United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers. Their peoples have become members of recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement, often colocated with the Paiute. The name Shoshone comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses, some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone Grass House People, based on their traditional homes made from soshoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning People, meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the Sosonees or snake Indians in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today and it belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming, the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho, and Goshute Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes, the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming.
By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains, after 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700, as more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho, as more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, and attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, a large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces, allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868.
They fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War, in 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of approximately 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War and it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States. In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett, known as Shoshone Mike, killed four ranchers in Washoe County, the settlers formed a posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26,1911 and they lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle. The posse captured three children and a woman, a rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases, is an opaque, impure variety of silica, usually red, brown or green in color, and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron inclusions, the mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be polished and is used for vases, seals. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9, along with heliotrope, jasper is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has bands of jasper. The name means spotted or speckled stone, and is derived via Old French jaspre and Latin iaspidem ) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC. Jasper is known to have been a gem in the ancient world, its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Assyrian, Greek. On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite.
The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is compared to the emerald. Jasper is referred to in the Nibelungenlied as being clear and green, the jasper of the ancients probably included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper, flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priests breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper. Jasper is a rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is thought to be required in the formation of jasper. Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, the original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into diverse patterns, which are filled in with other colorful minerals.
Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds, the classification and naming of jasper varieties presents a challenge. A few are designated by the place of such as a brown Egyptian or red African. Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i. e. leopard skin jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in leisegang jasper
Owyhee County, Idaho
Owyhee County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,526, the county seat is Murphy, and its largest city is Homedale. In area it is the second-largest county in Idaho, behind Idaho County, Owyhee County is part of the Boise, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is the location of more than 50% of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. The majority of the federally recognized Shoshone-Paiute Tribe that is associated with this reservation lives on the Nevada side, its center is in Owyhee. This area was the territory of Western Shoshone, Northern Paiute and Bannock peoples, conflicts over land use and resources led to the indigenous peoples being pushed aside. On December 31,1863, Owyhee County became the first county organized by the Idaho Territory Legislature, while Boise, Nez Perce and Shoshone counties were organized under the laws of Washington Territory, they were not recognized by the Idaho Territory until February 1864.
The original county seat at Ruby City was moved to nearby Silver City in 1867, Owyhee Countys original boundary was the portion of Idaho Territory south of the Snake River and west of the Rocky Mountains. Less than a month after the creation of Owyhee County, Oneida County was formed in January 1864 from the portion of the county. The formation of Cassia County in 1879 took further territory in the east, Owyhee Countys history is closely linked to the mining boom that dominated Idaho Territory in the second half of the 19th century. Silver City and Ruby City developed as boom towns, at its height in the 1880s, Owyhee County was among the most populous places in Idaho. Today it is among the least populous, at 1.4 persons per square mile, in 1886 the reservation was expanded to accommodate people of the Northern Paiute. In the 20th century the combined and are federally recognized as a single government. The majority of the live on the Nevada side of the reservation. Owyhee County gained its present boundaries in 1930 after an election approved moving a portion of it near Glenns Ferry, in 1934 the county seat was moved from the nearly abandoned Silver City to its present location in Murphy.
In the 21st century, both Silver City and Ruby City are ghost towns, remnant of the mining boom, the name Owyhee derives from an early anglicization of the Hawaiian term Hawaiʻi. When James Cook encountered what he named the Sandwich Islands in 1778, he found them inhabited by Native Hawaiians, noted for their hardy physique and maritime skills, numerous Native Hawaiians were hired as crew members aboard European and American vessels. Many Owyhee sailed to the American Northwest coast and found employment along the Columbia River, in 1819, three Owyhee joined Donald Mackenzies Snake expedition, which went out annually into the Snake country for the North West Company, a Montreal-based organization of Canadian fur traders
A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
Salmon Falls Creek
Salmon Falls Creek is a tributary of the Snake River, flowing from northern Nevada into Idaho in the United States. Formed in high mountains at the edge of the Great Basin, Salmon Falls Creek flows northwards 121 miles, draining an arid. The Salmon Falls Creek valley served as a route between the Native American groups of the Snake River Plain and Great Basin. Today, most of its water is used for irrigation, Salmon Falls Creek rises in the arid Jarbidge Mountains of northern Nevada at the confluence of its North and South Forks. The North Fork, sometimes considered the stem of Salmon Falls Creek, is 24.3 miles long. Many of the headwater streams originate in the Humboldt National Forest. After passing through the long and narrow lake, the cuts into a deep canyon as it enters the Snake River Plain, receiving Cedar Creek. The creek empties into the Snake River 10 miles south of Hagerman, before irrigation diversions began in the early 20th century, the average flow at the mouth was 345 cubic feet per second.
Following the construction of Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir and the diversion of many of its tributaries, the average discharge upstream of the reservoir was 34.3 cubic feet per second. Work has been done to reduce pollutants flowing into the creek from these drains, including excess nitrogen, phosphorus. Much of the portion of the watershed is part of the Basin and Range Province of northern Nevada. As a whole, the entire Salmon Falls Creek watershed is very arid, much of the basin receives less than 10 inches of rain annually, while the mountainous areas may get up to 30 inches. Rainfall in the mountains provides most of the flow into Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir. Several major tributary streams provide much of the flow of Salmon Falls Creek as well, the largest tributary is Shoshone Creek, which flows west from the Sawtooth National Forest and enters just upstream of the town of Jackpot. Cottonwood, Big, House and Cedar Creeks are some of the perennial streams in the basin. Since Cedar Creek Reservoir was impounded in 1905, water no longer flows down the creek, the southern portion of the watershed harbors many springs escaping from the foothills of the mountains, feeding the upper tributary streams.
The lower Salmon Falls Creek forms part of the boundary between the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer and Western Snake River Plain Aquifer. Most of the basin lies between the Jarbidge Mountains and Granite Range on the west and the Sawtooth Mountains on the east