Multiple unit

A multiple-unit train or multiple unit is a self-propelled train composed of one or more carriages joined together, which when coupled to another multiple unit can be controlled by a single driver, with multiple-unit train control. Note that although multiple units consist of several carriages, single self-propelled carriages - called railcars, rail motor coaches or railbuses - are in fact multiple-units when two or more of this is working connected through multiple-unit train control; the term multiple unit does not denote locomotives using multiple-unit train control. Multiple unit train control was first used in electric multiple units in the 1890s; the Liverpool Overhead Railway opened in 1893 with two car electric multiple units, controllers in cabs at both ends directly controlling the traction current to motors on both cars. The multiple unit traction control system was developed by Frank Sprague and first applied and tested on the South Side Elevated Railroad in 1897. In 1895, derived from his company's invention and production of direct current elevator control systems, Frank Sprague invented a multiple unit controller for electric train operation.

This accelerated the construction of electric traction railways and trolley systems worldwide. Each car of the train has its own traction motors: by means of motor control relays in each car energized by train-line wires from the front car all of the traction motors in the train are controlled in unison. Most MUs are powered either by traction motors, receiving their power through a third rail or overhead wire, or by a diesel engine driving a generator producing electricity to drive traction motors. A MU has the same power and traction components as a locomotive, but instead of the components being concentrated in one car, they are spread throughout the cars that make up the unit. In many cases these cars can only propel themselves when they are part of the unit, so they are semi-permanently coupled. For example, one car might carry the prime mover and traction motors, another the engine for head-end power generation. MU cars can be a motor or trailer car, it is not necessary for every one to be motorized.

Trailer cars can contain supplementary equipment such as air compressors, etc.. In most cases, MU trains can only be driven/controlled from dedicated cab cars. However, in some MU trains, every car is equipped with a driving console, other controls necessary to operate the train, therefore every car can be used as a cab car whether it is motorised or not, if on the end of the train. An example of this arrangement is the NJ Transit Arrows. All rapid transit rolling stock, such as on the New York City Subway, the London Underground, the Bucharest Metro and other subway systems, are multiple-units EMUs. Most trains in the Netherlands and Japan are MUs, making them suitable for use in areas of high population density. Many high-speed rail trains are multiple-units, such as the Japanese Shinkansen and the latest-generation German Intercity-Express ICE 3 high-speed trains. A new high-speed MU, the AGV, was unveiled by France's Alstom on 5 February 2008, it has a claimed service speed of 360 km/h. India's ICF announced the country's first high speed engine-less train named'train 18', which would run at 250kmph maximum speed.

Multiple unit has been used for freight traffic, such as carrying containers or for trains used for maintenance. The Japanese M250 series train has four front and end carriages that are EMUs, has been operating since March 2004; the German CargoSprinter have been used in three countries since 2003. Multiple units have several advantages over locomotive-hauled trains, they are more energy-efficient than locomotive-hauled trains. They have better adhesion, as more of the train's weight is carried on driven wheels, rather than the locomotive having to haul the dead weight of unpowered coaches, they have a higher power-to-weight-ratio than a locomotive-hauled train since they don't have a heavy locomotive that does not itself carry passengers, but contributes to the total weight of the train. This is important where train services make frequent stops, since the energy consumed for accelerating the train increases with an increase in weight; because of the energy efficiency and higher adhesive-weight-to-total-weight ratio values, they have higher acceleration ability than locomotive-type trains and are favored in urban trains and metro systems for frequent start/stop routines.

Most of them have cabs at both ends, resulting in quicker turnaround times, reduced crewing costs, enhanced safety. The faster turnaround time and the reduced size as compared to large locomotive-hauled trains, has made the MU a major part of suburban commuter rail services in many countries. MUs are used by most rapid transit systems. However, the need to turn a locomotive is no longer a problem for locomotive-hauled trains due to the increasing use of push pull trains. Multiple units may be made up or separated into sets of varying lengths. Several multiple units may run as a single train be broken at a junction point into shorter trains for different destinations; as there are multiple engines/motors, the failure of one engine does not prevent the multiple unit from continuing its journey. A locomotive-drawn train has only one power unit, whose failure will disable the train. However, some locomotive-hauled trains may contain more than one power unit and thus be able to continue at reduced speed after the failure o

Mat (river)

The Mat is a river in north-central Albania. Its overall length is 115 km, while its catchment surface is 2,441 km2, its average discharge is 103 m3/s. The main tributary is Fan, flowing from the northeast, while the Mat flows from the southwest down to the confluence with Fan and towards the Adriatic Sea. Mat originates from the confluence of several streams within the karstic mountains in Martanesh, where it forms deep gorges and canyons. Rising in Martanesh, the Mat heads westwards to the municipality of Mat and northwest through the towns of Klos and Burrel. About 10 km downstream from Burrel, it flows into a large reservoir. After passing through a hydroelectric dam, it flows through another, smaller reservoir and forms a narrow gorge through the mountain range that separates Mat District from the coastal plains, it enters the plains between Zejmen. After a total length of 115 km, the Mat flows into the Adriatic Sea near Fushë-Kuqe, between the towns of Lezhë and Laç. Geography of Albania Central Mountain Range Rivers of Albania

Heisnam Kanhailal

Heisnam Kanhailal was an Indian art theatre personality. For his work, he was awarded the Padma Shri civilian award in 2004 and the Padma Bhushan civilian award in 2016 by the Government of India, he was the founder-director of Kalakshetra Manipur, a theatre laboratory established in 1969 that explores a new vocabulary in the existing language of theatre. Kanhailal was born in Imphal. Kanhailal was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Direction in 1985, given by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama. In December 2011, he was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Ratna Award, the highest ranked and most valued Akademi award. Kanhailal was married to his theatre associate and a fellow Padma Shri awardee, he died after an illness in Imphal on 6 October 2016. Indian autographs Hindu images Heisnam Kanhailal, Profile