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Bubastite Portal

The Bubastite Portal gate is located in Karnak, within the Precinct of Amun-Re temple complex, between the temple of Ramesses III and the second pylon. It records the conquests and military campaigns in c.925 BCE of Shoshenq I, of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Shoshenq has been identified with the biblical Shishaq, such that the relief is known as the Shishak Inscription or Shishaq Relief; this gate was erected by the kings of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt known as the "Bubastite Dynasty". It is located to the south-east side of the Temple of Ramesses III. Although Karnak had been known to Europeans since the end of the Middle Ages, the possible significance of the Bubastite Portal was not apparent prior to the decipherment of hieroglyphics. Jean-François Champollion visited Karnak in 1828, six years after his publication of the Rosetta Stone translation. In his letters he wrote: In this wonderful palace, I observed the portraits of most of the old Pharaohs known for their great deeds.... We see people fighting enemies Mandoueï of Egypt, returning in triumph to his homeland, farther campaigns Ramses-Sesostris Sésonchis dragging the foot of the Theban Triad defeating thirty conquered nations, among which I found, as it should be, in full, the kingdom of Judah, or the Jews.

This matches the commentary in 1 Kings 14, which recounts the successful arrival of Sésonchis at Jerusalem: the identity that we have established between the Egyptian Sheschonck the Sésonchis of Manetho and Scheschôk or Shishak of the Bible, is confirmed in the most satisfactory manner. One facade shows King Sheshonq I, Teklot and Osorkon of the 22nd dynasty, making offerings to the gods and goddesses. Another scene shows smiting them by his mace. Behind and below him, there are the names of Canaanite towns in several rows. Many of these are lost, but there were 156 names and one of the most interesting names which were mentioned is'The Field of Abram'; the inscriptions give no details for this expedition and mentioned only the victory over the Asiatics. Below is a translation of the 156 names on the inscription; the Biblical narrative recounts: In the fifth year of King Rehoboam, because they had been unfaithful to the LORD, Shishaq king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem with 1,200 chariots and 60,000 horsemen.

And the people were without number who came with him from Egypt— Libyans and Ethiopians. And he came as far as Jerusalem. Shemaiah the prophet came to Rehoboam and to the princes of Judah, who had gathered at Jerusalem because of Shishak, said to them, "Thus says the LORD,'You abandoned me, so I have abandoned you to the hand of Shishaq.'" The princes of Israel and the king humbled themselves and said, "The LORD is righteous." When the LORD saw that they humbled themselves, the word of the LORD came to Shemaiah: "They have humbled themselves. I will not destroy them, but I will grant them some deliverance, my wrath shall not be poured out on Jerusalem by the hand of Shishaq, they shall be servants to him, that they may know my service and the service of the kingdoms of the countries." So Shishaq king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. He took away the treasures of the treasures of the king's house, he took away everything. He took away the shields of gold that Solomon had made, King Rehoboam made in their place shields of bronze and committed them to the hands of the officers of the guard, who kept the door of the king’s house.

And as as the king went into the house of the LORD, the guard came and carried them and brought them back to the guardroom. And when he humbled himself the wrath of the LORD turned from him, so as not to make a complete destruction. Moreover, conditions were good in Judah; the account of Shishak carrying off treasures from Jerusalem is thought by some scholars to be of dubious historicity. List of artifacts significant to the Bible Kevin A. Wilson....... The Campaign Of Pharaoh Shoshenq I Into Palestine University of Chicago Oriental Institute Epigraphic Survey and inscriptions at Karnak: The Bubastite portal, vol. III. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Galleria Spada

The Galleria Spada is a museum in Rome, housed in the Palazzo Spada of the same name, located in the Piazza Capo di Ferro. The palazzo is famous for its façade and for the forced perspective gallery by Francesco Borromini; the gallery exhibits paintings from the 17th century. Museum Cabe-Cabean "CI." A State Museum, the Galleria Spada's run by the Polo Museale del Lazio. The Museum hours of operation are as follows: Tuesday - Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Sundays and holidays from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. It was built in 1540 for Cardinal Girolamo Capodiferro. Bartolomeo Baronino, of Casale Monferrato, was the architect, while Giulio Mazzoni and a team provided lavish stuccowork inside and out; the palazzo was purchased by Cardinal Spada in 1632. He commissioned the Baroque architect Francesco Borromini to modify it for him, it was Borromini who created the masterpiece of forced perspective optical illusion in the arcaded courtyard, in which diminishing rows of columns and a rising floor create the visual illusion of a gallery 37 meters long with a lifesize sculpture at the end of the vista, in daylight beyond: the sculpture is 60 cm high.

Borromini was aided in his perspective trick by a mathematician. The building was purchased in November 1926 by the Italian State to house the gallery and the State Council; the Galleria was opened in 1927 in the Palazzo Spada. It closed during the 1940s, but reopened in 1951 thanks to the efforts of the Conservator of the Galleries of Rome, Anchille Bertini Calosso and the Director, Frederico Zeri. Zeri was committed to locating the remaining artwork, scattered during the war, as he intended to recreate the original layout of the 16th-17th version of the gallery, including the placement of the pictures, the furniture and the sculptures. Most of the exhibited artwork comes predominantly from the private collection of Bernardino Spada, supplemented by smaller collections such as that of Virgilio Spada; the museum is located on the first floor of Palazzo Spada, in the wing that used to belong to Cardinal Girolamo Capodiferro. The Cardinal had built the museum over the historical remains of his family's former home, established in 1548.

Room IThe room is called the Room of the Popes because of its fifty inscriptions describing the lives of select pontiffs, as commissioned by Cardinal Bernardino. It is known as the Room with the Azure Ceiling because the ceiling is covered with a turquoise canvas divided into many little compartments marked "camerini da verno"; the ceiling coffers' decorations date back to 1777. Among the paintings in this room are: Portrait of Cardinal Bernardino Spada by Guido Reni Portrait of Cardinal Bernardino Spada by Guercino Portrait of Cardinal Fabrizio Spada by Sebastiano Ceccarini Two Still Lifes by Onofrio Loth Four Ovidian mythologic scenes by Giuseppe Chiari Apollo and Daphne Latona curses the Lycians transforming them into Frogs Mercury entrusts Bacchus to the Nymphs Bacchus and Ariadne Four Vedute by Hendrik Van Lint Four battle scenes by Jacques CourtoisRoom II This room was created along with Room III; the upper part of the walls were decorated with friezes in tempera on canvas by Perino del Vaga.

The other parts of the walls that were painted with paneling are now missing. Among the works in this room are: Fresco frieze by Perino del Vaga now replaced by friezes by Andrea Gennaroli and by François Perrier Road to Calvary by Marco Palmezzano Portrait of Botanist and King David by Bartolomeo Passerotti Portrait of Violinist by Titian Four Stories of the Old Testament by Andrea Donducci Some Madonna and Child depictions by Umbrian School Visitation by Andrea del Sarto Portrait of Pope Julius III by Girolamo Siciolante da Sermoneta St Cristopher and St Luke by Amico AspertiniRoom III It is called the "Gallery of the Cardinal", it was designed by Paolo Maruscelli in 1636 and 1637 along with Room II to house the art collection of Bernardino Spada. The ceiling is beamed and French windows lead into galleries one of which has an iron railing overlooking the big garden. Among the paintings here are: Frescos depicting Allegories of the Four Continents and Seasons; the Room houses paintings by Caravaggisti.

The most important artworks are: Michelangelo Cerquozzi: Revolt of Masaniello Giovan Battista Gaulli: Christ and the Samaritan Artemisia Gentileschi: Saint Cecily.

List of theaters and campaigns of World War II

The List of theatres and campaigns of World War II subdivides military operations of World War II and contemporary wars by war by theater and by campaign. Japanese invasion of Manchuria January 28 incident Defense of the Great Wall Action in Inner Mongolia Suiyuan campaign Soviet-Japanese Border War Second Sino-Japanese War Second Italo-Abyssinian War Spanish Civil War S-Plan Slovak-Hungarian War Italian invasion of Albania List of military operations in the Nordic countries during World War II Invasion of Finland Invasion of Denmark and Norway Continuation war Lapland War Phony War Battle of France Battle of Britain Western Front Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force commanded Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until May 1945. Battle of Normandy Northern France Campaign Southern France Campaign Battle of the Siegfried Line Central Europe Campaign Battle of Poland Winter War Eastern Front Continuation War Allied Force Headquarters, controlled all forces in the Mediterranean Theatre late 1942 to May 1945.

East African Campaign North African Campaign Western Desert Campaign Tunisia Campaign Invasion of Yugoslavia Battle of Greece Battle of Crete World War II in Yugoslavia Anglo-Iraqi War Syria-Lebanon campaign Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Italy Second Sino-Japanese War Pacific War American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Pacific Theater of Operations Pacific Ocean Areas South West Pacific Area South-East Asian Theatre Burma Campaign China Burma India Theatre Japan Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Soviet-Japanese War Soviet Manchurian Campaign Americas Australia Arctic and Antarctica West Africa Madagascar Battle of the Atlantic Arctic Convoys Battle of the Mediterranean Battle of the Indian Ocean Battle of Britain Strategic bombing during World War II Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Chinese Civil War Second Sino-Japanese War S-Plan Soviet-Japanese Border War French-Thai War Ecuadorian-Peruvian War Northern Campaign Greek Civil War Afghan tribal revolts Theaters and campaigns of World War II Campaigns of World War II Military operations of World War II World War II-related lists