Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Markus J. Buehler
Markus J. Buehler is an American materials scientist and engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he is a professor at MIT's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, where he directs the Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics. Since 2013, he serves as the Head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at MIT, his research and teaching activities center on the application of a computational materials science approach to understand functional material properties in biological and synthetic materials focused on mechanical properties. His work incorporates materials science, engineering and the establishment of links between natural materials with the arts through the use of category theory. Before joining MIT in 2005, he served as the Director of Multiscale Modeling and Software Integration at Caltech’s Materials and Process Simulation Center in the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, he received a Ph. D. in Chemistry from the University of Stuttgart and the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research after obtaining a M.
S. in Engineering Mechanics from Michigan Tech, undergraduate studies in Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Stuttgart. Buehler has a background in materials science, engineering science and applied mechanics. Buehler’s research focuses on bottom-up simulation of structural and mechanical properties of biological and synthetic materials across multiple scales, with a specific focus on materials failure from a nanoscale and molecular perspective, on developing a fundamental understanding of how functional material properties are created in natural and synthetic materials, he is best known for the use of simple computational models to explain complex materials phenomena in biology and engineering from a bottom-up perspective. His recent work has focused on applying a computational materials science approach to study materials failure in biological systems, including the investigation of material breakdown in a variety of diseases and other extreme conditions across multiple time- and length-scales.
His key contributions lie in the field of deformation and failure of structural protein materials such as collagen and silk, where his work revealed universal material design paradigms that enable protein materials to provide enhanced and diverse functionality despite limited resources, demonstrated how these mechanisms break down under extreme conditions and disease. The impact of his work has been the establishment of the universality-diversity paradigm, explaining how multifunctionality of material properties in biology is achieved by changing structural arrangements of few constituents rather than inventing new building blocks, or through reliance of the quality of building blocks; some of Buehler's current work involves the use of ologs, a category-theoretic framework for knowledge representation, to encode the structure-function relationships inherent in hierarchical materials. Buehler has published more than 300 articles on theoretical and computational modeling of materials using various types of simulation methods, a monograph on atomistic modeling, a book on Biomateriomics, several book chapters, has given hundreds of invited lectures, keynote talks and plenary speeches.
He collaborates broadly with experimental researchers in the United States and Asia. He serves as a PI and co-PI on numerous research grants, including several interdisciplinary research projects funded by the National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, other organizations, his teaching at MIT focus on engineering mechanics and modeling and simulation, on introducing undergraduate and graduate students to computational research. He has been involved in teaching MIT subjects 1.021J Introduction to Modeling and Simulation, 1.978 From nano to macro: Introduction to atomistic modeling techniques, 1.545 Atomistic Modeling of Materials and Structures and 1.050 Engineering Mechanics I. Buehler collaborates with MIT’s IS&T department within the scope of the initiative "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom", where is developing tools to enable simple use of multiscale simulation tools in teaching and education of undergraduate and graduate students, he is actively participating in MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, where he serves as a faculty mentor.
He is a faculty advisor in the MIT Summer Research Program and for the Everett Moore Baker Memorial Foundation. Buehler serves as editor or a member of the editorial board of several international journals including PLoS ONE, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, Acta Mechanica Sinica, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Journal of Nanomechanics and Micromechanics, the Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience. Since 2011 he serves as a co-Editor in Chief of BioNanoScience, a journal, he was elected to the Editorial Board of the Journal of the Royal Society Interface in 2012. He is the chair of the Biomechanics Committee at the Engineering Mechanics Institute of the ASCE, Co-Chair of the NanoEngineering in Medicine and Biology Steering Committee at the ASME, a member of the U. S. National Committee on Biomechanics, participates in several other committees at ASME including the Committee on Mechanics in Biology and Medicine.
He is active in the Materials Research Society as volunteer writer for the MRS Bulletin, organizer of MRS symposiums, through his involvement in the MRS Graduate Student Award program. Since 2010 he serves as the Director of the MIT-Germany Program. Buehler received the National Scienc
Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. General-purpose polystyrene is clear and rather brittle, it is an inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapour and has a low melting point. Polystyrene is one of the most used plastics, the scale of its production being several million tonnes per year. Polystyrene can be transparent, but can be coloured with colourants. Uses include protective packaging, lids, trays, disposable cutlery and in the making of models; as a thermoplastic polymer, polystyrene is in a solid state at room temperature but flows if heated above about 100 °C, its glass transition temperature. It becomes rigid; this temperature behaviour is exploited for extrusion and for molding and vacuum forming, since it can be cast into molds with fine detail. Polystyrene is slow to biodegrade, it is accumulating as a form of litter in the outdoor environment along shores and waterways in its foam form, in the Pacific Ocean.
Polystyrene was discovered in 1839 by an apothecary from Berlin. From storax, the resin of the American sweetgum tree Liquidambar styraciflua, he distilled an oily substance, a monomer that he named styrol. Several days Simon found that the styrol had thickened into a jelly he dubbed styrol oxide because he presumed an oxidation. By 1845 Jamaican-born chemist John Buddle Blyth and German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann showed that the same transformation of styrol took place in the absence of oxygen, they called the product "metastyrol". In 1866 Marcelin Berthelot identified the formation of metastyrol/Styroloxyd from styrol as a polymerisation process. About 80 years it was realized that heating of styrol starts a chain reaction that produces macromolecules, following the thesis of German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger; this led to the substance receiving its present name, polystyrene. The company I. G. Farben began manufacturing polystyrene in Ludwigshafen, about 1931, hoping it would be a suitable replacement for die-cast zinc in many applications.
Success was achieved when they developed a reactor vessel that extruded polystyrene through a heated tube and cutter, producing polystyrene in pellet form. In 1941, Dow Chemical invented a Styrofoam process. Before 1949, chemical engineer Fritz Stastny developed pre-expanded PS beads by incorporating aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane; these beads are the raw material for extruding sheets. BASF and Stastny applied for a patent, issued in 1949; the moulding process was demonstrated at the Kunststoff Messe 1952 in Düsseldorf. Products were named Styropor; the crystal structure of isotactic polystyrene was reported by Giulio Natta. In 1954, the Koppers Company in Pittsburgh, developed expanded polystyrene foam under the trade name Dylite. In 1960, Dart Container, the largest manufacturer of foam cups, shipped their first order. In chemical terms, polystyrene is a long chain hydrocarbon wherein alternating carbon centers are attached to phenyl groups. Polystyrene's chemical formula is n; the material's properties are determined by short-range van der Waals attractions between polymers chains.
Since the molecules consist of thousands of atoms, the cumulative attractive force between the molecules is large. When heated, the chains are able to take on a higher degree of conformation and slide past each other; this intermolecular weakness confers elasticity. The ability of the system to be deformed above its glass transition temperature allows polystyrene to be softened and molded upon heating. Extruded polystyrene is about as strong as an unalloyed aluminium but much more flexible and much less dense. Polystyrene results. In the polymerisation, the carbon–carbon π bond of the vinyl group is broken and a new carbon–carbon σ bond is formed, attaching to the carbon of another styrene monomer to the chain; the newly formed σ bond is stronger than the π bond, broken, thus it is difficult to depolymerize polystyrene. About a few thousand monomers comprise a chain of polystyrene, giving a molecular weight of 100,000–400,000; each carbon of the backbone has tetrahedral geometry, those carbons that have a phenyl group attached are stereogenic.
If the backbone were to be laid as a flat elongated zig-zag chain, each phenyl group would be tilted forward or backward compared to the plane of the chain. The relative stereochemical relationship of consecutive phenyl groups determines the tacticity, which has an effect on various physical properties of the material; the diastereomer where all of the phenyl groups are on the same side is called isotactic polystyrene, not produced commercially. The only commercially important form of polystyrene is atactic, in which the phenyl groups are randomly distributed on both sides of the polymer chain; this random positioning prevents the chains from aligning with sufficient regularity to achieve any crystallinity. The plastic has a glass transition temperature Tg of ~90 °C. Polymerisation is initiate
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure; some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area. Pressure may be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer. Pressure is the amount of force applied at right angles to the surface of an object per unit area; the symbol for it is p or P. The IUPAC recommendation for pressure is a lower-case p. However, upper-case P is used; the usage of P vs p depends upon the field in which one is working, on the nearby presence of other symbols for quantities such as power and momentum, on writing style. Mathematically: p = F A, where: p is the pressure, F is the magnitude of the normal force, A is the area of the surface on contact.
Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector surface element with the normal force acting on it; the pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors: d F n = − p d A = − p n d A. The minus sign comes from the fact that the force is considered towards the surface element, while the normal vector points outward; the equation has meaning in that, for any surface S in contact with the fluid, the total force exerted by the fluid on that surface is the surface integral over S of the right-hand side of the above equation. It is incorrect to say "the pressure is directed in such or such direction"; the pressure, as a scalar, has no direction. The force given by the previous relationship to the quantity has a direction, but the pressure does not. If we change the orientation of the surface element, the direction of the normal force changes accordingly, but the pressure remains the same. Pressure is distributed to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of fluid normal to these boundaries or sections at every point.
It is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics, it is conjugate to volume. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, equal to one newton per square metre; this name for the unit was added in 1971. Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch and bar, are in common use; the CGS unit of pressure is 0.1 Pa.. Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force or kilograms-force per square centimetre and the like without properly identifying the force units, but using the names kilogram, kilogram-force, or gram-force as units of force is expressly forbidden in SI. The technical atmosphere is 1 kgf/cm2. Since a system under pressure has the potential to perform work on its surroundings, pressure is a measure of potential energy stored per unit volume, it is therefore related to energy density and may be expressed in units such as joules per cubic metre. Mathematically: p =; some meteorologists prefer the hectopascal for atmospheric air pressure, equivalent to the older unit millibar. Similar pressures are given in kilopascals in most other fields, where the hecto- prefix is used.
The inch of mercury is still used in the United States. Oceanographers measure underwater pressure in decibars because pressure in the ocean increases by one decibar per metre depth; the standard atmosphere is an established constant. It is equal to typical air pressure at Earth mean sea level and is defined as 101325 Pa; because pressure is measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures are expressed as a depth of a particular fluid. The most common choices are water; the pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation p = ρgh, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Fluid density and local gravity can vary from one reading to another depending on local factors, so the height of a fluid column
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the SI unit of energy is the joule, the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field, the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass and energy are related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy, any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive enough scale.
Living organisms require exergy to stay alive, such as the energy. Human civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy; the processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified into potential energy, kinetic energy, or combinations of the two in various ways. Kinetic energy is determined by the movement of an object – or the composite motion of the components of an object – and potential energy reflects the potential of an object to have motion, is a function of the position of an object within a field or may be stored in the field itself. While these two categories are sufficient to describe all forms of energy, it is convenient to refer to particular combinations of potential and kinetic energy as its own form. For example, macroscopic mechanical energy is the sum of translational and rotational kinetic and potential energy in a system neglects the kinetic energy due to temperature, nuclear energy which combines utilize potentials from the nuclear force and the weak force), among others.
The word energy derives from the Ancient Greek: translit. Energeia, lit.'activity, operation', which appears for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century BC. In contrast to the modern definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness and pleasure. In the late 17th century, Gottfried Leibniz proposed the idea of the Latin: vis viva, or living force, which defined as the product of the mass of an object and its velocity squared. To account for slowing due to friction, Leibniz theorized that thermal energy consisted of the random motion of the constituent parts of matter, although it would be more than a century until this was accepted; the modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two. In 1807, Thomas Young was the first to use the term "energy" instead of vis viva, in its modern sense. Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described "kinetic energy" in 1829 in its modern sense, in 1853, William Rankine coined the term "potential energy".
The law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, applies to any isolated system. It was argued for some years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or a physical quantity, such as momentum. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the generation of heat; these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics aided the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Walther Nernst, it led to a mathematical formulation of the concept of entropy by Clausius and to the introduction of laws of radiant energy by Jožef Stefan. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time. Thus, since 1918, theorists have understood that the law of conservation of energy is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational symmetry of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time.
In 1843, James Prescott Joule independently discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of experiments. The most famous of them used the "Joule apparatus": a descending weight, attached to a string, caused rotation of a paddle immersed in water insulated from heat transfer, it showed that the gravitational potential energy lost by the weight in descending was equal to the internal energy gained by the water through friction with the paddle. In the International System of Units, the unit of energy is the joule, named after James Prescott Joule, it is a derived unit. It is equal to the energy expended in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre; however energy is expressed in many other units not part of the SI, such as ergs, British Thermal Units, kilowatt-hours and kilocalories, which require a conversion factor when expressed in SI units. The SI unit of energy rate is the watt, a joule per second. Thus, one joule is one watt-second, 3600 joules equal one wa
A ceramic is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware and brick; the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from oriented to semi-crystalline and completely amorphous. Most fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast, identifiable attributes are difficult to specify for the group as a whole. General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family.
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica and sintered in fire. Ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, amorphous ceramic coatings on top of the crystalline ceramic substrates. Ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering, such as in semiconductors; the word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, "of pottery" or "for pottery", from κέραμος, "potter's clay, pottery". The earliest known mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word "ceramic" may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more as the plural noun "ceramics".
A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material. Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension, they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments. Ceramics can withstand high temperatures, ranging from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the ceramic process, its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide, more known as alumina; the modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations.
Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries and body armor. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a great range of processing. Methods for dealing with them tend to fall into one of two categories – either make the ceramic in the desired shape, by reaction in situ, or by "forming" powders into the desired shape, sintering to form a solid body. Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand, slip casting, tape casting, injection molding, dry pressing, other variations. Noncrystalline ceramics, being glass, tend to be formed from melts; the glass is shaped when either molten, by casting, or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity, by methods such as blowing into a mold. If heat treatments cause this glass to become crystalline, the resulting material is known as a glass-ceramic used as cook-tops and as a glass composite material for nuclear waste disposal; the physical properties of any ceramic substance are a direct result of its crystalline structure and chemical composition.
Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, toughness, dielectric constant, the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials. Ceramography is the art and science of preparation and evaluation of ceramic microstructures. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic microstructures is implemented on similar spatial scales to that used in the emerging field of nanotechnology: from tens of angstroms to tens of micrometers; this is somewhere between the minimum wavelength of visible light and the resolution limit of the naked eye. The microstructure includes most grains, secondary phases, grain boundaries, micro-
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test. According to Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design significant denotes about 5.0 percent elongation. See Eq. 2–12, p. 50 for definitions of percent elongation and percent area reduction. Ductility is characterized by a material's ability to be stretched into a wire. From examination of data in Tables A20, A21, A22, A23, A24 in Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 10th Edition, for both ductile and brittle materials, it is possible to postulate a broader quantifiable definition of ductility that does not rely on percent elongation alone. In general, a ductile material must have a measurable yield strength, at which unrecoverable plastic deformation begins, must satisfy one of the following conditions: either have an elongation to failure of at least 5%, or area reduction to rupture at least 20%, or true strain to rupture at least 10%.
Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress. Both of these mechanical properties are aspects of plasticity, the extent to which a solid material can be plastically deformed without fracture; these material properties are dependent on temperature and pressure. Ductility and malleability are not always coextensive – for instance, while gold has high ductility and malleability, lead has low ductility but high malleability; the word ductility is sometimes used to encompass both types of plasticity. Ductility is important in metalworking, as materials that crack, break or shatter under stress cannot be manipulated using metal-forming processes such as hammering, drawing or extruding. Malleable materials can be formed cold using stamping or pressing, whereas brittle materials may be cast or thermoformed. High degrees of ductility occur due to metallic bonds, which are found predominantly in metals, leading to the common perception that metals are ductile in general.
In metallic bonds valence shell electrons are shared between many atoms. The delocalized electrons allow metal atoms to slide past one another without being subjected to strong repulsive forces that would cause other materials to shatter. Ductility can be quantified by the fracture strain ε f, the engineering strain at which a test specimen fractures during a uniaxial tensile test. Another used measure is the reduction of area at fracture q; the ductility of steel varies depending on the alloying constituents. Increasing the levels of carbon decreases ductility. Many plastics and amorphous solids, such as Play-Doh, are malleable; the most ductile metal is platinum and the most malleable metal is gold. When stretched, such metals distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening; the ductile–brittle transition temperature, nil ductility temperature, or nil ductility transition temperature of a metal is the temperature at which the fracture energy passes below a predetermined value.
DBTT is important since, once a material is cooled below the DBTT, it has a much greater tendency to shatter on impact instead of bending or deforming. For example, zamak 3 exhibits good ductility at room temperature but shatters when impacted at sub-zero temperatures. DBTT is a important consideration in selecting materials that are subjected to mechanical stresses. A similar phenomenon, the glass transition temperature, occurs with glasses and polymers, although the mechanism is different in these amorphous materials. In some materials, the transition is sharper than others and requires a temperature-sensitive deformation mechanism. For example, in materials with a body-centered cubic lattice the DBTT is apparent, as the motion of screw dislocations is temperature sensitive because the rearrangement of the dislocation core prior to slip requires thermal activation; this can be problematic for steels with a high ferrite content. This famously resulted in serious hull cracking in Liberty ships in colder waters during World War II, causing many sinkings.
DBTT can be influenced by external factors such as neutron radiation, which leads to an increase in internal lattice defects and a corresponding decrease in ductility and increase in DBTT. The most accurate method of measuring the DBTT of a material is by fracture testing. Four point bend testing at a range of temperatures is performed on pre-cracked bars of polished material. For experiments conducted at higher temperatures, dislocation activity increases. At a certain temperature, dislocations shield the crack tip to such an extent that the applied deformation rate is not sufficient for the stress intensity at the crack-tip to reach the critical value for fracture; the temperature at which this occurs is the ductile–brittle transition temperature. If experiments are performed at a higher strain rate, more dislocation shielding is required to prevent brittle fracture, the transition temperature is raised. Deformation Work hardening, which improves ductility in uniaxial tension by delaying the onset of instability Strength of materials Ductility definition at engineersedge.com DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package- "The Ductile-Brittle Transition