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British West Africa

British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or the formal colonial administrative entity. The United Kingdom held the whole throughout the 19th century. From west to east, the colonies became the independent countries of The Gambia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria; until independence, Ghana was referred to as the Gold Coast. British West Africa as a colonial entity was known as Colony of Sierra Leone and its Dependencies British West African Territories and British West African Settlements, it constituted during two periods as an administrative entity under a governor-in-chief, an office vested in the governor of Sierra Leone. The other colonies included in the jurisdiction were the Gambia and the British Gold Coast. Western Nigeria, eastern Nigeria and northern Nigeria were included. Africa's present makeup includes Ghana, Sierra Leone, Western Nigeria, Eastern Nigeria and Northern Nigeria; each of these countries and areas are a post-colonial period, or what the Ghanaian writer Kwame Appiah dubs neo-colonialism.

British West Africa's development was based on modernization, autonomous educational systems were the first step to modernising indigenous culture. Cultures and interests of indigenous peoples were ignored. A new social order, as well as European influences within schools and local traditions, helped mould British West Africa's culture. Significant was the British West African colonial school curriculum. Local elites developed, with new values and philosophies, who changed the overall cultural development. In terms of social issues with British West Africa. During British West Africa's history, interracial relations were frowned upon, couples might be discriminated against. There were certain policies that deported the wives of these relationships back to Britain and denied them access to any of these colonies. After its final dissolution, a single currency, the British West African pound, was in effect throughout the region—including Nigeria—from 1907 to 1962. Nigeria gained independence in 1960.

Sierra Leone was self-governing by 1958 and gained independence in 1961. Gambia gained independence in 1965. In 1954, the British Gold Coast was allowed by Britain to self-govern and in 1957, the Gold Coast was given independence from Britain, under the name Ghana. British colonisation in Africa British Togoland Colonial Nigeria Gambia Colony and Protectorate Gold Coast Royal West African Frontier Force Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate European colonisation in Africa Brandenburger Gold Coast Danish Gold Coast Dutch Gold Coast Portuguese Gold Coast Swedish Gold Coast Scramble for Africa West Africa cricket team Media related to British West Africa at Wikimedia Commons

Lucky 13

Lucky 13 is a 2005 American romantic comedy film directed by Chris Hall and starring Brad Hunt, Harland Williams, Lauren Graham, Sasha Alexander, Debra Jo Rupp, John Doe, Kaley Cuoco and Taryn Manning. This film is about Zach Baker and his quest to go back through his past experiences with women so he will have the perfect date with his lifelong friend, Abbey. Abbey would be the thirteenth women he has gone out with and he hopes she will be "Lucky 13"; the story revolves around Zach asking each woman what he did wrong in their relationship, so as to not make the same mistakes with Abbey. A recurring gag involves Zach throwing objects, into a lake. During the course of the film, Zach makes changes to his appearance and demeanor, trying to emulate the advice he gets from his past girlfriends—most of, contradictory. After much soul-searching, Zach decides to ask Abbey to marry him—a proposal that she turns down in order to move to New York City and pursue her dream of being an artist. Zach comes to realize that his life in the Mid-West is not so bad and he gains a new appreciation for his family and friends.

Lucky 13 on IMDb Lucky 13 at Rotten Tomatoes

Truncated octahedron

In geometry, the truncated octahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 14 faces, 36 edges, 24 vertices. Since each of its faces has point symmetry the truncated octahedron is a zonohedron, it is the Goldberg polyhedron GIV, containing square and hexagonal faces. Like the cube, it can tessellate 3-dimensional space, as a permutohedron; the truncated octahedron was called the "mecon" by Buckminster Fuller. Its dual polyhedron is the tetrakis hexahedron. If the original truncated octahedron has unit edge length, its dual tetrakis cube has edge lengths 9/8√2 and 3/2√2. A truncated octahedron is constructed from a regular octahedron with side length 3a by the removal of six right square pyramids, one from each point; these pyramids have both base side length and lateral side length of a, to form equilateral triangles. The base area is a2. Note that this shape is similar to half an octahedron or Johnson solid J1. From the properties of square pyramids, we can now find the slant height, s, the height, h, of the pyramid: h = e 2 − 1 2 a 2 = 1 2 a s = h 2 + 1 4 a 2 = 1 2 a 2 + 1 4 a 2 = 3 2 a The volume, V, of the pyramid is given by: V = 1 3 a 2 h = 2 6 a 3 Because six pyramids are removed by truncation, there is a total lost volume of √2a3.

The truncated octahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, on two types of edges, two types of faces: Hexagon, square. The last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes; the truncated octahedron can be represented as a spherical tiling, projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. All permutations of are Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of a truncated octahedron of edge length a = √ 2 centered at the origin; the vertices are thus the corners of 12 rectangles whose long edges are parallel to the coordinate axes. The edge vectors have Cartesian permutations of these; the face normals of the 6 square faces are, and. The face normals of the 8 hexagonal faces are; the dot product between pairs of two face normals is the cosine of the dihedral angle between adjacent faces, either −1/3 or −1/√3. The dihedral angle is 1.910633 radians at edges shared by two hexagons or 2.186276 radians at edges shared by a hexagon and a square.

The truncated octahedron can be dissected into a central octahedron, surrounded by 8 triangular cupola on each face, 6 square pyramids above the vertices. Removing the central octahedron and 2 or 4 triangular cupola creates two Stewart toroids, with dihedral and tetrahedral symmetry: The truncated octahedron can be represented by more symmetric coordinates in four dimensions: all permutations of form the vertices of a truncated octahedron in the three-dimensional subspace x + y + z + w = 10. Therefore, the truncated octahedron is the permutohedron of order 4: each vertex corresponds to a permutation of and each edge represents a single pairwise swap of two elements; the area A and the volume V of a truncated octahedron of edge length a are: A = a 2 ≈ 26.784 6097 a 2 V = 8 2 a 3 ≈ 11.313 7085 a 3. There are two uniform colorings, with tetrahedral symmetry and octahedral symmetry, two 2-uniform coloring with dihedral symmetry as a truncated triangular antiprism; the construcational names are given for each.

Their Conway polyhedron notation is given in parentheses. The truncated octahedron exists in the structure of the faujasite crystals; the truncated octahedron is one of a family of uniform polyhedra related to the cube and regular octahedron. It exists as the omnitruncate of the tetrahedron family: This polyhedron is a