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Patrol Squadron 46 known as the "Grey Knights", is a maritime patrol squadron of the United States Navy based at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington. Part of Patrol and Reconnaissance Wing Ten, VP-46 is the oldest maritime patrol squadron and the second oldest aircraft squadron in the entire U. S. Navy, second only behind VFA-14; the squadron was established as Patrol Squadron 5-S on 1 July 1931, redesignated Patrol Squadron 5-F on 1 April 1933, redesignated Patrol Squadron 5 on 1 October 1937, redesignated Patrol Squadron 33 on 1 July 1939, redesignated Patrol Squadron 32 on 1 October 1941, redesignated Patrol Bombing Squadron 32 on 1 October 1944, redesignated Patrol Squadron 32 on 15 May 1946, redesignated Medium Patrol Squadron 6 on 15 November 1946 and redesignated Patrol Squadron 46 on 1 September 1948. 1 July 1931: VP-5S was established at NAS Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone, while on exercises at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, coming under Commander Air, Scouting Force with sister squadrons VPs 3S, 8S and 10S.

Upon completion of Fleet Problem No. XII, newly designated VP-5S returned to its home base at NAS Coco Solo. 1 February 1932: VP-5S and VP-2S were transferred for patrol duties to NAS San Diego, California. March 1932: VP-5S flew to San Francisco, to take part in Fleet Problem XIII, based on USS Wright, they returned to San Francisco for Fleet Problem XIV in February 1933. 1 April 1933: VP-5S was redesignated VP-5F, under the organizational command of Base Force. 22 April 1933: VP-5F was reassigned to its old home base at NAS Coco Solo, with VP-2F. May 1933: VP-5F flew from NAS Coco Solo to NAS Norfolk, Virginia on to Philadelphia, where the squadron's PM-2 aircraft were turned in. New P2Y-1 seaplanes were prepared for the return trip to Coco Solo. In June the second division of six squadron aircraft returned to Coco Solo with several stops in Florida and Jamaica. 7 September 1933: The squadron's first division made the first nonstop flight from NAS Hampton Roads, Virginia, to NAS Coco Solo, in six new P2Y-1 seaplanes under the command of Lieutenant Commander Herman E. Halland.

The squadron flew a distance of 2,059 miles in 25 hours and 19 minutes, establishing the longest nonstop seaplane formation flight to date, surpassing the previous record by 169 miles. Upon arrival, the six new aircraft were turned in to VP-10F in exchange for six older P2Ys. 21 April 1934: VP-5F, 2F, 3F, 7F and 9F participated in Fleet Problem XV in support of fleet operations off Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. 1 January 1935: VPs 5F and 3F participated in exercises in the Caribbean to test seaplane operations in the open ocean from tenders USS Wright, USS Lapwing, USS Teal and USS Gannet. August 1935: VPs 5F and 2F participated in advanced base operations in Trujillo Bay, tended by USS Lapwing and USS Teal. January 1936: VP-5F conducted advanced base operations at Santelmo Bay, Perlas Islands, tended by USS Teal. 23 February 1937: VP-5F participated in extended flight operations in the Caribbean with VP-2F, based at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 1 October 1937: VP-5F was redesignated VP-5 when Navy patrol squadrons were reorganized under the command of Patrol Wings.

VPs 5, 2 and 3 came under Patrol Wing-3, NAS Coco Solo. 14 May – 14 September 1938: VP-5 departed Coco Solo for NAS Norfolk, where the squadron turned in their P2Y-2 seaplanes. On 18 May the squadron arrived at NAS San Diego, California, to receive replacement PBY-3 Catalina aircraft and transition training in the new seaplanes. By August nearly all of the crews with the new aircraft had experienced problems with high noise levels in the PBY-3 while on patrols; the sources of the problems were found to be the lack of interior insulation in the aircraft and higher propeller tip speed. Subsequent production incorporated insulation and dressed down propeller tips that reduced the noise problem; the squadron returned to NAS Coco Solo on 14 September 1938. 11 February 1939: PatWing-3 squadrons, including VPs 2, 3 and 5, participated in Fleet Problem No. XX as part of the Black Force during exercises in the Caribbean. VP-5 operated in the Semana area off Cuba, supported by USS Langley; the exercises again pointed out the vulnerability of the patrol aircraft in the face of determined anti-aircraft fire from defending vessels, the vulnerability of the patrol bases ashore to naval or air attack.

14 April 1939: VPs 5, 2 and 3 mapped 1,076 miles of Central American coastline from Nicaragua to the Colombian border. This task was carried out despite weather conditions unfavorable for aerial photography. 11 September 1939: VP-33 was assigned to Neutrality Patrol duties in the Caribbean operating out of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 31 January 1940: VP-33's Neutrality Patrol duties were directed at covering convoys between the Canal Zone and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 1 July 1940: The squadron had seven aircraft operating out of NAS Coco Solo and three out of San Juan. On 1 July 1940, the squadron received orders to fly all of the squadron aircraft to NAS Jacksonville, Florida, to be turned in for newer model PBY-3 aircraft. 1–8 December 1941: By this date, VP-32 was conducting routine patrols for the Army off the coasts of the Canal Zone, supported by USS Sandpiper, USS Matagorda, USS Osmond Ingram, USS Goldsborough and USS Clemson. On 8 December 1941, after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, six aircraft and crews from VP-52 reinforced the squadron.

The Army and Navy combined commands after this date, with the Army assuming command of the Panama Sea Frontier, VP-32 becoming the long-range reconnaissance arm of the Sixth Bomber Command. VP-32 operated

Saluda Grade

Saluda Grade is the steepest standard-gauge mainline railway grade in the United States. Owned by the Norfolk Southern Railway as part of its W Line, Saluda Grade in Polk County, North Carolina, gains 606 feet in elevation in less than three miles between Melrose and Saluda. Average grade is 4.24 percent for 2.6 miles and maximum is 4.9% for about 300 feet. Captain Charles W. Pearson was assigned to select a route for the Spartanburg and Asheville Railroad to ascend the Blue Ridge front. Despite numerous surveys, no route was available for a railroad to ascend the mountains at a tolerable grade, the best route followed the Pacolet River valley and gorge; the line begins its climb at the bottom of Melrose Mountain, where Tryon is today, at 1,081 feet, continues on the south side of the Pacolet valley. At Melrose, the Saluda Grade begins and climbs to the town of Saluda, cresting in the center of town at an elevation of 2,097 feet; because of accidents involving downgrade runaway trains in the late 1880s, the Southern Railway built two runaway safety spur tracks.

These were manned junctions, which were always switched to a 60-foot pile of earth, which could stop downgrade runaway trains. Only upon hearing a whistle signal from the downgrade train would the signalman manning the spur junction throw the switch to keep the train on the main line. In years, CTC signaling was installed along with automated switches and timer circuits for the one surviving runaway safety track at the bottom of the grade at Melrose. Trains running downgrade were required to maintain 8 miles per hour when approaching the runaway track switch; this would allow a timer circuit to determine if a train was under control, in which case the switch from the runaway track at Melrose would be aligned to the mainline. But for speed greater than 8 miles per hour the switch would remain aligned for the runaway track. Saluda Grade was one of the few grades in the country where uphill trains could travel faster than their downhill counterparts. Most uphill trains had to double or triple the grade, splitting the train into sections to be taken up the grade to Saluda one at a time and reassembled there for the rest of the trip to Asheville.

Norfolk Southern suspended freight traffic between East Flat Rock, North Carolina and Landrum, South Carolina in December 2001, thus ceasing operations on the Saluda Grade. In April 2003, Norfolk Southern severed the line from the rest of its system by placing mounds of dirt over the tracks and disconnecting the rails at mile posts 26 and 45; the signal system is not in use, grade crossings have had their arms removed and signals covered. Norfolk Southern has inspected and maintained the right-of-way since placing the segment out of service, removing fallen trees and spraying herbicide on encroaching vegetation, but at least four washouts of the roadbed have occurred between Saluda and South Carolina, rendering the line impassable. Talks of a passenger train excursion and a Rails-to-trails conversion have made no headway in recent years, Norfolk Southern states it does not intend to abandon the line. However, in 2014, Norfolk Southern sold a portion of the W Line south of Asheville between mile posts 1 and 26 to Watco Companies, L.

L. C. A Class III shortline railroad operator. Watco operates the line as the Blue Ridge Southern Railroad. Norfolk Southern still retains ownership of the out-of-service segment over the Saluda Grade. Since 2014, weed control spraying has stopped and kudzu has grown over the lower third of the grade. List of steepest gradients on adhesion railways Reuben Wells Interactive map of Saluda Grade


Kottaram is a village located in Kanyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Kottaram the word origin from Malayalam meaning Palace. So Kottaram means not only a village but a Palace because 18th & the beginning of the 19th century Kottaram village was ruled by Travancore Maharajas and they have constructed Guest Houses for them. In 1947 August 15 India got independence from British and Sri Vallabhai Pattel initiated to divided India as States and the states divided into Districts according to the regional language and the present Kottaram village became part of Tamil Nadu by 1 November 1956; this village used to be a resting place for the Travancore Maharajas. This landmark, called the Chathiram, is occupied by businesses now. A government hospital, Sub-Register office, Post Office are the main landmarks in the junction. There is the small Ram temple, built at Nandavanam. People from surrounding villages flock to Kottaram, it is close to Kanyakumari and Marunthuvazh Malai. The Government fruit farm and a bi-weekly farmers market are present nearby.

As of 2001 India census, Kottaram had a population of 9450. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kottaram has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, female literacy is 82%. In Kottaram, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age; the "Government Higher Secondary School" has produced many scientists, engineers and other professionals. There is a school for Dumb run by CSI at the Mission Compound. Mahendra nursery & primary school CSI Nursery And Primary School run by the Kanyakumari CSI Diocese in church campus. Sri Veeramani Swami Temple Sri Karpagha Vinayagar Temple Arulmighu Sri Ramar Temple Ayya Vaikundar Temple Sri Narayanswamy Temple Sundari Amman Temple Sri Krishna Pathi Temple Devi Muttharamman Temple Jegadeeswari Amman Temple Aathangari Esakkiamman Temple Chandana Mari Amman Temple Arulmighu SudalaiMadaSwami Temple Thalavai Madaswami Temple Sri Thillaiyandi Ayyanar swamy temple. Vettimurichan Esakkiamman Temple Vannara Maadan, Chappaani Maadan, Ujjani Mahali Temple Arulmigu Ujjani Mahali Amman Temple South Street Kottaram Atchenkulam CSI Church St.

Judes Church The CSI District Church,Mission Compound,Kottaram Perumalpuram CSI Church Periavillai CSI Church A. G Church Mission compound I. P. C Church, mission Compound☆ A. G. Church, Atchenkulam Government Primary Health Center Kandaswamy Hospital Rajasekaran Hospital Chitra Hospital Jeyan Hospital Kuttikan Memorial Homoeo Clinic Neela Hospital Kumaraswamy HospitalApart from these, there is a veterinary hospital for animals

Niagara Falls Citizens

The Niagara Falls Citizens were a minor league baseball club, based in Niagara Falls, New York. The franchise can be traced back to 1939 when the Niagara Falls Rainbows were established and played as a charter member of the Pennsylvania–Ontario–New York League; the team was affiliated with the Cleveland Indians in 1939. However, on July 13, 1940, the team relocated to Jamestown, New York to become the Jamestown Falcons. Niagara Falls went without a team until 1946; the team played in the Middle Atlantic League as an affiliate of the Philadelphia Athletics in 1946 and 1947. However the team disbanded after a first-round playoff loss in 1947; the city fielded the Niagara Falls Citizens in 1950 to continue play in the Middle Atlantic League. In 1951 the Citizens won the league's final title, before disbanding; each of the Niagara Falls teams played their home games at Sal Maglie Stadium. Sal Maglie 2 x MLB All-Star.


Gorak shep or Gorakshep is a frozen lakebed covered with sand in Nepal, the name of the small settlement that sits at its edge at 5,164 m elevation, near Mount Everest. The village is not inhabited year-round. Though trekking lodges at Gorak Shep are basic, in recent times more modern amenities have become available, such as satellite high-speed internet access. Gorak Shep is inside the Sagarmatha National Park, the homeland of the Sherpa people, famous for their skills as guides and mountaineers, it is the final stop on most common treks to Everest Base Camp from Lukla, following what the Dalai Lama dubbed "the steps to heaven." This route takes trekkers from Lukla to Namche Bazaar, Pangboche, Lobuche, on to Gorak Shep. Most trekkers stay overnight there, as their trekking permits will not allow them to camp at Everest Base Camp. Gorak Shep provides the best "launching pad" for an ascent of Kala Patthar, which looks like a giant dune looming over the lakebed. For many trekkers, summitting Kala Patthar, with its 5,550 meters, provides both the best views of Everest and the highest altitude that most will reach without a climbing permit, which must be obtained in Kathmandu, at the Nepal Mountaineering Association.

Climbing starts in the early morning, when the visibility is better. It come back. Gorak Shep was the original Everest Base Camp, being used by the Swiss mountain climbers in their attempt to climb the Everest in 1952; the camp was moved closer to the mountain, just below the Khumbu Ice Fall. Climbing time from Gorak Shep to the Everest Base Camp ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 hours, depending on the weather and physical conditioning of each individual. At this altitude, few people feel comfortable and many start to suffer symptoms of altitude sickness or acute mountain sickness; the best times for trekking are in spring and autumn, when the visibility of the mountain is ideal and the temperature is not excessively cold. However, in autumn the competition for bed spaces in the lodges can be intense, though trekkers are allowed to sleep on the floor of the dining room lodge. During the winter, in the months from December to February, it is possible to do trekking, but the vast majority of accommodations are closed, the trails are snow-covered and the cold is intense.

Gorak Shep means "dead ravens," because of the complete lack of any kind of vegetation in this place. La Rinconada, Peru - the highest elevation year-round human habitation in the world at 5,100 m. Images from Gorkashep and Everest Gorak Shep Holidays