Eyre Highway is a 1,660-kilometre highway linking Western Australia and South Australia via the Nullarbor Plain. Signed as National Highways 1 and A1, it forms part of Highway 1 and the Australian National Highway network linking Perth and Adelaide, it was named after explorer Edward John Eyre, the first European to cross the Nullarbor by land, in 1840–1841. Eyre Highway runs from Norseman in past Eucla, to the state border. Continuing to the South Australian town of Ceduna, it crosses the top of the Eyre Peninsula before reaching the city of Port Augusta in South Australia; the construction of the East–West Telegraph line in the 1870s, along Eyre's route, resulted in a hazardous trail that could be followed for interstate travel. A national highway was called for, but the federal government did not see the route as important enough until 1941, when a war in the Pacific seemed imminent; the highway was constructed between July 1941 and June 1942, but was trafficable by January 1942. Though named Forrest Highway, after John Forrest, by the war cabinet, it was named and gazetted Eyre Highway, a name agreed upon by the states' nomenclature committees.
The finished road, while an improvement over the previous route, still was not much more than a track, remained such throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Efforts to seal the highway began in Norseman in 1960, with the Western Australian section completed in 1969 and the South Australian section finished in 1976. Further improvement works have been undertaken since the 1980s, including widening and reconstructing portions of the road. Eyre Highway is the only sealed road linking the states of Western Australia and South Australia, running east from Norseman in Western Australia for 1,200 kilometres across the Nullarbor Plain to Ceduna, South Australia, it crosses the top of the Eyre Peninsula as it continues eastwards for 470 kilometres, before reaching the city of Port Augusta. Eyre Highway is part of the National Highway route between Perth and Adelaide, forms part of Australia's Highway 1, it is signed as National Highway 1 in Western Australia, National Highway A1 in South Australia. The vast majority of the highway is a two-lane single carriageway with a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour, except in and around built-up areas.
Road trains up to 36.5 metres are permitted on Eyre Highway, but are limited to 100 kilometres per hour. The Western Australian section of Eyre Highway is on the western side of the Nullarbor Plain; the Nullarbor gets its name from Latin for "no tree", the typical view is that of a straight highway and unchanging flat saltbush-covered terrain, although some parts are located on ridges. The Eyre Peninsula has been extensively cleared for agriculture, although there are remnant corridors of native eucalyptus woodland alongside its roads. Main Roads Western Australia and the Department of Planning and Infrastructure in South Australia monitor traffic volume across the states' road networks, including various locations along Eyre Highway. In Western Australia, the recorded traffic volumes ranged between 430 and 760 vehicles per day in 2013/14. In South Australia, the estimated annual average daily traffic as of September 2015 varied between 500 and 1500 west of Lincoln Highway, was 2700 to the east.
Eyre Highway was assessed by the Australian Automobile Association in 2011 to be among the lowest risk highways in the country, based on total number of casualty crashes per length of road. However, individual risk based on casualty crash rates per vehicle kilometre travelled was assessed as high for the 95-kilometre section east of Yalata to Fowlers Bay, medium for a 106-kilometre section from Fowlers Bay to Ceduna, low-medium between Ceduna and Port Augusta, low west of Yalata. In 2013, Eyre Highway received a lower safety rating for the South Australian sections, compared to the Western Australian section. Out of five stars 10% was rated as one- or two-star in Western Australia towards the Norseman end, 91% was rated three- or four-star. In South Australia, 49% was rated as one- or two-star from Yalata to Ceduna, across the Eyre Peninsula, with the remaining 51% rated as three- or four-star. Eyre Highway begins on the Coolgardie -- Esperance Highway. Apart from Eucla, 12 kilometres from the South Australia border, roadhouses serving the highway are the only settlements on the 720-kilometre-long stretch through Western Australia.
These are located 65 to 180 kilometres apart, at Balladonia, Cocklebiddy and Mundrabilla. The section between Balladonia and Caiguna includes what is regarded as the longest straight stretch of road in Australia and one of the longest in the world; the road stretches for 146.6 kilometres without turning, is signposted and known as the "90 Mile Straight". Travelling east, the highway descends through the Madura Pass just before the Madura roadhouse from the Nullarbor Plain to the coastal Roe Plains, it skirts the bottom of the escarpment. Because of its remoteness, some widened sections of the highway serve as emergency airstrips for the Royal Flying Doctor Service; these airstrips are signposted, have runway pavement markings painted on the road, turnaround bays for small aircraft. After crossing the border at the settlement of Border Village, the highway passes through the Nullarbor Wilderness Protection Area and through the localities of Yalata and Ceduna. Before a
Highways in Australia
Highways in Australia are high capacity roads managed by state and territory government agencies, though Australia's federal government contributes funding for important links between capital cities and major regional centres. Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians; the formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, a network of three major roads across the colony emerged by the 1820s. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets and tolls. Local government authorities known as Road Boards, were therefore established to be responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance; the early 1900s saw both the widespread use of motorised transportation, the creation of state road authorities in each state, between 1913 and 1926.
These authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. The federal government became involved in road funding in the 1920s, distributing funding to the states; the depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the major road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly and Eyre Highways; the decades following the war saw substantial improvements to the network, with freeways established in cities, many major highways sealed, development of roads in northern Queensland and Western Australia under the Beef Cattle Roads Grants Acts, interstate routes between Sydney and Melbourne upgraded. In 1974, the federal government assumed responsibility for funding the nations most important road links, between state and territory capitals cities, which were declared National Highways.
Some sections of the 16,000-kilometre-long National Highway system were no more than dirt tracks, while others were four lane dual carriageways. The network was improved, by 1989, all gravel road sections had been sealed. In the following decades, the National Highway system was amended through legislation, was superseded in 2005 by the broader National Land Transport Network, which included connections to major commercial centres, intermodal freight transport facilities; the first route marking system was introduced in the 1950s by the Conference of State Road Authorities, which became the National Association of Australian State Road Authorities and Austroads. National Routes were assigned to significant interstate routes "which, both now and in the future, comprise the more important arteries of road communications throughout Australia in all its aspects". East-west routes were planned to have numbers, increasing from south to north, while north-south routes would have odd numbers, with numbers increasing from east to west.
National Route 1 would be an exception, as a "circumferential route along the coastline of Australia". A state route marking systems was designed to supplement the national system, for inter-regional and urban routes within states; each state could choose their own numbering scheme, as long as National Route and State Route numbers weren't duplicated in the same state, or nearby routes in another state. When the National Highway system was introduced, National Routes along it became National Highway routes with the same numbers, but with distinctive green and gold route markers. During the 1990s, planning began for a new alphanumeric route system. Alphanumeric routes have been introduced in most states and territories in Australia or replacing the previous systems; the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australian prior to European settlement. The formal construction of roads began after the founding of the colony of New South Wales.
These roads were little more than cleared paths, constructed without grading, drainage systems, road surfaces. There was no system wide planning for roads, with the Surveyor-General's 1788 proposed town plan dismissed as being too ostentatious. By the end of his term in 1822 the colony had a network of three major roads, with the Great Western Road as the most important link, traversing the Blue Mountains from Sydney to Bathurst. Similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets, loans and public subscription; this problem was exacerbated by the huge increase in road usage, due to the Australian gold rushes. Local government authorities were therefore established as authorities responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance; the increasing amount of motorised transportation in the early 1900s lead to another major increase in traffic levels.
The vehicles required higher standard of roads. State road authorities were established in each state between 1913 and 1926; these authorities managed each state's road network, with the main arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state, other roads remaining the responsibility of local governments. Though legislation
Great Eastern Highway Bypass
Great Eastern Highway Bypass is a limited-access dual carriageway linking Great Eastern Highway and Roe Highway in Perth, Western Australia. Together with a section of Roe Highway, it bypasses the historical Guildford and Midland localities, through which the original and slower Great Eastern Highway passes. Great Eastern Highway Bypass begins at a traffic light controlled T Junction with Great Eastern Highway in South Guildford. Through traffic flows between Great Eastern Highway southwest of the intersection and the bypass to the east; the bypass proceeds around the northern edge of Perth Airport for 1.6 kilometres before encountering Kalamunda Road at a traffic light controlled intersection. Great Eastern Highway Bypass continues east, past residential development to the north, undeveloped industrial land to the south, before crossing into the industrial suburb of Hazelmere. After 2.7 kilometres there is a traffic light controlled T Junction with Abernethy Road, which travels in a south-westerly direction, parallel to the airport's eastern edge, connecting to the industrial areas of High Wycombe and Kewdale.
A further 650 metres takes the bypass to Stirling Crescent, a local road providing access to Hazelmere and High Wycombe, the road ends at Roe Highway, 600 metres to the east. Both intersections are traffic light controlled. Northbound, Roe Highway leads back to Great Eastern Highway in Midvale, east of Midland. Southbound, the highway heads towards Armadale. Plans for a major highway along a similar alignment date back to Gordon Stephenson and Alistair Hepburn's 1955 "Plan for the Metropolitan Region", the precursor of Perth's Metropolitan Region Scheme; the first gazetted edition of the scheme shows it as a controlled access highway, extending west beyond Great Eastern Highway. The route crossed the Swan River and met a proposed north-south highway, followed the river to Perth's CBD, cutting across the Maylands and Burswood peninsulas; such a route was still planned for in the 1980s. The eastern section, corresponding to the current Great Eastern Highway Bypass, was constructed in the late 1980s, was known as the Redcliffe–Bushmead Highway during construction.
Great Eastern Highway Bypass was opened on 14 May 1988, after 21 months of construction, at a cost of $10 million. The western continuation was not developed, the route was not included in subsequent planning documents in the 1990s; the entire highway is in the City of Swan local government area, part of the Perth Metropolitan Region. Australian Roads portal Edmonds, Leigh; the vital link: a history of Main Roads Western Australia 1926-1996. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 1-875560-87-4. Route map Main Roads WA
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
South Western Highway
South Western Highway is a highway in the South West region of Western Australia connecting Perth's southeast with Walpole. It is a part of the Highway 1 network for most of its length, it is about 406 kilometres long. From Perth, the highway, signed as State Route 20, starts from the Albany Highway junction in Armadale, 28 km from Perth, follows a north-south route 20–30 km inland from the coast, passing through several agricultural and timber towns that sprang up in the 1890s when the nearby railway came through, such as Pinjarra, Waroona and Harvey. In January 2016, the Samson Brook bridge, one of the highway bridges near Waroona, was damaged by a bushfire. Just past Brunswick Junction, the highway heads southwest towards Western Australia's third-largest city, Bunbury; the typical scenery on this part of the highway includes small dairy farms and orchards and marri remnant forests and pine plantations. Until the 1980s, the Armadale-Bunbury section was part of National Highway 1, but following the upgrading of Old Coast Road and construction of the Mandurah bypass, Highway 1 now follows the coastal route via Kwinana Freeway and Old Coast Road to Bunbury passing through the resort town of Mandurah.
The highway does not enter Bunbury – it stops at the industrial suburb of Picton, following Robertson Drive for 1 km south before turning southeast past Bunbury Airport towards Boyanup. The highway used to follow what is now Boyanup-Picton Road from Picton via Dardanup, but changed to the present shorter route in the 1980s. From Bunbury, the highway goes through Boyanup and on to Donnybrook, the heart of WA's apple country. From on the highway passes through thick forests featuring many native trees like jarrah and karri; the region was settled much than other parts of south western WA, under a soldier resettlement scheme in the 1920s. Typical scenery is farmland interspersed with small timber towns; the highway goes through Bridgetown, Manjimup and to Walpole. This part of the highway from Manjimup, is sparsely populated and thickly forested, with abundant wildlife and wildflowers as well as many old growth trees the giant karri. From Walpole, the Highway 1 continues as South Coast Highway to Albany.
Armadale Byford Pinjarra Waroona Yarloop Harvey Brunswick Junction Bunbury Boyanup Donnybrook Bridgetown Manjimup Walpole Following the establishment of the Swan River Colony, the earliest report of exploration of the district around what is now Bunbury is from Lieutenant H. W. Bunbury in December 1836; the route he – and others – took was slow and hazardous, taking four days to cover around 80 miles, crossing four rivers. The route began with passage from Perth to Pinjarra, before turning south-west and passing through low, open scrubland, subsequently a medium-timbered area with low marshes; the first river to cross was the Harvey River, which could only be forded by horses at a single point, near the river mouth. Continuing south-westward, the northern tip of Leschenault Estuary was reached, its shores followed before curving around into Bunbury; the last stretch of 12 miles was the most dangerous for many years, as it required precarious crossings at the Collie and Preston Rivers. In an initial attempt to settle the area, the government declared the land open for pastoral settlement by ordinary settlers, but little progress was made.
By 1840, the population was just fifty-three, most of those were in or near Bunbury. The settlement of Australind by the Western Australian Land Company in 1840–41 prompted the first real need for a good quality road to Perth. Throughout much of 1842, there was much discussion over providing a new route to Bunbury. A coastal route from Fremantle had been proposed, while an alternative proposal published on 11 May 1842 was a new route from Pinjarra to Bunbury, via an upstream crossing of the Harvey River, where a bridge could be built; the coastal route would require a ferry to cross the Murray River's estuary, did not go through Pinjarra, a significant settlement in the area. During the winter of 1842, the existing route became impassable, Clifton decided to undertake the creation of the proposed coastal route, he sent his company's men to make a road. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the importance of the coast road was diminishing. For most of its length, the road went through well-timbered, sandy limestone country of little value to agriculture, settlers in the vicinity of the road were scarce.
In contrast, settlements had spread and prospered in the foothills of the Darling Scarp, on 1 July 1853, Colonial Secretary Frederick Barlee announced a new proposal for a Perth–Pinjarra–Bunbury route along the foothills, with a one chain width following the alignment of previous tracks. Between 1864 and 1876, two parties of convicts were involved in the making of the road. A road from Bunbury to Boyanup, called the Blackwood Road, existed as early as 1864. A bi-weekly mail route from Boyanup to Bridgetown via Preston and Greenbushes was established by 1891. Surveying of a direct Bridgetown–Albany route was requested in January 1871, so that an electric telegraph line could be established, but the government surveyors were overwhelmed by other work. Surveying of the route from Manjimup was undertaken in 1909 by Fred S. Bro
Bridgetown, Western Australia
Bridgetown is a town in the South West region of Western Australia 270 kilometres south of Perth on the Blackwood River at the intersection of South Western Highway with Brockman Highway to Nannup and Augusta. The area was known as Geegelup, believed to mean "place of gilgies" in the Noongar Aboriginal language, referring to the fresh water crustaceans that inhabit the area; however discovered research made available through the Bridgetown Tourist Centre suggests the actual meaning of Geegelup may be "place of spears". In 1857, Edward Godfrey Hester and John Blechynden settled in the area. In 1861, convicts built the road from Donnybrook into the area. Bridgetown's name was first proposed by surveyor Thomas Carey in 1868, for two reasons - "as it is at a bridge and the Bridgetown was the first ship to put in at Bunbury for the wool from these districts", was approved and gazetted on 9 June 1868. From until about 1885, many buildings including the primary school, post office and two hotels were constructed, many of which are still standing today.
In 1885, the Bridgetown Agricultural Society was formed and local farmers produced sheep, dairy products, timber and nuts. The gold rush from 1892 onwards brought prosperity to the town and saw a considerable increase in settlement. In 1907, a number of significant buildings including the police station were erected; until the 1980s, the land surrounding Bridgetown was exclusively used for broadacre agriculture and improved pasture. From the late 1970s, the area became attractive to tourists as a tranquil and picturesque country town an accessible distance from Perth; some people, attracted by the aesthetic qualities and rural lifestyle on offer, sought to move to the town permanently, this resulted in a strong demand for residential and hobby farm allotments, at a time when there was, coincidentally, a global downturn in agricultural markets. Many farmers sold up, much of the most aesthetically pleasing land was subdivided and sold to urban refugees; the demographic change had a profound impact on the town's industry, replacing demand for farm services with demand for services in the tourism and recreation sectors.
However the dramatic increase in infrastructure such as housing and power lines, has detracted from the rural aesthetic that attracted the urban refugees in the first place, therefore has the potential to lead to the rejection of the locality by the next wave of urban refugees. In 2009 a bushfire destroyed at least three properties in the area. Bridgetown is the seat of the Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes and the centre of a productive agricultural district. Many buildings in the town centre are over a century old; the town has a Jigsaw Gallery and Museum, which claims to host the only jigsaw collection of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, a primary school and high school, district hospital, shire offices, agricultural showground, shopping facilities, accommodation for travellers and numerous picnic spots along the Blackwood River. The rural residential area of Kangaroo Gully to the town's east has grown since the 1990s; each year, Bridgetown hosts many events including these: May: Festival of Country Gardens June to August: Bridgetown in the winter festival.
Shops are adorned with many events and workshops. October: Blackwood Marathon October: Blackwood Valley Wine Show November: Bridgetown Garden Festival November: Blues at Bridgetown music festival November: agricultural show November: Festival of Country Gardens Bridgetown experiences a cool Mediterranean climate Emily Barker, singer-songwriter Jon Doust and comedian Robyn McSweeney, politician Tom O'Dwyer, cricketer David Reid, politician Deborah Robertson and poet Fred Riebeling, politician Len Pascoe, cricketer Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes Bridgetown-Greenbushes Visitor Centre Blues at Bridgetown Blackwood Marathon Festival of Country Gardens Blackwood River Valley Bridgetown's climate statistics Bridgetown's daily weather statistics https://web.archive.org/web/20080718194116/http://www.btownfilms.com/ Bridgetown Film Festival January
Stirling Highway is, for most of its length, a four-lane single carriageway and major arterial road between Perth, Western Australia and the port city of Fremantle in Western Australia on the northern side of the Swan River. The speed limit is 60 km/h. East of Crawley, it continues as Mounts Bay Road which links Crawley and the nearby University of Western Australia to the Perth central business district; the highway passes through several of Perth's western suburbs, such as Nedlands, Peppermint Grove and Mosman Park. It passes the University of Western Australia in Crawley, several private secondary schools - namely Christ Church Grammar School, Presbyterian Ladies' College and Methodist Ladies' College. In addition, major shopping areas exist at Claremont and Cottesloe, while many smaller businesses and retailers are dotted along the highway; the section of road from Cottesloe leading south runs alongside the railway. Stirling Highway developed as a rough track linking the new townsites of Perth and Fremantle following the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829.
Construction of a formal road along the track's alignment did not take place for several decades, due to labour shortages, the slow initial development of the colony, the initial absence of a bridge across the Swan River at the southern end of the track, the use of the river itself as the principal means of transport between the towns. Convict labour was used to construct the road after the colony was constituted as a penal settlement in 1850, this was completed by 1858; the road was declared a public highway in 1881. The Perth to Fremantle railway line was completed in 1881, running alongside the road for part of its length; this spurred the development of Perth's western suburbs, including land alongside the road. The road was known as the Perth-Fremantle Road until 1932, when it was renamed for the first Governor of Western Australia, Admiral Sir James Stirling. Construction of the modern highway was formally commenced in the 1930s, it was completed in sections of 1 mile per year. The schedule was as follows: 1934 - Broadway, Nedlands to Weld Street, Nedlands 1935 - Weld Street, Nedlands to Bay View Terrace, Claremont 1936 - Bay View Terrace, Claremont to Anstey Street, Claremont 1937 - Anstey Street, Claremont to Johnston Street, Peppermint Grove 1938 - Johnston Street, Peppermint Grove to Leighton Crossing, North Fremantle 1939 - Leighton Crossing, North Fremantle to Fremantle, including the new Fremantle Traffic BridgeAt the peak of trams and trolleybus in metropolitan Perth several routes ran along Stirling Highway, steel poles along the edge of the highway were used to hold the required wiring.
Following the dismantling of the tramways, the remaining poles became rusty and quite unsightly, most were removed in the early 2000s as part of the underground power project. In the 1970s, a new crossing of the Swan River was constructed to the east of the Fremantle Traffic Bridge. Named the Stirling Bridge, it was opened in 1974 by Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court; the highway was rerouted to the new bridge, terminated at Canning Highway. The new bridge was part of a longer-term proposal to construct a new bypass of central Fremantle. An extension further south from Canning Highway to High Street was opened on 26 November by the state Minister for Transport, the Hon. Julian Grill, MLA; the cost of the project reached A$5.5m, including the compulsory acquisition and demolition of 90 homes. The project was jointly funded by the state and federal governments and was designed by consulting engineers, Airey and Hill for the Main Roads Department, who undertook construction of the highway.
This section represented the first part of the planned Fremantle Eastern Bypass. Those plans have since been cancelled, High Street represents Stirling Highway's permanent southern/western terminus. Highways in Australia List of highways in Western Australia List of major roads in Perth, Western Australia Edmonds, Leigh; the vital link: a history of Main Roads Western Australia 1926-1996. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 1-875560-87-4. "WhereiS.com". Sensis. Retrieved 17 April 2006. "Town of Cottesloe: History". Retrieved 6 July 2006. Main Roads Western Australia Media related to Stirling Highway at Wikimedia Commons