Brunei dollar

The Brunei dollar, has been the currency of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1967. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively B$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into cents. The Brunei dollar is issued by the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam. Under a Currency Interchangeability Agreement in 1967, the Brunei dollar is interchangeable with the Singapore dollar at par; as such, the Brunei dollar is accepted in Singapore as "customary tender". Early currency in Brunei included cowrie shells. Brunei is famous for its bronze teapots, which were used as currency in barter trade along the coast of northern Borneo. Brunei issued tin coins denominated in pitis in AH1285; these were followed by a one cent coin in AH1304. This cent was one hundredth of a Straits dollar; as a protectorate of Britain in the early 20th century, Brunei used the Straits dollar from 1906, the Malayan dollar from 1939 and the Malaya and British Borneo dollar from 1953 until 1967, when it began issuing its own currency.

The Brunei dollar replaced the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1967 after the formation of Malaysia and the independence of Singapore. Until 23 June 1973, the Malaysian ringgit was exchangeable at par with the Singapore dollar and Brunei dollar; the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board (now the Authoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam still maintain the exchangeability of their two currencies. The dollar is accepted as "customary tender" in Singapore according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement, although it is not legal tender there. Coins were used in Brunei from the 10th century; the Straits dollar was used in Brunei from 1906. Due to the close ties between China and Brunei, the first type of coins used in Brunei were Chinese coins; this was called ‘Pitis’. They were known as ‘Kue’ when local ‘Pitis’ were introduced; the local ‘Pitis’ coins had ‘Sultanate of Brunei’ stamped in front of the coin and the royal umbrella was imprinted at the back. These were issued from the 16th to the 19th century.

Previous Islamic coins were called the ‘Pitis’. Another type of coin, used in Brunei were ‘Duit besi’. Iron was considered valuable those days. 100 one-square inch pieces were valued at 1 dollar. The last coin to be issued before the introduction of the Straits Settlements currency was the ‘Duit Bintang’, otherwise known as the ‘Star coin’ or the'Star Cent', it is called the Star coin because of the star imprinted on the obverse of the coin. It was minted in Birmingham, England, in 1887, it was made from copper. With the introduction of the Straits Settlements currency, the used coins were taken out of circulation, they were, however still used with certain exchange rates. The Straits dollar was introduced in Brunei in 1906, it was replaced by the Malayan dollar, introduced to British colonies and Brunei in 1939. It replaced the Straits dollar at par with a 1:1 exchange rate; the Malayan dollar was issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency in Malaya. The board stopped issuing the Malayan dollar during the Japanese invasion during World War II.

The Malayan dollar had the portrait of King George VI in front of the note. In 1952, the board was renamed the Board of Commissioners of British Borneo; the board began to issue notes to Malaya, Sarawak, British North Borneo, Brunei in 1953. This was known as the British Borneo dollar. In 1967, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar was replaced by three new currencies: the Malaysian dollar, Singapore dollar and the Brunei dollar, all at par; the Singapore dollar is still interchangeable with the Brunei dollar today. In 1967, coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents. Except for the bronze 1 cent, the coins were struck in cupro-nickel. In 1986, copper-clad steel replaced bronze. In 2008, the 1 cent coins switched compositions to brass. On 12 June 1967, the government introduced notes in denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 dollars. Notes for 500 and 1000 dollars followed in 1979. In 1989, the title on the paper money was changed to Negara Brunei Darussalam, the official name of the country, the Malay term for “State of Brunei, Abode of Peace.”

10,000 dollar notes were introduced the same year. All notes bear the denomination in English; the English denomination appeared on the obverse below the denomination in Malay on the earlier series, but now appears on the reverse together with the Jawi. Five series of notes have been issued; the colours of $1, $5, $10 notes have been the same for all the series of banknotes. First series – currency with the portrait of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III, the 28th ruler of Brunei. $1 – blue $5 – green $10 – red $50 – brown $100 – purple Second series – This series was the same as the first series with exception that the portrait of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin was replaced by the portrait of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, the 29th and current ruler of Brunei. All subsequent currency has the portrait of Hassanal Bolkiah. In addition, two new higher denominations were issued in 1979. $1 ~ $100 like 1967 series $500 – pink $1000 – yellow Third series – the post independence series. This series was being replaced by the fourth series.

$1 – blue $5 – green $10 – red $50 – brown, orange $100 – purple $500 – orange $1,000 – red-violet, olive $10,000 – green, orange Fourth Series all notes

Walter Beverly Pearson

Walter Beverly Pearson was an American inventor and president of the Standard Screw Company. It became known as Stanadyne Automotive Corporation, he is the great-grandson of President Thomas Jefferson and his slave Sally Hemings, as he was a descendant of their son Eston Hemings. Walter Pearson was born in Madison, Wisconsin during the American Civil War to Anna Wayles Hemings Jefferson and her husband Albert T. Pearson of New York state. Anna was a native of Virginia and the only surviving daughter of Eston Hemings Jefferson and his wife Julia Ann Isaacs. Albert worked as a carpenter in Madison. Walter had an older sister Julia, their mother died prematurely, at the age of 30. The three children were educated in public schools. Pearson's maternal grandfather Eston Hemings Jefferson was born into slavery at Monticello. Seven-eighths European in ancestry, he was white under Virginia law and freed in 1826 by the will of his master Thomas Jefferson. Julia Ann Isaacs, a free woman of color, was of African, European-American and German-Jewish descent.

They moved their family from Ohio to Wisconsin in 1852 for added security after passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Although all their family was free, slave catchers kidnapped and enslaved free blacks in those years, as well as capturing fugitive slaves. In 1852 the Hemings family had changed their surname to Jefferson and entered the white community in Madison, Wisconsin. Anna Jefferson was 16 that year. Both Anna and her brother Beverly Jefferson married white spouses, all their descendants have identified as white. Pearson had gone into business in Chicago. By the late 19th century, he operated a small manufacturing company that made screws and developed technology which made his company valuable enough to sell to Standard Screw in 1900; when appointed as president in 1904, Pearson soon doubled the company's subsidiaries from four to eight, increasing their skilled workforce and facilities. He led Standard Screw Company to dominance in the industry through the early twentieth century.

Together with two other leaders, Pearson introduced the "'new Standard Automatic,' a machine that reduced the cost of making screws nearly 40 percent." In 1904 he reduced prices, which gave the company an edge with the new auto manufacturers, whose rapid expansion as an industry fed Standard's profits. The coming of World War I led to a major increase in profits, as Pearson won contracts from the British and US governments for bullets and fuses; the 1916 profit was 10 times higher than the previous year, returns increased by 340 percent in 1917. Pearson had established a dominance among companies. Pearson was described as the company's "first outstanding leader." Walter Pearson married Helena Snyder Their children were Frederick Beverly Pearson and Beatrice Pearson, born in Chicago and Michigan, respectively. At his death in 1917, Pearson left an estate valued at $2,000,000; the executors of his will were his wife Helen and his cousin Carl Jefferson, the son of his maternal uncle Beverly Jefferson.

Pearson left a $50,000 annuity to his wife, $12,000 annuities to his daughter Beatrice and son Frederick, a $50,000 bequest to his cousin Dr. Frederick Jefferson. Pearson's son Frederick was to receive $2 million, the bulk of the Pearson fortune, on his 35th birthday. In 1920, the widow Helen Pearson and her children were living in Florida. Fred was working in real estate and Beatrice was still in school. Frederick Pearson married Gladys Semma in 1922, she divorced him three years because of his drinking problems. He died in Chicago at age 30 on February 1926 in a fire at the Claridge Hotel. After a night of heavy drinking with friends. By the time it was discovered, he could not be saved. Beatrice never married. Pearson has no known descendants. In 1974 the historian Fawn McKay Brodie published a biography of Thomas Jefferson in which she explored the evidence related to his alleged relationship with Sally Hemings, her book Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History noted that Jefferson was in residence at Monticello for the conception period of each of Hemings' children, that Sally Hemings never conceived when he was not there.

Her book met mixed reactions: excellent reviews from literary critics and opposition to her psychological approach and conclusions about Jefferson's paternity from mainline biographers of the president. After she published her biography, descendants of Carl Jefferson contacted her, their knowledge of the family connection to Thomas Jefferson had been lost in the 1940s, as the Jefferson brothers decided not to pass on the story, for fear their children would face racial discrimination because of descent from the slave Sally Hemings. The senior Jeffersons instead told their children that they were descended from an uncle of Jefferson. In 1976 Brodie published an article in American Heritage magazine about the grandchildren of Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson, covered the Pearson family. A 1998 DNA study found that a male descendant of Eston Hemings Jefferson matched the rare Y-chromosome of the Jefferson male line. Most historians took this result as affirming other historical evidence related to the pa


WAKX is a radio station licensed to serve the community of Palm Coast, Florida. The station is owned by Flagler County Broadcasting and the broadcast license is held by Flagler Broadcasting, LLC. WAKX shares radio studios in Bunnell, with sister stations WBHQ and WNZF. Ashley Thomas Joyner received the original construction permit for this station from the Federal Communications Commission on December 9, 2009; the new station was assigned the WPLC call sign by the FCC on December 16, 2009. On December 16, 2009, license holder Ashley Thomas Joyner applied to the FCC to transfer the permit to a single shareholder corporation named Joyner Radio, Inc; the move was approved by the FCC on December 29, 2009, the transaction was consummated on January 4, 2010. In April 2012, Joyner Radio, Inc. reached an agreement to sell the still-under-construction station to Flagler County Broadcasting for $301,000. The deal was approved by the FCC on May 21, 2012, the transaction was consummated on May 23, 2012; the station's call sign was changed to WAKX on June 19, 2012.

On August 1, 2012 at midnight launched with a country music format branded as "Kix Country 98.7". WAKX official website WAKX on Facebook Query the FCC's FM station database for WAKX Radio-Locator information on WAKX Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WAKX