxes had a cast-steel equaliser bar resting on them. The bar had two steel coil springs placed on it and the bogie frame rested on the springs; the effect was to allow the bar to act as a compensating lever between the two axles and to use both springs to soften shocks from either axle. The bogie had a conventional bolster suspension with swing links carrying a spring plank; the B4 bogie was introduced in 1963. It was a fabricated steel design versus cast iron and was lighter than the Commonwealth, weighing in at 5 long tons.
It had a speed rating of 100 mph. Axle to spring connection was again fitted with roller bearings. However, now two coil springs. Only a small number of Mark 1 stock was fitted with the B4 bogie from new, it being used on the Mark 1 only to replace worn BR1 bogies; the British Rail Mark 2 coach, carried the B4 bogies from new. A heavier-duty version, the B5, was standard on Southern Region Mk1-based EMUs from the 1960s onwards; some Mark 1 catering cars had mixed bogies—a B5 under the kitchen end, a B4 under the seating
Grand Central (train operating company)
Grand Central is an open-access operator of train services in the United Kingdom, owned by Arriva UK Trains. It has operated passenger rail services on the East Coast Main Line from Sunderland to London King's Cross since December 2007; the origins of Grand Central can be traced back to the privatisation of British Rail, when bids were lodged for the Midland Mainline and Regional Railways North East franchises by Ian Yeowart and a consortium of ex-British Rail managers under the Grand Central name. The company was dissolved in March 1998. In April 2000 a new company, Grand Central Railway Company Ltd, was founded to pursue open-access opportunities. In 2003 Grand Central applied to the Office of Rail Regulation to operate a two-hourly open-access service from Newcastle via the Caldervale Line and Manchester Victoria to Bolton using ex Virgin CrossCountry InterCity 125 trains; the application was rejected in June 2004. Coach operator Fraser Eagle Group purchased a 79% shareholding in Grand Central in 2004.
In February 2005 Grand Central applied to the Office of Rail Regulation to operate four daily services from Sunderland to London King's Cross and four daily services from Bradford Interchange to London King's Cross using Class 67 locomotives hauling five Mark 3 carriages and a Driving Van Trailer. In March 2006 the Office of Rail Regulation granted Grand Central access rights for three daily Sunderland to London King's Cross services. After failing at an Office of Rail Regulation hearing to have the process reversed, GNER sought a judicial review of the decision to grant Grand Central access rights but was rejected by the High Court in July 2006. Fraser Eagle sold its 79% shareholding in Grand Central in March 2007 to two former managers of Prism Rail, backed by a private equity group. Operations were due to start in May 2007, but delays in procuring and refurbishing rolling stock delayed this. Operations began on 18 December 2007 between London King's Cross. While awaiting delivery of all of the rolling stock only one Sunderland - Kings Cross and one York - Kings Cross service operated in each direction.
The full timetable was introduced in March 2008. Mechanical problems with the InterCity 125s led to services being cancelled, resulting in a reduced service being operated from May until July 2008. In March 2008 Grand Central applied to the Office of Rail Regulation to operate three daily services from Bradford Interchange to London King's Cross. In January 2009 Grand Central was granted access rights for three daily Bradford Interchange to London King's Cross services until December 2014 and a fourth Sunderland to London King's Cross service until May 2012. In August 2009 the fourth daily Sunderland - London service started; the Office of Rail Regulation announced in February 2010 that all access rights had been extended until December 2016. On 23 May 2010 Grand Central services between London King's Cross began, it was hoped that the service would start in December 2009, but difficulties in securing rolling stock caused delay. In November 2011 Grand Central was bought out by Arriva UK Trains.
At the time of the takeover, Grand Central had 123 employees, a turnover of £18.9m and debts of £44m. From December 2011 Bradford services made an additional stop at Mirfield. In December 2012, a fifth service on the Sunderland to London route, however due to pathing difficulties it commenced at Hartlepool. In December 2013, a fourth daily Bradford to London Kings Cross service commenced. In August 2014, Grand Central was granted an extension of its operating rights until December 2026. Grand Central connects the North East to London with two routes. Five daily services on the North East to London route run between Sunderland and London King's Cross calling at Hartlepool, Northallerton and York; this route is known as the North Eastern service. Grand Central has in the past given names to two trains on this route. Contrary to tradition in British named train services, these were individual one-way trips rather than pairs. In the 2008 timetable, the name The Zephyr was given to the early morning departure from Sunderland, while the evening train from London was called The 21st Century Limited.
As of the 2012 timetable, these names are no longer used by the company. Four daily services which run on the Yorkshire to London route operate between Bradford Interchange and London King's Cross calling at Low Moor, Brighouse, Wakefield Kirkgate, Doncaster; some services call at Pontefract Monkhill. This is known as the West Riding service. In December 2017, Grand Central announced plans to bid for a service from London Kings Cross to Cleethorpes in early 2018 for a date of 2020, it would involve the existing Bradford Interchange service extended to 10 coaches from London to Doncaster dividing with five coaches going to Cleethorpes via Scunthorpe, Barnetby and Grimsby. The other five coaches would be the existing service to Bradford Interchange; this proposal would require permission for a split of trains as it has not been used on the East Coast Main Line before. In February 2018, Grand Central announced plans for an additional call at Crowle, it plans to operate 4 trains per day from 2020. In March 2018, Grand Central announced that it had applied for six services from London to Sunderland, up from five now, six services from London to Bradford Interchange which would use Adelante trains.
In May 2018, Grand Central announced plans to add an additional evening service before 10pm between York to London. This service would be 10 carriages long. Grand Central applied for an additional early morning service and an evening services from London to Wakefield whic
A coupling is a mechanism for connecting rolling stock in a train. The design of the coupler is standard, is as important as the track gauge, since flexibility and convenience are maximised if all rolling stock can be coupled together; the equipment that connects the couplings to the rolling stock is known as the draft gear or draw gear. The different types of coupling do not always have formal or official names, which makes descriptions of the couplings in use on any railway system problematic; the basic type of coupling on railways following the British tradition is the buffer and chain coupling. A large chain of three links connects hooks on the adjoining wagons; these couplings were made more regular. Buffers on the frame of the wagon absorbed impact loads; the simple chain could not be tensioned and this slack coupling allowed a lot of back-and-forth movement and banging between vehicles. Acceptable for mineral wagons, this gave an uncomfortable ride for passenger coaches, so the chain was improved by replacing the centre link with a turnbuckle that draws the vehicles together, giving the screw coupling.
A simplified version of this, quicker to attach and detach, still used three links but with the centre link given a T-shaped slot. This could be turned lengthwise to lengthen it, allowing coupling turned vertically to the shorter slot position, holding the wagons more together. Higher speeds associated with fully-fitted freight made the screw-tensioned form a necessity; the earliest'dumb buffers' were fixed extensions of the wooden wagon frames, but spring buffers were introduced. The first of these were stiff cushions of leather-covered horsehair steel springs and hydraulic damping; this coupling is still widespread. The link-and-pin coupling was the original style of coupling used on North American railways. After most railroads converted to semi-automatic Janney couplers, the link-and-pin survived on forestry railways. While simple in principle, the system suffered from a lack of standardisation regarding size and height of the links, the size and height of the pockets; the link-and-pin coupler consisted of a tube-like body.
During coupling, a rail worker had to stand between the cars as they came together and guide the link into the coupler pocket. Once the cars were joined, the employee inserted a pin into a hole a few inches from the end of the tube to hold the link in place; this procedure was exceptionally dangerous and many brakemen lost fingers or entire hands when they did not get them out of the way of the coupler pockets in time. Many more were killed as a result of being crushed between cars or dragged under cars that were coupled too quickly. Brakemen were issued with heavy clubs that could be used to hold the link in position, but many brakemen would not use the club, risked injury; the link-and-pin coupler proved unsatisfactory because: It made a loose connection between the cars, with too much slack action. There was no standard design, train crews spent hours trying to match pins and links while coupling cars. Crew members had to go between moving cars during coupling, were injured and sometimes killed.
The links and pins were pilfered due to their value as scrap metal, resulting in substantial replacement costs. John H. White suggests that the railroads considered this to be more important than the safety issue at the time. Railroads progressively began to operate trains that were heavier than the link-and-pin system could cope with. An episode of the 1958 television series Casey Jones was devoted to the problems of link-and-pin couplings. To avoid the safety issues, Karl Albert director at the Krefeld Tramway, developed the Albert coupler during 1921, a key and slot coupler with two pins. Cars to be coupled were pushed together, both couplings moving to the same side. One pin was inserted the cars were pulled to straighten the coupling and the other pin inserted; this operation required less exact shunting. Due to the single-piece design, only minimal slack was possible; the system became quite popular with narrow gauge lines. During the 1960s most cities replaced them with automatic couplers.
But in modern cars, Albert couplers get installed as emergency couplers for towing a faulty car. The link and pin was replaced in North American passenger car usage during the latter part of the 19th century by the assemblage known as the Miller Platform, which included a new coupler called the Miller Hook; the Miller Platform was used for several decades before being replaced by the Janney coupler. Norwegian couplings consist of a central buffer with a mechanical hook that drops into a slot in the central buffer. There may be a U-shaped securing latch on the opposite buffer, fastened over the top of the hook to secure it; the Norwegian is found only on narrow gauge railways of 1,067 mm, 1,000 mm or less, such as the Isle of Man Railway, Western Australian Government Railways, the Ffestiniog Railway and the Welsh Highland Railway where low speeds and reduced train loads allow a simpler system. The Norwegian coupler allows sharper curves than the buffer-and-chain, an advantage on those railways.
On railway lines where rolling stock always points the same way, the mechanical hook may be provided only on one end of each wagon. The hand brake handles may be on one side of the wagons only. Norwegian couplings are not strong, may be supplemented by auxiliary chains. Not all Norwegian couplings are compatible with one another as they vary in height and may or may not be limited
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
London King's Cross railway station
King's Cross railway station known as London King's Cross, is a passenger railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden, on the edge of Central London. It is in the London station group, one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom and the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line to North East England and Scotland. Adjacent to King's Cross station is St Pancras International, the London terminus for Eurostar services to continental Europe. Beneath both main line stations is King's Cross St. Pancras tube station on the London Underground; the station was opened in Kings Cross in 1852 by the Great Northern Railway on the northern edge of Central London to accommodate the East Coast Main Line. It grew to cater for suburban lines and was expanded several times in the 19th century, it came under the ownership of the London and North Eastern Railway as part of the Big Four grouping in 1923, who introduced famous services such as the Flying Scotsman and locomotives such as Mallard. The station complex was redeveloped in the 1970s, simplifying the layout and providing electric suburban services, it became a major terminus for the high-speed InterCity 125.
As of 2018, long-distance trains from King's Cross are run by London North Eastern Railway to Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central via York and Newcastle. In addition, Great Northern runs suburban commuter trains around north London. In the late 20th century, the area around the station became known for its seedy and downmarket character, was used as a backdrop for several films as a result. A major redevelopment was undertaken in the 21st century, including restoration of the original roof, the station became well known for its association with the Harry Potter books and films the fictional Platform 9¾; the station stands on the London Inner Ring Road at the eastern end of Euston Road, next to the junction with Pentonville Road, Gray's Inn Road and York Way, in what is now the London Borough of Camden. To the west, at the other side of Pancras Road, is St Pancras railway station. Several London bus routes, including 10, 30, 59, 73, 91, 205, 390, 476 pass in front of or to the side of the station.
King's Cross is spelled both without an apostrophe. King's Cross is used in signage at the Network Rail and London Underground stations, on the Tube map and on the official Network Rail webpage, it featured on early Underground maps, but has been used on them since 1951. Kings X, Kings + and London KX are abbreviations used in space-limited contexts; the National Rail station code is KGX. The area of King's Cross was a village known as Battle Bridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet known as Broad Ford Bradford Bridge; the river flowed along what is now the west side of Pancras Road until it was rerouted underground in 1825. The name "Battle Bridge" is linked to tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Celtic British Iceni tribe led by Boudica. According to folklore, King's Cross is the site of Boudica's final battle and some sources say she is buried under one of the platforms. Platforms 9 and 10 have been suggested as possible sites. Boudica's ghost is reported to haunt passages under the station, around platforms 8–10.
King's Cross station was built in 1851–52 as the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway, was the fifth London terminal to be constructed. It replaced a temporary station next to Maiden Lane, constructed with the line's arrival in London in 1850; the station took its name from the King's Cross building, a monument to King George IV that stood in the area and was demolished in 1845. Construction was on the site of a smallpox hospital and it replaced a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850. Plans for the station were made in December 1848 under the direction of George Turnbull, resident engineer for constructing the first 20 miles of the Great Northern Railway out of London; the station's detailed design was by Lewis Cubitt, the brother of Thomas Cubitt, Sir William Cubitt. The design comprised two great arched train sheds, with a brick structure at the south end designed to reflect the arches behind, its main feature was a 112-foot high clock tower that held treble and bass bells, the latter weighing 1 ton 9 cwt.
In size, it was inspired by the 200 yards long Moscow Riding Academy of 1825, leading to its built length of 268 yards. The station, the biggest in England, opened on 14 October 1852, it had one arrival and one departure platform, the space between was used for carriage sidings. The platforms have been reconfigured several times, they have been numbered 1 to 8 since 1972. Suburban traffic grew with the opening of stations at Hornsey in 1850, Holloway Road in 1856, Wood Green in 1859 and Seven Sisters Road in 1861. Midland Railway services to Leicester via Hitchin and Bedford began running from King's Cross on 1 February 1858. More platforms were added in 1862. In 1866, a connection was made via the Metropolitan Railway to the London and Dover Railway at Farringdon, with goods and passenger services to South London via Herne Hill. A separate suburban station to the west of the main building, housing platforms 9–11 as of 1972 and known initi
Bradford Interchange is a transport interchange in Bradford, West Yorkshire, which consists of a railway station and combined bus and coach station adjacent. The Interchange, designed in 1962, was hailed as a showpiece of European design and was opened on 14 January 1973, it is served by the majority of bus services in the city centre along with National Express Coaches, while the railway station, one of two in the city centre, is served by Northern and is the terminus for Grand Central services to London King's Cross. The main entrance with the taxi rank and car park is on a lower level, while the train platforms and bus/coach stops are on a split upper level, both separate with pedestrian access. Downstairs, in the central concourse, there are a few shops, a newsagent, a cafe and sandwich shop and a fast food outlet on the train platforms, where hot drinks are available. Toilets are located off the main concourse. There is a British Transport Police office and lost luggage desk, provided for passengers' concern and safety at the railway station, with a separate security and lost-luggage unit for bus travellers, on the bus concourse.
A smoking ban is observed in all parts of Bradford interchange, CCTV is in operation with security officers and police patrolling the station. The railway station has four platforms and a short bay, used for the Red Star parcels facility. Platform 1 has a run-round facility for locomotive-hauled trains; the track layout and associated signalling was remodelled during the course of a week-long engineering blockade from 25 October to 3 November 2008, to permit higher speeds on both routes into the station, allow trains to approach the station from both Leeds and Halifax simultaneously. Bradford Interchange has separate train ticket outlets; the bus and Metro office, which deals with National Express coach enquiries from a separate desk, is located in the central concourse. The train ticket office is next to the pedestrian entrance to the train platforms and is open seven days a week. Escalators and lifts link the two levels and there is step-free access to all platforms; the original railway station, named Bradford Exchange, was opened by the joint efforts of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and the Great Northern Railway on 9 May 1850.
In 1867, the Leeds and Halifax Junction Railway, which had used Bradford Adolphus Street, built a link to the tracks into Exchange station to join the two existing companies. The railway station was rebuilt on the same site in 1880 with ten bay platforms and two arched roofs. Constructed of wrought iron, these rested at the outer sides on plain stone walls and classical corinthian style columns down the middle. Glass covered the middle timber / slate covered the outer quarters of each span; the four end screens were glazed in a fan pattern with decorative timber outer edging. The dimensions were a length of 450 feet, a width of 100 feet for each arch and a height of 80 feet, track to apex; the railway station never had a formal frontage. In its 1920s heyday, it served routes to Wakefield Westgate via Ardsley, Wakefield Kirkgate via Batley and Ossett, Keighley & Halifax via Queensbury, Mirfield via Cleckheaton and to Leeds via the Pudsey Loop in addition to the current lines; these however had all closed by the end of 1966 - most having fallen victim to the Beeching Axe.
By 1973, the railway station with its 10 platforms was deemed too large and was again rebuilt, this time on a different site further south. The old Exchange station was used for a time as a car park. In 1977, a bus station was built alongside, and, in 1983, the station was renamed Bradford Interchange to link buses and trains in a covered environment; the bus station featured a large ridge and furrow design of overall roof, subsequently demolished in 1999 to allow for a rebuilding of the bus station, opened in 2001. This was paid for by the sale of some adjacent land to the south of the site and some now-surplus land on the old bus station site. During the 1970s and 1980s, the station was considered the mainline station for Bradford with express services to London King's Cross, Trans-Pennine services to Liverpool and Newcastle and summer Saturday services to the South-West; the Inter-city services were moved to Forster Square station in 1992. The station had an adjacent Red Star Parcels terminus but, like most other mainline stations following the privatisation of British Rail, it lost this facility during the 1990s.
The bus station is managed by Metro. The main operators at the bus station include First West Yorkshire, Arriva Yorkshire and Yorkshire Tiger with other services run by Geldards Coaches, Keighley Bus Company, Stagecoach Yorkshire and TLC Travel. National Express coaches run nationwide from the station, Bharat Coaches run coach services to Derby, Leicester and Southall and Megabus runs services to Burnley, Huddersfield and East Midlands Parkway railway station as part of its Megabusplus service. Local bus services run to many destinations, including Dewsbury, Harrogate, Huddersfield, Il