Broth known as bouillon, is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most used to prepare other dishes, such as soups and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available chicken, beef and vegetable varieties. Dehydrated broth in the form of bouillon cubes were commercialized beginning in the early 20th century. Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture. Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone.

In the United Kingdom, "broth" can refer to the liquid in a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Broth has traditionally been made using animal bones which are boiled in a cooking pot to extract the flavor and nutrients; the bones may not have meat still on them. Roasted bones are used to add caramelized flavor. Egg whites may be added during simmering; the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity. Canja de galinha Rosół Scotch broth Bouillon, a Haitian soup Court-bouillon

Simon Hobart

Simon Hobart was a figure in British gay nightlife. He founded the alternative nightclub Popstarz at London's Scala, he was the owner and promoter of Soho venues Ghetto and Trash Palace. He began his career as a promoter and DJ at a Westbourne Grove goth club in the early 1980s, the KitKat. In 1984, a photo of him in full goth regalia was splashed across the front page of the tabloid The Sun, above the caption "Godfather of Goth." Hobart took the fall for the first club raid on London's first all-night club. Police undertook surveillance of the venue and saw no club managers or owners at the place: just the 20-year-old DJ. 200 police descended upon the premises. Hobart was sentenced to undertake community service. Following the huge success of the night, he opened Bedrock, he has said in interviews that he promoted the club's opening night by not letting anyone in, forcing them in a long queue outside, but blasting the music and pretending it was packed to capacity inside. He had DJ residencies at Heaven.

Simon moved into Drum and Bass, opening two underground DnB nights and Vivid. On 25 May 1995, he started his first gay night, capitalizing on the popularity of Britpop. "If Popstarz had failed," he told Alternative London Magazine, "I wouldn’t have embarrassed myself, because I didn’t know anyone in the gay community." He told that he started Popstarz to bring something different to the gay scene, away from the “factory-farm stereotyped, blinkered gay people” churned out by other clubs. "The feeling was that gay people had been liberated from the hell that they’d been in for most of their teen to adult lives,” he said. “So many people said to me it was like coming out of the closet for the second time.” In more recent years, his passion was the Ghetto, a small basement club behind the London Astoria, where he had the opportunity to nurture a number of criss-crossing alternative gay scenes. Simon said he was willing to take losses on certain nights because he was so committed to promoting the alternative gay scene.

In 2003, The Observer included Simon in its list of the 20 most influential gay people in the country. Simon Hobart died in the early hours of Sunday 23 October 2005 outside his home in London. A benefit night was held in Hobart's honour with close friend, Suede front man Brett Anderson as the DJ that night. Obituary from The Guardian, Wednesday 2 November 2005 by David Hudson Obituary from The Times Family pay tribute Pink News

Leucospermum vestitum

Leucospermum vestitum is an evergreen, upright to more or less spreading shrub of up to 2½ m high and wide from the family Proteaceae. It has greyish, oblong, 2–3 inch long leaves with two to four teeth near the tip and large, showy two-toned flower heads that are bright orange at first by and age to brilliant crimson. From the center of the perianth emerge long styles, higher up bending towards the center of the head, that jointly give the impression of a pincushion, it is called bergluisie in Afrikaans. It can be found in the Western Cape province of South Africa, flowers from July until January, peaking October and November. Leucospermum vestitum is a stiff, upright to spreading, evergreen shrub of up to 2½ m high and 3 m in diameter, that grows from a single stout stem with a smooth grey bark; the flowering stems are 5–8 mm in diameter, stiff upright to horizontally spreading, with a thin covering of powdery hairs. The seated and hairless leaves are oblong, elliptic or narrowly oval, 5–7½ cm long and 1–3 cm wide, cut-off or heart-shaped at the foot the tip pointy or with two to four teeth, arranged alternately and somewhat overlapping.

The flower heads are egg- to globe-shaped, 7–9 cm in diameter set individually on the flowering branch. The common base of the flowers in the same head is narrowly cone-shaped with a pointy tip, 4–5 cm long and ¾–1 cm across; the bracts subtending the flower head are broadly oval with a pointy to pointed tip, 1–1½ cm long and ½–1 cm wide, loosely spreading, hairless, pale green and shiny, with a regular row of hairs along the edge. The bract subtending the individual flower is pointy oval, enveloping the flower at its foot, about 1½ cm long and 5–7 mm wide, hairless or with a fine powdery covering and with a row of hairs along the edge; the 4-merous perianth is about 3½ cm long orange but changing to brilliant carmine later. The lower part of the perianth called tube, that remains merged when the flower is open, is about 6 mm long, cylinder-shaped, somewhat compressed sideways and hairless; the middle part is crescent-shaped and coiling back on the base. The claw facing the center of the head is hairless, the two sideways facing claws have protruding silky hairs, while the claw facing the edge of the head is covered in protruding silky hairs.

The upper part, which enclosed the pollen presenter in the bud, are oval, each 4–5 mm long and set with long protruding silky hairs. Implanted on the inside of each of the four limbs is an oval anther of about 3 mm long, on a filament of about 1.0 mm long. From the centre of the perianth emerges a slender tapering and the upper part curved to the center of the head, style of 5–6 cm long, curved toward the center of the head in the upper third; the thickened part at the tip of the style called pollen presenter is yellow, egg-shaped with a pointy tip, about 3 mm long, with the groove that functions as the stigma in a raised papilla at the tip. The ovary is subtended by four white, line-shaped scales of 1½–2 mm long. L. vestitum can be distinguished from related species by the hairless, loosely spreading involucral bracts, the narrow, cone-shaped common base of the flower head, the hairless oblong leaves and the skewed egg-shaped pollen presenter. Joseph Martin, a French plant collector, gardener at the Jardin du Roi in Paris was the first to collect the silky-haired pincushion in 1788.

Although there seems to be no written record of his Cape visit en route to Mauritius, the collection of Proteaceae he sent to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck makes it evident that he at least reached the upper Breede River Valley between Worcester and Tulbagh. Lamarck was the first to describe the silky-haired pincushion in 1792 and he named it Protea vestita. Based on another specimen, English botanist Richard Anthony Salisbury described Leucadendrum ellipticum in 1809 in a book titled On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae, authored by Joseph Knight. Robert Brown published a paper in 1810 called On the natural order of plants called Proteaceae, wherein he created the genus Leucospermum and described Leucospermum medium. In 1816, Jean Louis Marie Poiret, who lumped species, assigned to new genera like Leucadendrum and Leucospermum, he assigned Brown's species to Protea, made the new combination Protea media. Edwin Percy Phillips in 1910 distinguished Leucospermum incisum.

John Patrick Rourke considered all of these names synonymous, made created Leucospermum vestitum in 1967 combining the earliest species name with the correct genus name. L. Vestitum is the type species of the showy pincushions, section Brevifilamentum; the species name vestitum is Latin and means clothed or covered a reference to the silky hairs that surround the perianth. The silky-haired pincushion can be found between Heerenlogementberg in the north, through the Clanwilliam, Ceres and Tulbagh districts to the Breede River Valley, several kilometers north of Worcester in the south, it was collected on three occasions on the Cape Peninsula (Table Mountain, Lion's Head and Green Point but since 1886 it seems to have disappeared. It went extinct on the Paarl mountain, close to Paarl; the silky-haired pincushion seems to agree with a range of ecological circumstances, apart from a well-drained rocky slope of Table Mountain Sandstone. It grows at an altitude of 70–1400 m, where it appears on slopes facing north or w