Districts of Suriname
Suriname is divided into 10 districts. The country was first divided up into subdivisions by the Dutch on October 8, 1834, when a Royal Decree declared that there were to be 8 divisions and 2 districts: Upper Suriname and Torarica Para Upper Commewijne Upper Cottica and Perica Lower Commewijne Lower Cottica Matapica Saramacca Coronie Nickerie The divisions were areas near the capital city and the districts were areas further away from the city. In 1927, Suriname's districts were revised, the country was divided into 7 districts. In 1943, 1948, 1949, 1952 and 1959 further small modifications were made. On October 28, 1966, the districts were redrawn again, into Nickerie Coronie Saramacca Brokopondo Para Suriname Paramaribo Commewijne MarowijneThese divisions remained until 1980, when yet again, the borders of the districts were redrawn, with the following requirements: Changes in the old boundaries were made only if it leads to improved functioning Each area should be developed The new boundaries should respect the identities of indigenous people.
The districts created in 1980 remain to this day. ISO 3166-2:SR Resorts of Suriname List of Caribbean First-level Subdivisions by Total Area "Districts of Suriname". Statoids
The Suriname River is 480 km long and flows through the country Suriname. Its sources are located in the Guiana Highlands on the border between the Wilhelmina Mountains and the Eilerts de Haan Mountains; the river flows below the reservoir along Brokopondo, Berg en Dal, the migrant communities Klaaskreek and Nieuw-Lombé, Carolina and Domburg, before reaching the capital Paramaribo on the left bank and Meerzorg on the right bank. At Nieuw-Amsterdam it is joined by the Commewijne and thereafter at the sandspit Braamspunt it flows into the Atlantic Ocean; the river has several sets of rapids as well as a few dams, the largest of, the Afobaka Dam. The river's flow is interrupted by the Brokopondo Reservoir, which therefore divides the river into two sections; the upstream section runs entirely through the Sipaliwini district, the downstream section runs through the Brokopondo, Commewijne and Paramaribo districts. For import and export, the Suriname is by far the most important river in the country.
Not only do all vessels carrying bauxite, aluminum oxide and aluminum depart from Suriname via the river, nearly all vessels carrying materials vital for Suriname enter the country at Braamspunt in order to offload their cargoes in the harbours of Paramaribo, or the harbours of Smalkalden and Paranam – 30 km from Paramaribo – which are vital for the aluminum industry. During the Second World War, the 6,000 tonne North German Lloyd cargo ship Goslar was scuttled in the Suriname in order to prevent it from falling into Allied hands; the wreck remains visible in the middle of the river. In 2000, the Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge at Paramaribo was opened by the President, who had commissioned construction of the bridge and after whom it is named; the bridge permits access to the eastern part of the country. At Carolina 50 km South of Paramaribo, a wooden bridge crosses the river. Near Domburg, an artificial white sand beach has been created along the Suriname River; the adjoining strip of water has been protected with nets to allow swimming in the piranha-infested waters.
As a result of this and associated recreation facilities, White Beach is a popular weekend destination. Translated from Suriname article on the Dutch Wikipedia, version on 24 April 2006 Notes Bibliography
Brokopondo is a district of Suriname. Its capital city is Brokopondo; the district has a population of 15,909, an area of 7,364 square kilometres. Brokopondo district is the site of a large reservoir, the Brokopondo Reservoir near Afobaka, which produces hydroelectric power that provides half of the domestic electrical need; the district has several waterfalls, including the Irene Falls and Leo Falls. In the rainforest of Brokopondo, there are large reserves where a diverse variety of wildlife exists. Gold has been discovered in the Brokopondo district, this has led to many new settlers arriving in the district, both from other parts of Suriname and from the rest of the world. Brokopondo is divided into 6 resorts: Brownsweg Centrum Klaaskreek Kwakoegron Marshallkreek Sarakreek
Maroons were Africans and their descendants in the Americas who formed settlements away from New World chattel slavery. Some had escaped from plantations, but others had always been free, like those born among them in freedom, they mixed with indigenous peoples, thus creating distinctive creole cultures. The American Spanish word cimarrón is given as the source of the English word maroon used to describe the runaway slave communities of Florida and of the Great Dismal Swamp on the border of Virginia and North Carolina, on colonial islands of the Caribbean, other parts of the New World. Lyle Campbell says the Spanish word cimarrón means "wild, unruly" or "runaway slave"; the linguist Leo Spitzer, writing in the journal Language, says, "If there is a connection between Eng. maroon, Fr. marron, Sp. cimarrón, Spain gave the word directly to England." The Cuban philologist José Juan Arrom has traced the origins of the word maroon further than the Spanish cimarrón, used first in Hispaniola to refer to feral cattle to enslaved Indians who escaped to the hills, by the early 1530s to enslaved Africans who did the same.
He proposes that the American Spanish word derives from the Arawakan root word simarabo, construed as "fugitive", in the Arawakan language spoken by the Taíno people native to the island. In the New World, as early as 1512, enslaved Africans escaped from Spanish captors and either joined indigenous peoples or eked out a living on their own. Sir Francis Drake enlisted several cimarrones during his raids on the Spanish; as early as 1655, escaped Africans had formed their own communities in inland Jamaica, by the 18th century, Nanny Town and other villages began to fight for independent recognition. When runaway Blacks and Amerindians banded together and subsisted independently they were called Maroons. On the Caribbean islands, they on some islands, armed camps. Maroon communities faced great odds against their surviving attacks by hostile colonists, obtaining food for subsistence living, as well as reproducing and increasing their numbers; as the planters took over more land for crops, the Maroons began to lose ground on the small islands.
Only on some of the larger islands were organized Maroon communities able to thrive by growing crops and hunting. Here they grew in number as more Blacks joined their bands. Seeking to separate themselves from Whites, the Maroons gained in power and amid increasing hostilities, they raided and pillaged plantations and harassed planters until the planters began to fear a massive revolt of the enslaved Blacks; the early Maroon communities were displaced. By 1700, Maroons had disappeared from the smaller islands. Survival was always difficult as the Maroons had to fight off attackers as well as attempt to grow food. One of the most influential Maroons was François Mackandal, a houngan, or voodoo priest, who led a six-year rebellion against the white plantation owners in Haiti that preceded the Haitian Revolution. In Cuba, there were maroon communities in the mountains, where African refugees who escaped the brutality of slavery and joined refugee Taínos. Before roads were built into the mountains of Puerto Rico, heavy brush kept many escaped maroons hidden in the southwestern hills where many intermarried with the natives.
Escaped Blacks sought refuge away from the coastal plantations of Ponce. Remnants of these communities remain to this day for example in Viñales and Adjuntas, Puerto Rico. Maroon communities emerged in many places in the Caribbean, but none were seen as such a great threat to the British as the Jamaican Maroons. A British governor signed a treaty in 1739 and 1740 promising them 2,500 acres in two locations, to bring an end to the warfare between the communities. In exchange they were to agree to capture other escaped Blacks, they were paid a bounty of two dollars for each African returned. Beginning in the late 17th century, Jamaican Maroons fought British colonists to a draw and signed treaties in the mid-18th century that freed them a century before the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, which came into effect in 1838. To this day, the Jamaican Maroons are to a significant extent autonomous and separate from Jamaican society; the physical isolation used to their advantage by their ancestors has today led to their communities remaining among the most inaccessible on the island.
In their largest town, Accompong, in the parish of St. Elizabeth, the Leeward Maroons still possess a vibrant community of about 600. Tours of the village are offered to foreigners and a large festival is put on every January 6 to commemorate the signing of the peace treaty with the British after the First Maroon War. In the plantation colony of Suriname, which England ceded to the Netherlands in the Treaty of Breda, escaped Blacks revolted and started to build their own villages from the end of the 17th century; as most of the plantations existed in the eastern part of the country, near the Commewijne River and Marowijne River, the Marronage took place along the river borders and sometimes across the borders of French Guiana. By 1740 the Maroons had formed clans and felt strong enough to challenge the Dutch colonists, forcing them to sign peace treaties. On October 10, 1760, the Ndyuka signed such a treaty forged by Adyáko Benti Basiton of Boston, a former enslaved African from Jamaica who had learned to read and write and knew about the Jamaican treaty.
The treaty is still important, as it defines the territorial rights of the Maroons in the gold-rich inlands of Suriname. Slaves escaped within the first generation of their arrival from Africa and preserved their African languages and much o
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis