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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D. C, it conducts research and education in the social sciences in economics, metropolitan policy, foreign policy, global economy, economic development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy. C. campus and three international centers based in Qatar. The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008; the Economist describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank". Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan, various media outlets have alternately described Brookings as "conservative", "centrist" or "liberal". An academic analysis of Congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was referred to by conservative politicians as as liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale with 100 representing the most liberal score.

The same study found Brookings to be the most cited think tank by the U. S. media and politicians. Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research, with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."The Institution's founder, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings financed the formation of three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics, the Robert Brookings Graduate School affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis; the three were merged into the Brookings Institution on December 8, 1927. During the Great Depression, economists at Brookings embarked on a large-scale study commissioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to understand the underlying causes of the depression. Brookings's first president Harold Moulton and other Brookings scholars led an effort to oppose President Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration because they thought the NRA was impeding economic recovery.

With the entry into World War II in 1941, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization. In 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for the administration of the European Recovery Program; the resulting organization scheme assured that the Marshall Plan was run and on a businesslike basis. In 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution, he secured grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation that put the Institution on a strong financial basis. He reorganized the Institution around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, Foreign Policy Programs. In 1957, the Institution moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circle in Washington, D. C. Kermit Gordon assumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967, he began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 entitled "Setting National Priorities". He expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security and defense.

After the election of Richard Nixon to the presidency in 1968, the relationship between the Brookings Institution and the White House deteriorated. Yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle. By the 1980s, the Institution faced an competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment; the need to reduce the federal budget deficit became a major research theme as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. Bruce MacLaury, fourth president of Brookings established the Center for Public Policy Education to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs. In 1995, Michael Armacost became the fifth president of the Brookings Institution and led an effort to refocus the Institution's mission heading into the 21st century. Under Armacost's direction, Brookings created several interdisciplinary research centers, such as the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, which brought attention to the strengths of cities and metropolitan areas.

Strobe Talbott became president of Brookings in 2002. Shortly thereafter, Brookings launched the Saban Center for Middle East Policy and the John L. Thornton China Center. In October 2006, Brookings announced the establishment of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center in Beijing. In July 2007, the Institution announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow Mark McClellan, in October 2007, the creation of the Brookings Doha Center directed by fellow Hady Amr in Qatar. During this period the funding of Brookings by foreign governments and corporations came under public scrutiny. In 2011, Brookings President Strobe Talbott inaugurated the

Bréguet 482

The Bréguet 482 was a French four-engined bomber aircraft of the 1940s. It was designed prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, two prototypes were nearing completion when Germany invaded France in 1940, with one being flown after the end of the war as an experimental platform. In December 1936 the French Air Ministry issued a specification for a four-seat, twin-engined medium bomber, with Bréguet's initial design, the Bréguet 480 to be powered with the specified 1,225 hp Gnome et Rhône 14L radial engines, intended to carry 1,000 kg of bombs over a 2,500 km radius. Gnome et Rhône abandoned the 14L however, so, after considering a version powered by two Hispano-Suiza 12Y V12 engines, Bréguet reworked the design as the Bréguet 482, with four 1,350 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Z engines, with an order for two prototypes placed by the French Air Ministry on 12 May 1938; the Bréguet 482 was a mid-winged monoplane of all-metal construction, with a clean, low-drag, oval section monocoque fuselage, twin tails and a retractable tailwheel undercarriage.

The planned defensive armament was a 20mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon in a power-operated dorsal position, with a 7.5mm machine gun in the nose and a further two machine guns in ventral mountings. Up to 2,500 kg of bombs could be carried. Construction of the two prototypes was well progressed when Germany invaded France on 10 May 1940, in late May it was decided to evacuate the near complete prototypes from Villacoublay near Paris, with the first prototype being sent to Bône in Algeria and the second to the Bréguet factory at Anglet, near Bayonne in the far south-west of France; the first prototype was destroyed during a German air raid following the Allied invasion of French North Africa, but the second prototype remained untouched, despite the fact that Anglet had been occupied by the Germans since 1940. When the Germans withdrew, Bréguet resumed work on the Br 482, proposing to complete it with more powerful Hispano-Suiza 12Z engines and a heavier armament; the French Armée de l'Air had no requirement for a bomber, it was decided to use the aircraft, with the planned modifications, but with armament removed, as a research aircraft.

In this form it was flown for the first time in November 1947, being used for various experimental purposes, including testing of the 12Z engines. Bre 480 Original design, powered by two Gnome-et-Rhône 14L radial engines. Unbuilt. Bre 481 Proposed versions with reduced wing area. Bre 481 B4 Planned bomber version of Bre 481. Unbuilt. Bre 481 Raid Planned long-range record aircraft with further reduced wing area. Bre 482 B4 Four-engined bomber powered by Hispano-Suiza 12Z engines. Bre 482 No 1 First prototype - destroyed 1942. Br 482 No 2 Second prototype, completed 1947 as three-seat research aircraft. Data from General characteristics Crew: three Length: 18.86 m Wingspan: 24.09 m Height: 5.21 m Wing area: 64.4 m2 Empty weight: 10,450 kg Gross weight: 14,500 kg Powerplant: 4 × Hispano-Suiza 12Z liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,007 kW each Performance Maximum speed: 560 km/h at 8,000 m Cruise speed: 529 km/h Range: 1,519 km Service ceiling: 12,000 m Related development Bréguet 500 ColmarAircraft of comparable role and era Bloch MB.162 Avro Manchester Breguet Br482

Ayşenur Alpaslan

Ayşenur Alpaslan is a Turkish diplomat and former ambassador of Turkey. Ayşenur Tekinöz completed her secondary education at TED Ankara College, graduated from the Faculty of Political Science, Ankara University in 1975. With her marriage, she took the surname Alpaslan. Ayşenur Tekinöz was appointed Second Secretary at the Turkish Embassy in London, United Kingdom in 1978. Alpaslan served as Ambassador of Turkey to Chile between 1 December 2002 and 17 December 2005. Returned home, she was posted to the Department for Overseas Promotion and Culture in the Ministry as its Director General in 2006, she was appointed ambassador to Estonia taking office in Tallinn on 1 October 2009, where she served until 1 November 2013. Back to Turkey, she became chairperson of the Supervisory Board in the Ministry