Crown Street railway station
Crown Street Station was a passenger railway terminal station on Crown Street, England. The station was the world's first intercity passenger station, opening in 1830 being the railway terminal station for Liverpool. Used for passengers for only six years the station was demolished as the site was converted into a goods yard; the goods yard remained in use until 1972. The location of the station is now a park with little trace of the station or goods yard; the station opened on 15 September 1830 as the Liverpool passenger terminus of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the world's first public passenger line. This gave the station the distinction of being the world's first dedicated intercity passenger railway station as the first train ran from Liverpool. Manchester's corresponding Liverpool Road terminus station opened on the same day, being the destination of the first train from Liverpool; the architecture is attributed to George Stephenson. The station was accessed by a 291 yd long single track tunnel from the deep Edge Hill Cutting to the east, sometimes known as the Cavendish Cutting.
Together with the adjacent 1.26 mi Wapping Tunnel, these were the first tunnels to be bored under a metropolis. Stationary steam engines, located in the cutting, operated a continuous rope system to haul wagons up inclines from Edge Hill station and up the Wapping Tunnel from Park Lane Goods Depot, earlier known as Wapping railway goods station, at Liverpool's south end docks; the Wapping Tunnel runs under the Crown Street station site. Crown Street station was too far from Liverpool city centre, its use as a passenger station ended after only six years of use in 1836 when Lime Street Station was opened. The site of the Crown Street station was converted to a goods yard. An additional twin track tunnel was built from the Edge Hill cutting in 1846 to improve throughput to the goods yard; the goods yard closed permanently when services through the two tunnels ended in 1972. The Wapping Tunnel along with the original Crown Street tunnel ceased operation in 1972. To the south of Crown Street station was an area known as Millfield or Gray's yard.
This included a large marshalling and storage area as well as a substantial works involved in the construction and maintenance of wagons and carriages. The area has been landscaped as a park with the original 1830 single track tunnel's western portal covered over; the 1846 Crown Street tunnel is now used as a headshunt for trains. Student accommodation for the nearby University of Liverpool has been built on a part of the old goods yard site; the site of the station itself is landscaped. The Wapping Tunnel's ventilation tower and a plaque commemorate the station's place in history. There are a small number of stone sleeper blocks close to the fence on Falkner Street; the proposal for Paddington Village mentions that a station in the 2014 Liverpool City Region, Long Term Rail Strategy would be of use, the station would be on the Wapping Tunnel. However, the Paddington Village Spacial Regeneration Framework document of October 2016, page 36 gives a map with a station on the old Crown Street station site, stating the locations as Crown Street/Myrtle Street.
Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Http://www.spartacus-educational.com/RAliverpoolST.htm http://www.subbrit.org.uk/sb-sites/sites/l/liverpool_edge_hill_cutting/index.shtml
Broadgreen Hospital is a teaching hospital in the suburb of Broadgreen in the city of Liverpool, England. The hospital, alongside the Royal Liverpool University Hospital and Liverpool University Dental Hospital in the city centre is managed by the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust; the hospital was established as an epileptic home known as the Highfield Infirmary in 1903. It became the Highfield Sanatorium for tuberculosis sufferers in 1922, the Broadgreen Sanatorium in 1929 and, on joining the National Health Service it became the Broadgreen Hospital in 1946. Following a review of local health care provisions within the city in 1989, the ongoing reforms of the NHS, the government of the day opted to close the hospital's accident and emergency department and centralise the facility at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital. Bill Shankly, the former Liverpool Football Club manager, died at the hospital in September 1981 after suffering a heart attack. Non-clinical facilities provided at the hospital include a café operated by Royal Voluntary Service, free cash points, a restaurant and some vending machines.
List of hospitals in England Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital Trust MultiMap Radio Broadgreen
North Liverpool Extension Line
The North Liverpool Extension Line was a railway line in Liverpool, England. It was at one stage intended to become the eastern section of the Merseyrail Outer Loop, an orbital line circling the city; the line was built by the Cheshire Lines Committee, branching from the Committee's Liverpool to Manchester line at Hunts Cross in the south of the city, running north skirting the eastern edge of Liverpool arriving at the Walton Triangle junction. One line continued north to Aintree, another curved west through the Rice Lane to Kirkdale tunnel which brought the line facing south, towards Liverpool Docks; the line ran alongside the existing LYR line before terminating at Huskisson railway station, just after Sandhills railway station. A small line left Huskisson, retracing the route northward before turning towards the river and the Midland Railway's Sandon and Canada Dock Goods station; the line opened between 1879 and 1880. The Aintree branch was extended to Southport in 1884; the route closed in stages.
In 1960 the line closed to passengers between Gateacre. In 1972 passenger trains from Liverpool Central High Level to Gateacre were withdrawn; the Gateacre service was proposed to be reinstated in 1978, with the station being the terminus of the new Merseyrail Northern Line. However this never materialised, with the terminus being cut back to Hunts Cross station on the southern Liverpool to Manchester line; the line continued to carry freight to Liverpool's docks until it was lifted in 1979. The trackbed of the main section of line now forms part of the National Cycle Network Route 62 and the Trans Pennine Trail; the Orbital Outer Rail Loop was a part of the initial Merseyrail plans of the 1970s. The route circled the outer fringes of the city of Liverpool using existing rail lines merged to create the loop. With the city of Liverpool having a semi-circular footprint with the city centre at the western fringe against the River Mersey, the western section of the loop would run through the city centre.
The scheme was begun along with the creation of Merseyrail, owing to cost-cutting it was postponed. The concept of using the former Cheshire Lines Committee's North Liverpool Extension Line route through the eastern suburbs of Liverpool as the eastern section of a rapid-transit orbital route circling the outskirts of the city first emerged before the Second World War; the proposal was for a'belt' line using the now-demolished Liverpool Overhead Railway, which ran along the river front, as its western section. In the 1960s, during the planning for Merseyrail, this was developed into the Outer Rail Loop scheme: an electric rapid-transit passenger line circling the outer districts of the city by using a combination of newly electrified existing lines and a new link tunnel under the city centre joining together lines to the north and south of the city centre completing the loop. A feature was that passengers on the mainline radial routes into Lime Street station from the east and south could transfer onto the Outer Loop at two parkway interchange stations and complete their journey to Liverpool suburbs avoiding the need to travel into the city centre: Liverpool South Parkway was one of these stations, opening thirty years after the initial proposal.
The Outer Loop would have connected the eastern suburbs of the city—Gateacre, Broadgreen, Knotty Ash, West Derby, Norris Green and Walton—with the city centre. As developed, the Outer Loop consisted of two sub-loops - serving the northern and southern suburbs with both running through the city centre from the east; these sub-loops allowed more direct journeys to the city centre from the eastern suburbs, giving the overall scheme greater viability. The key components of the Loop were as follows: The West Section - the existing Merseyrail Electrics Northern Line from Sandhills in the north to Hunts Cross; this section includes the most expensive part of the Outer Rail Loop - the Link Line tunnel under Liverpool city centre - and the reopened and electrified line from Liverpool Central to Hunts Cross. The East Section - the former Cheshire Lines Committee North Liverpool Extension Line from Hunts Cross to Walton however amended to Aintree; this is now the Country Park. The North Section - the CLC line from Walton to Kirkdale via the Breeze Hill tunnel.
In versions of the scheme the North Mersey Branch from Aintree to Bootle was substituted. The latter is still intact although only used by maintenance trains whilst the former is now built over; the Central Section - the central section was a addition to the plan and divided the loop into two sub-loops and gave city centre access for the towns east of Merseyside. This included the unrealised Edge Hill Spur scheme from Liverpool Central Low Level to Edge Hill using the Waterloo Tunnel and a section of the City Line from Edge Hill to Broad Green. A major junction was to have been formed at Broad Green with the eastern section of the Outer Loop with a six platform underground station to be named Rocket under the car park of the Rocket pub near the M62/Queens Drive road junction; the Outer Rail Loop would have been double-track throughout and electrified using the 750 V DC third-rail system used by the Merseyrail Electrics network. Although no official proposals have been made to revive the scheme in recent years, the route is safeguarded with periodic calls being made by local politicians for the revival of the complete project or just the short stretch of route from Hunts Cross to Gateacre.
The Gateacre service was the last to operate out of the former Liverpool Central High Level Station prior to its closure in 1972. The Outer Rail Loop project was a victim of the recession of the late 1970s compounded by delays and cost overruns on
Crewe railway station
Crewe railway station is a railway station in Crewe, England. The station was opened in 1837 and is one of the most significant railway stations in the world. Crewe was chosen after Winsford, seven miles to the north, had rejected an earlier proposal, as had local landowners in neighbouring Nantwich, four miles away. Crewe is a major junction on the West Coast Main Line and serves as a rail gateway for North West England, it is 243 miles south of Glasgow Central. It is located at the point where the lines to Manchester Piccadilly and North Wales diverge from this route, is the last major station before the branch to Liverpool Lime Street diverges, it is served by lines to Stoke-on-Trent and Shrewsbury. Crewe railway station has twelve platforms and a modern passenger entrance containing a bookshop and ticket office. Passengers access the platforms via a footbridge and lifts; the platforms buildings dating from the 19th century contain two bookshops, bars and waiting rooms. The last major expenditure on the station was in 1985 when the track layout was remodelled and station facilities updated.
Crewe station was the first station to have its own adjacent railway hotel: The Crewe Arms, built in 1838, still in use. It was the first to be rebuilt owing to the need for expansion, it was the first to have independent rail lines built around it to ease traffic congestion. The station opened on 4 July 1837 on the Grand Junction Railway; the purpose was to link the four largest cities of England by joining the existing Liverpool and Manchester Railway with the projected London & Birmingham Railway. The first long-distance railway in the world, it ran from Curzon Street railway station in Birmingham to Dallam in Warrington, where it made an end-on junction with the Warrington and Newton Railway, a branch of the L&M; the station was built in the township of Crewe, which formed part of the ancient parish of Barthomley. The township became a civil parish in its own right, still, was renamed Crewe Green to avoid confusion with the town of Crewe, adjacent to it; the station was at the point where the line crossed the turnpike road linking the Trent and Mersey and the Shropshire Union Canals.
Since the land was bought from the Earl of Crewe, whose mansion stood nearby, it was located in the township of Crewe, the station was called Crewe. The railway station gave its name to the town of Crewe, situated in the ancient parish of Coppenhall. In 1936, the railway station was transferred from the civil parish of Crewe to the municipal borough of Crewe; as soon as the station opened the Chester and Crewe Railway was formed to build a branch line to Chester and this company was absorbed by the GJR shortly before it opened to traffic in 1840. A locomotive depot was built to serve the Chester line, to provide banking engines to assist trains southwards from Crewe up the Madeley Incline, a modest gradient, a challenge to the small engines of the day. By 1841, the Chester line was seen as a starting point for a new trunk line to the port of Holyhead, to provide the fastest route to Ireland, the importance of Crewe as a junction station began to be established; this was given further endorsement when the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, a separate undertaking which had hoped to build a wholly independent line linking the two cities, shorter than the GJR, decided that it would be uneconomical to compete with that line over the greater part of its length, decided to divert its own line to meet the GJR at Crewe.
Teething squabbles between the companies delayed the running of through services for a while, the M&B had to build a temporary station of their own, part of which survives today as an isolated platform next to the North Junction, at the start of the line to Manchester. In 1842 the GJR decided to move its locomotive works from Edge Hill in Liverpool to Crewe, siting the works to the north of the junction between the Warrington and Chester lines. To house the workforce and company management the town of Crewe was built by the company to the north of the works. In 1846 the GJR merged with the London and Birmingham to form the London and North Western Railway Company, which until its demise in 1923 was the largest company in the world; the new company extended the existing lines to Holyhead, the Warrington line to Lancaster and Carlisle, the Manchester line to Leeds, built the new Crewe and Shrewsbury Railway to Shrewsbury to join the joint GWR owned Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway, which provided connections to South Wales.
The North Staffordshire Railway built a line from Stoke-on-Trent, joining the LNWR from the South East. Crewe was the centre of a wide-ranging railway network, freight-handling facilities grew up to the south of the station. To cope with the increase of traffic, the station was rebuilt in 1867, the buildings facing each other on the present platforms 5 and 6 dating from this time, built under the supervision of William Baker; the listing by English Heritage describes them as: mirrored design with bowed projections for the platform inspectors’ offices, the ‘greybeard’ keystones and vivid polychromy... one of the best pieces of mid-C19 platform architecture designed anywhere on the LNWR network, as rare surviving examples nationally of buildings of a major junction station of this period. At the same time the works was redeveloped and enlarged and the town enlarged under the leadership of John Ramsbottom, a Stockport man who had become Locomotive Superintendent. Locomotive construction, hitherto divided with Wolverton was concentrated at Crewe.
Ramsbottom built a steelworks, the first in the world to m
Liverpool Lime Street railway station
Liverpool Lime Street is a terminus railway station, the main station serving the city centre of Liverpool. Opened in August 1836, it is the oldest grand terminus mainline station still in use in the world. A branch of the West Coast Main Line from London Euston terminates at the station, as does the original Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Services from this station serve a wide range of destinations across England, with direct services to Welsh and Scottish destinations to be reintroduced in 2019. Having realised that their existing Crown Street Station was too far away from the city centre, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway commenced construction of the more central Lime Street Station in October 1833. Designed by John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr, it was opened in August 1836. Proving to be popular with the railway-going public, within six years of its opening, expansion of the station had become necessary; the first expansion, collaboratively produced by Joseph Locke, Richard Turner, William Fairbairn and John Kennedy, was completed during 1849 at a total cost of £15,000.
During 1867, work upon a further expansion of Lime Street Station commenced, during which time the present northern arched train shed was built. Designed by William Baker and Francis Stevenson, upon completion, the train shed was the largest such structure in the world, featuring a span of 200 feet, as well as the first to make extensive use of iron. During 1879, a second parallel southern train shed was completed. Following the nationalisation of the railways during 1948, Lime Street Station was the subject of various upgrades and alterations, installing new signalling systems in and around the station, a redeveloped concourse, along with the building of new retail and office spaces. In 1962, regular electric services between Lime Street and Crewe were started and in 1966, the station hosted the launch of its first InterCity service, which saw the introduction of a regular 100 mph service between Liverpool and London. During the 1970s, a new urban rail network, known as Merseyrail was developed, while all other long-distance terminal stations in Liverpool were closed, resulting such services being centralised at Lime Street for the whole city.
In October 2003, the Pendolino service operated by private rail operator Virgin Trains, introducing a faster service between Liverpool and London, was ceremonially unveiled at the station. During May 2015, the electrification of the former Liverpool and Manchester Railway's route was completed, as well as the line to Wigan via St Helens Central. Lime Street Station is fronted by a large building designed in the Renaissance Revival style, the former North Western Hotel, which has since been converted to apartments. Since the 1970s, the main terminal building has provided direct access to the underground Lime Street Wirral Line station on the Merseyrail network. Between the 1960s and 2010, an office tower block named Concourse House, along with several retailers, stood outside the southern train shed. Lime Street is the largest and oldest railway station in Liverpool, is one of 18 stations managed by national infrastructure maintenance company Network Rail. During 2017, work commenced at Lime Street Station upon a £340 million remodelling programme.
In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations, written by columnist and editor Simon Jenkins, Lime Street Station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars. The original terminus of the 1830 Liverpool and Manchester Railway was located at Crown Street, in Edge Hill, to the east of and outside the city centre; however before Edge Hill had been opened, it was apparent that there was a pressing need for another station to be built, which would this time be closer to the city centre. Accordingly, during October 1833, the construction commenced on a purpose-built station at Lime Street in the city centre; the means of connecting the new station to L&MR's network came in the form of a twin-track tunnel, constructed between Edge Hill and the site of the new Lime Street station a year prior to work being started on the station itself. The station was designed by the architects John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr. During August 1836, Lime Street Station was opened to the public, although the construction process was not completed until the following year.
This building was designed with four large gateways. For its early operations, as a consequence of the steep incline uphill from Lime Street to Edge Hill, trains would be halted at Edge Hill and the locomotives detached from the trains; the return journey was achieved via the use of a stationary steam engine located at Edge Hill, which would be used to haul the carriages up to Edge Hill by rope. This system was constructed by the local engineering firm Mather and Company, who worked under the direction of the engineer John Grantham. During 1870, this practice came to an end. Lime Street Station was a near-instant success with the railway-going public. Within six years of its opening, the rapid growth of the railways had necessitated the expansion of the original station. An early plan for the enlarged station would have involved th
British Rail Class 319
The British Rail Class 319 is a dual-voltage electric multiple unit train capable of operating on 25 kV 50 Hz AC from overhead wires or 750 V DC from a third rail. They were built by BREL York for use on north-south cross-London services. Built in two batches in 1987–88 and 1990, the units were used on the then-new Thameslink service operating from Bedford to Brighton and various other destinations south of London; the majority of the fleet remained in use on the Thameslink route after its reshaping and privatisation in 1997. Some of the fleet was used on various other services operating out of London Victoria, including flagship expresses to Brighton. Since delivery of new Class 700 rolling stock for Thameslink services commenced in 2015, the Class 319 units have been redeployed for use in the North West of England by Northern on newly electrified lines. Of the 86 Class 319s built, 41 remain in active service, 27 with Northern and fourteen with West Midlands Trains; as of April 2019, five units have been converted to dual mode Class 769s, with another 34 due for conversion.
Plans for north-south railways across central London go back to the 1940s at least, when there were several proposals in the 1943 County of London Plan which were developed further in a following report in 1946. The Victoria Line, which opened in stages from 1968, was one of the routes suggested in these plans, but reviving the Farringdon to Blackfriars route for passenger trains began to be considered in the 1970s; the British Railways Board developed plans for what would become Thameslink, the newly-created business sector of Network SouthEast inherited responsibility for the project in 1986. Services between Bedford, Farringdon and Brighton began under the Thameslink brand in 1988; as the Thameslink service was to use a route with 25 kV AC OHLE north of Farringdon and along the branch to Moorgate, 750 V DC third-rail electrification south of Farringdon, the Class 319 trains were equipped for dual-voltage operation, making them versatile. They were the first British Rail units to use modern thyristor control in place of a camshaft and resistor bank.
The body shape of the Class 319 is different from contemporary electric units due to restrictions in the loading gauge in Kings Cross tunnel, which meant that other dual-voltage units were not suitable. They were required to have emergency end doors in the cabs, due to the twin single-bore layout of Smithfield tunnel preventing normal train evacuation. Two sub-classes of Class 319 units, 60 Class 319/0s and 26 Class 319/1s, were built. Over the years, units have been refurbished. Class 321 passenger units and Class 325 postal units were developed from the Class 319 design, using similar traction equipment and the same steel body design, with revised cab designs; the first batch of 60 units, built in 1987–88, was classified as Class 319/0. Units had a maximum speed of 100 mph; each unit consisted of four steel carriages: two outer driving trailers, an intermediate motor with a roof-mounted Stone Faiveley AMBR pantograph and four DC GEC G315BZ traction motors, an intermediate trailer housing a compressor, motor alternator and two toilets.
Seating was standard-class only, in 2+3 layout. The technical description of the unit formation is DTSO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. Individual vehicles were numbered as follows: 77291–77381 and 77431–77457 — DTSO 62891–62936 and 62961–62974 — MSO 71772–71817 and 71866–71879 — TSO 77290–77380 and 77430–77456 — DTSOVehicles were numbered in two ranges, corresponding to units 319001–046 and 319047–060; the gaps in the number series were filled by the Class 442 units, built around the same period. DTSO featured a lockable sliding door between the driving cab and the first set of power doors and tip-up longitudinal seating to enable parcels to be carried securely; this facility was used and the sliding door has since been removed. Units 319001–013 are the remaining members of the 319/0 subclass. Built in 1990, this second batch of 26 units was numbered in the range 319161–186; the formation of the second batch of sets was similar to that of the earlier units, with the addition of first-class seating at one end of the train for use on longer-distance Bedford to Brighton services.
Like the first batch, standard-class seating was of a 2+3 layout in standard class. First-class seating was in 2+2 layout. Units were formed in the arrangement DTCO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. Individual vehicles were numbered as follows: 77459–77497 and 77973–77983 — DTCO 63043–63062 and 63093–63098 — MSO 71929–71948 and 71979–71984 — TSO 77458–77496 and 77972–77984 — DTSOVehicles were numbered in two ranges, corresponding to units 319161–180 and 319181–186. A more modern Brecknell Willis high speed pantograph was fitted. All 319/1 units were converted to Class 319/3 in the late 1990s. In the late 1990s, seven of the Class 319/0 sets were converted for use on Connex South Central express services between London Victoria and Brighton. Work carried out at Railcare Wolverton included new, lower-density seating, a disabled toilet, a special'lounge' seating area in the saloon space below the pantograph in the MSO, where stowage for a refreshment trolley and a small serving counter were fitted. Units involved were renumbered from the series 319014–020 to 319214–220.
They retain their low-density layout, but the lounge area has been replaced by standard seating since their return to use on Thameslink services. In the period 1997-99, Thameslink arranged for all of its 319/1 units to be conver