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Brown

Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red and yellow, or red and blue. In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. In painting, brown is made by adding black to orange; the brown color is seen in nature, in wood, human hair color, eye color and skin pigmentation. Brown is the color of rich soil. According to public opinion surveys in Europe and the United States, brown is the least favorite color of the public; the term is in origin for any dusky or dark shade of color. The first recorded use of brown as a color name in English was in 1000; the Common Germanic adjective *brûnoz, *brûnâ meant both dark colors and a glistening or shining quality, whence burnish. The current meaning developed in Middle English from the 14th century. Words for the color brown around the world come from foods or beverages. In Southeast Asia, the color name comes from chocolate: coklat in Malay.

In Japan, the word chairo means the color of tea. Brown has been used in art since prehistoric times. Paintings using umber, a natural clay pigment composed of iron oxide and manganese oxide, have been dated to 40,000 BC. Paintings of brown horses and other animals have been found on the walls of the Lascaux cave dating back about 17,300 years; the female figures in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings have brown skin, painted with umber. Light tan was used on painted Greek amphorae and vases, either as a background for black figures, or the reverse; the Ancient Greeks and Romans produced a fine reddish-brown ink, of a color called sepia, made from the ink of a variety of cuttlefish. This ink was used by Leonardo da Vinci and other artists during the Renaissance, by artists up until the present time. In Ancient Rome, brown clothing was associated with barbarians; the term for the plebeians, or urban poor, was "pullati", which meant "those dressed in brown". In the Middle Ages brown robes were worn by monks of the Franciscan order, as a sign of their humility and poverty.

Each social class was expected to wear a color suitable to their station. Russet was a coarse homespun cloth made of wool and dyed with woad and madder to give it a subdued grey or brown shade. By the statute of 1363, poor English people were required to wear russet; the medieval poem Piers Plowman describes the virtuous Christian: And is gladde of a goune of a graye russetAs of a tunicle of Tarse or of trye scarlet. In the Middle Ages dark brown pigments were used in art; the umbers were not used in Europe before the end of the fifteenth century. Artists began using far greater use of browns when oil painting arrived in the late fifteenth century. During the Renaissance, artists used four different browns. In Northern Europe, Jan van Eyck featured rich earth browns in his portraits to set off the brighter colors; the 17th and 18th century saw the greatest use of brown. Caravaggio and Rembrandt Van Rijn used browns to create chiaroscuro effects, where the subject appeared out of the darkness. Rembrandt added umber to the ground layers of his paintings because it promoted faster drying.

Rembrandt began to use new brown pigment, called Cassel earth or Cologne earth. This was a natural earth color composed of over ninety percent organic matter, such as soil and peat, it was used by Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, became known as Van Dyck brown. Brown was hated by the French impressionists, who preferred bright, pure colors; the exception among French 19th-century artists was Paul Gauguin, who created luminous brown portraits of the people and landscapes of French Polynesia. In the late 20th century, brown became a common symbol in western culture for simple, inexpensive and healthy. Bag lunches were carried in plain brown paper bags. Brown bread and brown sugar were viewed as more natural and healthy than white bread and white sugar. Brown is a composite color, made by combining red and black.. It can be thought of as dark orange, but it can be made in other ways. In the RGB color model, which uses red and blue light in various combinations to make all the colors on computer and television screens, it is made by mixing red and green light.

In terms of the visible spectrum, "brown" refers to high wavelength hues, orange, or red, in combination with low luminance or saturation. Since brown may cover a wide range of the visible spectrum, composite adjectives are used such as red brown, yellowish brown, dark brown or light brown; as a color of low intensity, brown is a tertiary color: a mix of the three subtractive primary colors is brown if the cyan content is low. Brown exists as a color perception only in the presence of a brighter color contrast. Yellow, red, or rose objec

Mormon art

Mormon art comprises all visual art created to depict the principles and teachings of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as art deriving from the inspiration of an artist's LDS religious views. Mormon art includes painting, quilt work, graphic art, other mediums, shares common attributes reflecting Latter-day Saint teachings and values. Numerous thematic components may be found in Mormon art; these range from being only inclusive of the Mormon faith to the simple underlying theme of spirituality that a Mormon artist attempts to render in a landscape or more general subject matter. Most Mormon art is both specific to the Mormon faith, it includes biblical depictions from the Old Testament and the life of Jesus Christ in the New Testament, as well as Book of Mormon scenes and the history of the LDS Church. Many of these LDS historical accounts depicted in art include, what Mormons believe to be, the restoration of the Gospel of Jesus in the mid-19th century, scenes from the life of Joseph Smith, Jr. such as his First Vision and his death, the migration of the Mormon pioneers from Nauvoo, Illinois to Utah.

LDS gospel principles and the teachings of the church are important art themes to the latter half of the 20th century. These are represented or allegorically as in landscape paintings representing spirituality, personal inspiration, God's love, the wonders of God. Although the most common themes in Mormon art are historical and principle-based, specific to the LDS faith, the decade following the founding of the church on April 6, 1830, continuing on through the end of second half of the 19th century, revealed little of these themes. Most artists who converted to the Mormon faith came from England and exercised their talents by depicting the surrounding landscapes of the Mormon pioneer migration route, their British art education concentrated on the traditional English Romantic style and theme rather than genre and historical themes. These themes are a rarity during the initial growth of the church. One of the few exceptions that strays from this category of Romantic art is a painting by William Armitage of London.

The painting depicts LDS founder Joseph Smith preaching to the Native Americans, was commissioned by the church for the Salt Lake Temple. One British artist associated with the English Romantic tradition was Frederick Piercy, who converted to the church in 1853, his contribution to Mormon art history is his sketches and paintings of the western landscape as he migrated to Utah. He compiled these renderings into an LDS emigrant record of the Mormon route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley; the Boston Museum of Fine Arts holds a number of his original works. It was not until the late 1850s and after in the beginning of World War One, when Mormon artists began to depict historical and genre-based paintings to celebrate their faith in the church. One of the first artists to begin this historical trend in Mormon art was Scandinavian-born artist C. C. A. Christensen, he had trained at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and used his talents to create one of his most famous series of paintings, Mormon Panorama, made up of 23 paintings depicting the church's history.

Other artists that followed Christesen's thematic choice were Minerva Teichert, LeConte Stewart, Arnold Friberg. Of these, Friberg is known for depictions of Book of Mormon stories and history of the United States. One of his most recognizable paintings is The Prayer at Valley Forge, featuring George Washington kneeling at Valley Forge, completed in 1975. Due to the religion's rapid membership growth in the 20th century, Mormon art created during this period reflects the diverse cultural styles within the church and range from depicting the historical to the personal interpretation of the historical, contain a spiritual and faithful basis; the LDS Church places great importance on the use of art. Mormon art is circulated within the church community via monthly magazines published by the church and church posters used for teaching Sunday School classes and Visiting, missionary work; the magazines that are distributed monthly to members with a subscription are the Ensign, the Liahona, the New Era, The Friend.

The purpose of Mormon art creation and circulation is to provide inspiration and encouragement to LDS members, to instruct and remind them of the teaching and values of the church. A popular method of reaching out to the youth is through "Mormonads", which are available through the New Era, the church's website, independent church bookstores. Mormonads are available in index-card sizes. Mormon art does not claim a particular aesthetic. Considered a young religion, Mormonism is not quite 200 years old and has expanded in the 20th century, when artistic and cultural freedom concurrently increased. Today, there are more members of the LDS church outside of the United States than within. Accordingly, Mormon art varies in style. Richard G. Oman, expert on LDS art and curator of acquisitions for the LDS Church History Museum prior to 2010, states in an excerpt on visual artists in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism that the church purposefully holds no limitations on LDS artistic style in order to promote stylistic diversity: "The absence of an official liturgical art has kept the Church from directing its artists into specified stylistic traditions.

This has been conducive to variety in art as the Church has expanded into many different cultures, with differing artistic styles and traditions." The LDS church recognizes the diverse demogra

Werner Klemperer

Werner Klemperer was a German-American actor, stage entertainer, singer. He was best known for the role of Colonel Wilhelm Klink on the popular CBS television sitcom Hogan's Heroes, for which he twice won the award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series at the Primetime Emmy Awards in 1968 and 1969. After serving in the United States Army during World War II, he began performing on the Broadway stage in 1947. Klemperer appeared in several films during his early acting career such as The Wrong Man, Judgment at Nuremberg, Houseboat, numerous roles in television shows such as Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Perry Mason, Gunsmoke, The Untouchables, Have Gun Will Travel, prior to his Hogan's Heroes role. Klemperer was born in Cologne, Germany, to a musical family, but he said that he had little musical aptitude, his father was renowned conductor Otto Klemperer and his mother was soprano Johanna Geisler. He had a younger sister named Lotte, his father was Jewish by birth. His mother was Lutheran.

Otto Klemperer was a first cousin of Victor Klemperer. The Klemperer family emigrated to the United States in 1935, settling in Los Angeles, where Otto Klemperer became conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Werner Klemperer began acting in high school and enrolled in acting courses at the Pasadena Playhouse before joining the United States Army to serve in World War II. While stationed in Hawaii, he joined the Army's Special Services unit, spending the next years touring the Pacific entertaining the troops. At the war's end, he performed on Broadway before moving into television acting, he broadened his acting career by performing as an operatic baritone and a singer in Broadway musicals. He can be heard as the Speaker in Arnold Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder, in a 1979 live performance with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Klemperer's first major film role was as a psychiatrist in Alfred Hitchcock's The Wrong Man, he played a German government officer in the 1959 episode, "The Haunted U-Boat", of the series One Step Beyond.

In 1959, he appeared as a Frenchman in the episode "Fragile" of the Western TV series Have Gun – Will Travel. He received significant notice for his role in the award-winning 1961 film Judgment at Nuremberg; the film presents a fictionalized account of the post-World War II Nuremberg trials, with Klemperer portraying Emil Hahn, a Nazi prosecutor and one of the defendants at the trial. Prior to this, he had a small role in the 1957 Errol Flynn film Istanbul and a pivotal part in the "Comstock Conspiracy" episode of Maverick that same year, he played the title role in the 1961 film Operation Eichmann. He guest-starred in the first Brian Keith television series, Crusader, a Cold War drama that aired on CBS. During this time, he made three guest appearances on Perry Mason: he played East German murder victim Stefan Riker in the 1958 episode "The Case of the Desperate Daughter". In 1963, Klemperer portrayed a professor of psychology in "The Dream Book", an episode on the sitcom My Three Sons. Prior to Hogan's Heroes, Klemperer appeared in the 1956 episode'Safe Conduct' of Alfred Hitchcock Presents, along with future co-star John Banner.

He is best known, however, as Colonel Wilhelm Klink: the bungling, cowardly and self-serving Kommandant of Stalag 13 on Hogan's Heroes, broadcast on CBS from 1965–1971. Klemperer, conscious that he would be playing the role of a German officer during the Nazi regime, accepted the part only on the condition that Klink would be portrayed as a fool who never succeeded. According to co-star, Richard Dawson, Klemperer supplied his own uniforms; when Klemperer's father, the famous conductor Otto Klemperer, saw his first episode of Hogan's Heroes, he said to his son, "Your work is good, but, the author of this material?" In addition to the character's bumblings, Klink was remembered for his excruciatingly bad violin playing. For his performance as Klink, Klemperer received six Emmy Award nominations for best supporting actor, winning successive awards in 1968 and 1969. Klemperer made a cameo appearance in character as Klink in the Batman episode "It's How You Play the Game" and as Officer Bolix in the Lost in Space episode "All That Glitters" in 1966.

He played a bumbling East German official in the 1968 American comedy film The Wicked Dreams of Paula Schultz, directed by George Marshall and starring Elke Sommer and several of his costars from Hogan's Heroes, including Bob Crane and John Banner. Klemperer starred in Wake Me When the War Is Over in 1969, playing the role of a German major, Erich Mueller, alongside Eva Gabor, he played a villain in an episode of Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea titled "The Blizzard Makers". After Hogan's Heroes ended in 1971, Klemperer continued his career in stage and film roles and guest-starring roles on television. In 1987, he portrayed Herr Schultz in the Broadway revival of Cabaret; the role earned Klemperer a Best Featured Actor Tony Award nomination. After his father's death in 1973, Klemperer expanded his acting career with musical roles in opera and Broadway musicals, he earned a Tony Award nomination for his performance in Cabaret in its 1987 Broadway revival. A member of the board of directors of the New York Chamber Symphony, Klemperer served as a narrator