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The Brocken sometimes referred to as the Blocksberg, is the highest peak of the Harz mountain range and the highest peak of Northern Germany. Although its elevation of 1,141 metres is below alpine dimensions, its microclimate resembles that of mountains of about 2,000 m; the peak above the tree line tends to have a snow cover from September to May, mists and fogs shroud it up to 300 days of the year. The mean annual temperature is only 2.9 °C. It is the easternmost mountain in northern Germany; the Brocken has been connected with witches and devils. The Brocken spectre is a common phenomenon on this misty mountain, where a climber's shadow cast upon fog creates eerie optical effects. Today the Brocken is part of the Harz National Park and hosts a historic botanical garden of about 1,600 alpine mountain plants. A narrow gauge steam railway, the Brocken Railway, takes visitors to the railway station at the top on 1,125 m. FM-radio and television broadcasting make major use of the Brocken; the old television tower, the Sender Brocken, is now used as restaurant.

It has an observation deck, open to tourists. The Brocken rises over the Harz National Park in the district of Harz, whose main town of Wernigerode lies about 12 kilometres east-northeast of the mountain; the state boundary with Lower Saxony runs past the Brocken some 2 km to the west. At the southeastern foot of the Brocken lies the spa resort of Schierke. Somewhat to the north below the summit of the Brocken is a reservoir, the Brockenteich, constructed in 1744. On or near the mountain are the source areas of the rivers Bode, Ecker and Oder; the rounded summit of the Brocken vegetated with dwarf shrubs. The highest point on the Brocken reaches an elevation of 1,141.1 m above sea level. Its subpeaks include the Königsberg and Kleiner Brocken. Before 1989 the height of the Brocken was recorded in all the relevant maps and books as 1,142 m above NN. A survey of the summit at the beginning of the 1990s based on the current reference system, gave the height as just 1,141.1 m. In order to provide a reference point for the old data, in the mid-1990s granite boulders were set on the highest point of the Brocken, which not only matched the old given height, but exceeded it by about a metre.

A bench mark of "1142 m" was recorded on the summit stone. This height on the upper plate refers to the line on the lower plate. From a geological point of view the Brocken and its surrounding terrain, the Brocken massif, consists of granite, an igneous rock; the granitic plutons of the Harz - the Brocken and Oker plutons - emerged towards the end of the Harz mountain-building phase of the Upper Carboniferous, about 300 million years ago. First, alkaline magma intruded into the overlying sediments, crystallized out and formed gabbro and diorite massifs, such as the Harzburg gabbro. A little silica-rich granitic magma rose, some intruding into voids and gaps in the older rocks, but most being created by the melting of existing sediments. On the boundary between granite and host rock, the so-called contact zone, a great variety of transitions may be seen. For example, the summit of the Achtermannshöhe consists of contact-metamorphosed hornfels of the contact zone that, lies over the Brocken granite.

The subsequent erosion of the Harz mountains that followed the uplifting of the Harz during the Upper Cretaceous saw the disappearance of the protective hornfels summit, thus exposing the granite that had crystallized underground during the Upper Carboniferous. The alleged hardness of Brocken granite is not the reason for the height of the mountain, but the geological fact that it was well protected by its weather-resistant hornfels crest for a long time before erosion set in. Only in recent geological times, since the tertiary period, did the typical, spheroidal weathering of granite outcrops and granite boulders of the Brocken take place; such blockfields are rare in Central Europe outside the Alps and are subject to conservation measures. They originated under periglacial conditions, i.e. during the course of the ice ages, their retreat. Today's blockfields of Brocken granite, as well as other rocks in the Harz National Park in the Oder valley, are therefore at least 10,000 years old. Physical weathering, such as frost shattering, has played a key role in their formation, resulting in giant piles of loosely stacked rocks.

In 2006, the granite blockfields of the Brocken, together with 76 other interesting geotopes, were designated as a "National Geotope". The Brocken is a place of extreme weather conditions. Due to its exposed location in the north of Germany its peak lies above the natural tree line; the climate on the Brocken is like that of an alpine location or that of Iceland's 1,600 – 2,200 m zone. This is due to its short summers and long winters, with many months of continuous snow cover, strong storms and low temperatures in summer; the summit, does not have an alpine climate, as the average summer temperature is above 10 °C. Due to its significant height difference compared with the surrounding terrain the Brocken has the highest precipitation of any point in northern central Europe, with an average annual precipitation of 1,814 millimetres, its average annual temperature is 2.9 °C. The Brocken weather station has recorded the foll

George Nayler

Sir George Nayler, KH FRS was a long-serving officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. George Nayler was born on 29 June 1764 in Gloucestershire, he was the fifth son of George Nayler, surgeon, of Stroud and his wife Sarah, daughter of John Fark of Clitheroe, Lancashire. Nayler was a miniature painter. In 1792, he married the illegitimate daughter of Sir John Guise, 1st Baronet; that year, he acquired a loan of £1300 to purchase the resignation of John Suffield Brown as Genealogist of the Order of the Bath and Blanc Coursier Herald and Nayler was appointed on 15 June 1792. The following year, Nayler acquired a post in the College of Arms as Bluemantle Pursuivant for £60 and on the accidental deaths of Somerset and York Heralds at Haymarket in 1794, he was promoted to York Herald that year. In 1813, Nayler was knighted by The Prince Regent at Carlton House. In 1816 and 1818 Nayler was appointed King of Arms of the newly created orders of the Royal Guelphic Order and the Order of St Michael and St George.

In 1820, he was promoted as Clarenceux King of Arms, officiating in place of Isaac Heard at the coronation of George IV in 1821. A year Nayler succeeded Heard as Garter and went on foreign missions to award the Garter to Frederick VI of Denmark in 1822, John VI of Portugal in 1823, Charles X of France in 1825 and Nicholas I of Russia in 1827, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1826. Nayler's presence at the coronation of William IV in 1831 was to be one of his last official functions before his death two months later, he was buried in his family vault at the church of St John the Baptist in Gloucester. Woodcock, Thomas. "Nayler, Sir George, herald". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 15 September 2007

Brilliant, Ohio

Brilliant is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in eastern Jefferson County, United States, along the Ohio River. It was named after the Brilliant Glass factory. Although unincorporated, Brilliant has a post office, bearing the ZIP code 43913, it is located along Ohio State Route 7. Brilliant is part of WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,482. Brilliant was incorporated as a village, but it disincorporated on November 24, 1993. Brilliant was laid out in 1819 by western Virginia statesman Philip Doddridge under the name "Philipsburgh"; the location was considered significant to commerce as it was the convergence of many roads in close proximity to the Ohio River and parallel to the Wellsburg wharf. A new addition was laid out in 1836 named "La Grange", a name adopted by the railway station in 1856. In 1880, the Brilliant Glass Company was established and a glass factory was built at La Grange; the town adopted the name of the glass company and was incorporated as "Brilliant", changing the titles of the railway station and post office.

The Cardinal Power Plant is located south of Brilliant. It commenced operations in 1967. Brilliant is along the Ohio River 7 miles south of Steubenville. Ohio State Route 7, a four-lane freeway, passes through the southeast side of the community, leading north to Steubenville and south 16 miles to Bridgeport, across the river from Wheeling, West Virginia. According to the 2010 census, the Brilliant CDP has a total area of 1.77 square miles, of which 1.75 square miles are land and 0.01 square miles are water. The climate in this area is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Brilliant has a Humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Public education in the community of Brilliant is provided by the Buckeye Local School District. Public high school students in the city attend Buckeye Local High School. Brilliant has a public library, a branch of the Public Library of Steubenville and Jefferson County


Slovio is a constructed language begun in 1999 by Mark Hučko. Hučko claims that the language should be easy for non-Slavs to learn as well, as an alternative to languages such as Esperanto which are based more on Latin root words. *For /j/, J is used at the beginnings of words, I elsewhereOptional characters: Stress appears on the penultimate syllable, counting ai, oi, io, uo etc. as diphthongs. Slovio has a simple grammar based on a mix of Esperanto grammar with Slavic elements. Just like in natural Slavic languages, new words can be formed with a variety of suffixes and prefixes. Most words are identified by their endings, such as adjectives and verbs. Fractions can be made by adding -tink to a numeral. Ex. dvatink = 1/2, tritink = 1/3, tri piattink = 3/5 Ordinal numbers can be made by adding -ju to a numeral. Ex. dinju = first, dvaju = second The names of shapes can be made by adding -ugolik to a numeral. Ex. triugolik = triangle, cxtirugolik = square/rectangle The 3rd person singular high class pronoun to describes people or high animals with an unknown gender.

Svoi is a genitive pronoun that means "my own, your own, his own, their own, etc.". The accusative of the 3rd person singular low class pronoun can optionally be written nam, the dative nas. Vams functions in the same manner, optionally vam for the vas for the dative. Nouns have no special declensions. Nouns can however indicate subject or object, or describe direction. Nouns can be made plural by adding -s. ex. okno – oknos. If the noun ends in a or a consonant, suffix -is is added, e.g. dom domis. This suffix can optionally be left out if the noun dealt with is a plural. Optionally, to make a noun genitive, the suffix -f is added. If the noun is plural it becomes -fs. Nouns are not changed. Adjectives end in -ju. ex. dobrju, silaju. If the word ends in ia or ie it replaces it. Ex. galaktia – galaktju, morie – morju. Adjectives can end in -sk if pronunciation with -ju would be difficult to pronounce or if it is unclear whether it is an adjective or adverb. If an adjective is slight add -just to the adjective.

Ex. zxoltju – zxoltjust. This suffix is somewhat equivalent to English "-ish"; the prefixes mal- or slab- can be used in the same manner. Ex. slabbelju. Opposites of adjectives can be formed with the prefix bez-. ex. bezdobrju. Comparatives and superlatives To make an adjective more, precede it with plus or bolsx or add -jusx. Ex plus velju, bolsx velju, veljusx. To make it less, precede it with mensx or minus. Ex mensz velju, minus velju. To make it the most, precede it with maks or nai-. ex. maks velju, naivelju. To make it the least, precede it with min or naimensx. Ex. min velju, naimensx velju. Adjective participles. To make adjective participles, either the active adjective participles -bsju for future, -tsju for present, -lsju for past, or the passive adjective participles -bju for future, tju for present, lju for past. To make an adjective an active verb, add -juvit to the root; the -t can be changed to change its tense. Dobrjuvit, veljuvit. To make it a passive verb, add -juvsit to the root. Dobrjuvsit, veljuvsit.

Adjectives do not have a plural form. Slovio verbs can have various endings. To create the infinitive and present, add -vit if the root ends in an o, -it if it ends in a consonant, -t and optionally -vit if it ends in a, e, i, or u. Other conjugations can be derived from the infinitive by replacing -t with the ending which corresponds to whichever tense is needed. Replace it with -b for future, -l for past, -lbi conditional, -j for imperative; the exceptions to this rule are es, hce dolzx, dolzxbi. Es is replaced by the other helping verbs to change its tense, mozx and dolzxbi are preceded by the helping verbs to change tense, hce is a variant of hotit; the helping verbs are bu, es, bi. To make the verb show duration or repetition, add -va- between the root and the tense suffix; this affix is somewhat like English "used to" in past tense. Ex. Ja cxudovil – Ja cxudovavil. To make it show completion, add the prefix zu-. To make a verb into a noun, the action or activity of the verb, add -nie, -ie, -cia, or -ba.

These suffixes are used to English "-ment". Ex. vidit – videnie, viditie. To make the verb an adjective with possibility, add -mozxju or -mju. ex. vidit – vidimozxju or vidimju, mozg-cxistit mozg-cxistimju. To make it an adverb with possibility, add -mozxuo or -muo. ex. vidimozxuo or vidimuo. To make it a noun with possibility, add -mozxost or -most. Ex. vidimozxost or vidimost. These suffixes are similar to English "-able". To make it an adjective with necessity, add -nuzxju. Ex. vidit – vidinuzxju. To make it an adverb with necessity, add -nuzxuo. Ex. vidinuzxuo. To make it a noun with necessity, add -nuzxost

Condor, Autumn Wind

Condor, Autumn Wind is a live album by American jazz trumpeter Wadada Leo Smith recorded with Harumi Makino Smith. The album is dedicated to Sarhanna and Lamar, in special memory of Dizzy Gillespie. Bill Shoemaker of JazzTimes noted "Condor, Autumn Wind, recorded live in Durham, shows the potential of the emerging Mid-Atlantic concert circuit for avant garde jazz and improvised music. A lot of improvisers talk vaguely about creating a space in which the music can be spawned and received, but Wadada Leo Smith pursues and achieves this goal with an unique, focused discipline on the solo Condor, Autumn Wind. Throughout the program, Smith’s trumpet solos have an episodic quality, where the overall shape of the piece is altered with each boldly shaped phrase. At strategic points in the program, he complements his palette with voice, percussion, wood flute, bike horn-like seal-horn. On three pieces, Harumi Makino Smith’s poetry provides an evocative counterpoint. In all, Autumn Wind is a winding journey with many intriguing stops."

All music is composed by Harumi Makino Smith. Band Wadada Leo Smith – cover art, flute, maracas mbira, siren, vocals, voices Harumi Makino Smith – cover art, poetryProduction Mirla del Rosario – artwork, layout design Robert Frenz – photography Mac McCaughan – design, executive producer Dan McCleary – layout design Brian Paulson – engineer Kashala Smith – illustrations Chris Stameymastering

Rhenish guilder

Rhenish guilder is the name of the golden, base currency coin of the Rhineland in the 14th and 15th centuries. Most weighed between 3.4 and 3.8 grams. The Rhenish gold guilder was created when the electors of Cologne and Mainz were rewarded for their support in the election of Charles IV with a right to mint gold coins, a right derived from the Golden Bull. Trier was given the privilege on 25 November 1346, Cologne on 26 November 1346 and Mainz on 22 January 1354; as a result of the widespread minting of gold guilders by the electors of Cologne, Mainz and the Electorate of the Palatinate, Rhenish guilders achieved significance in the 14th and 15th centuries and became the base currency of the Rhine region. Due to a lack of gold there was a shortage of guilders in the late 15th and 16th century, they were minted with a gold content reduced by up to a half. Rhenish gold guilders were of central importance to the German monetary system until modern times, it developed into the most common long-distance trading coin in Bohemia, Germany, Moravia, the Netherlands and France.

Not only gold, but silver coins were valued according to their value in Rhenish guilders, thus their rate was set. The annual rent in the Augsburg Fuggerei is to this day a Rhenish guilder; when the imperial minting ordinance was passed, the silver equivalent of the gold guilder became the standard coin. The Rhenish guilder was replaced as a gold coin by the ducat; however the Rhenish guilder continued to be used as a coin, valued at 60 Kreuzer, until the 17th century. Guilder Pictures