A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–mechanical DMMU, diesel–hydraulic DHMU, or diesel–electric DEMU; the diesel engine may be located under the floor. Driving controls can be on one end, or in a separate car. DMUs are classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels. In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit, the rotating energy of the engine is transmitted via a gearbox and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a car; the transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation British Rail DMUs, but in most applications, gears are changed automatically. In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit, a hydraulic torque converter, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turn the wheels.
Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise. In a diesel–electric multiple unit, a diesel engine drives an electrical generator or an alternator which produces electrical energy; the generated current is fed to electric traction motors on the wheels or bogies in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive. On some DEMUs, such as the Bombardier Voyager family, each car is self-contained and has its own engine and electric motors. In other designs, such as the British Rail Class 207 or the Stadler GTW and Stadler Flirt DMU, some cars within the consist may be unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which have a generator and engine. With diesel–electric transmission, some DMU can be no other than an EMU without pantograph, which "is substituted" by one or more on-board diesel generators. A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allows extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power.
It permits passenger capacity to be matched to demand, for trains to be split and joined en route. It is not necessary to match the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit is capable of moving itself; as units are added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may have better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent spaced stops, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups. Distribution of the propulsion among the cars results in a system, less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU are capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist; because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there is no need to run overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs. Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train.
Diesel traction has several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance. The power to weight ratio tends to be worse. DMUs have further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when approaching or passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines; the lost investment once electrification reduces the demand for diesel rolling stock is higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive has to be replaced. Incremental maintenance costs for DMUs are higher than with electric, because of the added fueling, lubrication and maintenance of engine parts and systems in every car. NMBS/SNCB uses; as electrification progresses, the DMU's become less important. Diesel multiple units cover large number of passenger lines in Croatia which are operated by the national operator Croatian Railways.
On Croatian Railways, DMU's have important role since they cover local and distant lines all across the country. Country's two largest towns and Split, are connected with an Inter City service, provided by DMU tilting trains "RegioSwinger" since 2004; those trains may cover other lines in the country depending on need and availability. Luxury DMU series 7021, built in France, started to operate for Yugoslav Railways in 1972 and after 1991 stil remained in service of Croatian Railways until 2005. Units 7121 and 7122, together with the newest series 7022 and 7023 built in 2010's Croatia, cover many of the country's local and regional services on unelectrified or electrified lines. Elron has since 2015 a Stadler Flirt fleet, with 20 trains DEMU version. In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann, which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines. DMUs are used on shorter and less freq
20 Jazz Funk Greats is the third studio album by British industrial music group Throbbing Gristle, released in December 1979 by the band's label Industrial Records. It is known for its tongue-in-cheek title and artwork, has been hailed as the band's best work, with UK magazine Fact naming it the best album of the 1970s, Pitchfork naming it the best industrial album of all time. 20 Jazz Funk Greats is the band's first full studio album, as prior albums contained both live and studio recordings. The production is credited to "Sinclair/Brooks"; the album was recorded on a 16-track borrowed from Paul McCartney after Peter Christopherson had worked on artwork for McCartney. The album was produced using electronic musical instruments and effects units from Roland and Boss; the album's cover photograph was taken at Beachy Head, a chalk headland on the south coast of England known as one of the world's most notorious suicide spots. In a 2012 interview, Cosey explained the album cover and tongue-in-cheek title: We did the cover so it was a pastiche of something you would find in a Woolworth’s bargain bin.
We took the photograph at the most famous suicide spot in England, called Beachy Head. So, the picture is not what it seems, it is not so nicey nicey at all, neither is the music once you take it home and buy it. We had this idea in mind that someone quite innocently would come along to a record store and see and think they would be getting 20 good jazz/funk greats, they would put it on at home and they would just get decimated; the 1981 issue of the album released on Fetish Records featured an alternate version of the cover art in which an dead and naked male body is seen lying in front of the band. In 2013, Radiohead graphic designer Stanley Donwood selected the artwork as his favourite album cover. Pitchfork characterized 20 Jazz Funk Greats as Throbbing Gristle's peak, writing that "it's in the pathos of their promiscuous liasions with the forbidden territory of various forms of "real music" that this album generates a weirdly gripping power of its own," and "20 Jazz Funk Greats finds the band waking up from D.
O. A's dark night of the soul and feeling curiously frisky. Snacking on not only the titular funk and jazz, the band takes touristic zig zags through exotica and disco" describing it as a "kitsch detour toward mutant disco". AllMusic writer Paul Simpson wrote, "Thoroughly exciting and immeasurably influential, 20 Jazz Funk Greats is Throbbing Gristle's crowning achievement, one of the highlights of the post-punk era." In a retrospective review of Throbbing Gristle's discography for Uncut, Michael Bonner stated that "Musically, it turned away from the precipice. Album highlight “Hot on the Heels of Love” is convincingly Moroder-esque disco, Cosey breathing sweet nothings amid bubbling synthesisers and whip-crack snare. Elsewhere, P-Orridge mines a lyrical seam of control and domination." Dusted Magazine described the album as "a deliberate attempt to toy with the ideas behind marketing strategy and the purpose of musical genres." Pitchfork ranked 20 Jazz Funk Greats at number 91 in its list of the 100 greatest albums of the 1970s.
UK magazine Fact named it the best album of the 1970s. It’s an open crack into the unpronounceable dimensions into which tumble important streams of 20th century pop and underground culture, to seethe around each other, festering, sprouting new and unpredictable forms which in turn would ooze out to infest vast sections of what comes after."In June 2019, Pitchfork voted 20 Jazz Funk Greats as the best industrial album of all time. All tracks are written by Throbbing Gristle. Genesis P-Orridge – vocals, bass guitar, vibraphone, synthesizer Cosey Fanni Tutti – guitar, cornet, vocals Chris Carter – synthesizer, album sequencing, drum programming, vocals Peter Christopherson – tape, cornet, vocalsTechnicalSinclair/Brooks – production Roland equipment used on the album included a SRE-555 Chorus Echo effects unit, SH-7 Synth, CSQ 100 music sequencer, CR-78 CompuRhythm drum machine, System-100M modular synthesizer rack and 100M M-181 electronic keyboard. Boss equipment included a PH-1 phaser effects pedal, DR-55 Dr. Rhythm drum machine, KM-4 mixer, CE-2 Chorus pedal and BF-2 Flanger.
Other equipment included a Simmons ClapTrap, Auratone 5C speakers, JVC amplifier, TEAC cassette deck, Seck 6-2 audio mixer and Casio M10 keyboard. Daniels, Drew. 20 Jazz Funk Greats. 33⅓. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 0826427936. 20 Jazz Funk Greats at Discogs
Regent's Park and Kensington North was a constituency in Central and West London represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election; the constituency was created in 1997 from parts of the former seats of Westminster North and Kensington. It was abolished at the 2010 general election. With its stark contrasts between prosperity and deprivation, the constituency should have been a competitive marginal between the Conservative Party and Labour Party in an year, although for the three general elections of its existence it was won by Labour. Before its creation it was considered a constituency to produce low swings which would be won on differential turnout, similar to its predecessor seats. However, in the political climate of the late 1990s and early 2000s this proved not to be the case; the constituency covered the areas of St John's Wood, Maida Vale, the Harrow Road, Westbourne Green, Maida Hill, Little Venice, parts of Queen's Park, parts of Ladbroke Grove and Notting Hill as well as North Kensington.
The electoral wards of the constituency were: From the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea: Avondale. Following boundary changes for local elections in 2002, Avondale and Kelfield wards were combined to create Notting Barns. From the City of Westminster: Church Street. In 2002, a Local Government Boundary Commission for England review abolished the Hamilton Terrace and Lords wards, with the areas absorbed by Regent's Park and the new ward of Abbey Road. For the 2005 general election, the electoral wards used in this constituency were Bayswater and Dorset Square, Church Street, Harrow Road, Little Venice, Maida Vale, Notting Barns, Queen's Park, Regent's Park, St Charles and Westbourne. Despite the name, the seat did not include the area in the Regent's Park ward of the London Borough of Camden; the Boundary Commission proposed that the City of Westminster, together with the sparsely populated City of London, receive two seats in its own right from the 2010 general election. As a result, Regent's Park and Kensington North was abolished, with most of the Westminster section going into a reformed Westminster North seat and the Kensington and Chelsea section going into a reformed Kensington seat, Chelsea being transferred to the new Chelsea and Fulham seat.
The remainder of Westminster was combined with the City of London in the Cities of London and Westminster seat. The part of Bayswater ward used in the latter, together with Lancaster Gate, were moved into Westminster North; these changes were implemented in 2010. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" Regent's Park and Kensington North Parliamentary Constituency borough information by the Government Office for London The Almanac of British Politics by Robert Waller, Byron Criddle Labour Party in Westminster, Regent's Park and Kensington North