William Alexander "Bud" Abbott was an American comedian and straight man half of the comedy duo Abbott and Costello. Groucho Marx declared Abbott "the greatest straight man ever." Abbott was born in New Jersey on October 2, 1897 into a show business family. His parents, Rae Fisher and Harry Abbott, had worked for the Bailey Circus, she was a bareback rider and he was a concessionaire and forage agent. When Bud was a child his father became a longtime advance man for the Columbia Burlesque Wheel and the family relocated to Harlem the Coney Island section of Brooklyn. Abbott dropped out of grammar school and began working summers with his father at Dreamland Park in Coney Island; when he was 15, Abbott signed on as a cabin boy on a Norwegian steamer but was soon forced to shovel coal. He worked his way back to the United States a year later; as a teenager Abbott began working in the box office of the Casino Theater in Brooklyn. He spent the next few years in burlesque box offices. In 1918, while working in Washington, D.
C. he married Jenny Mae Pratt, a burlesque dancer and comedian who performed as Betty Smith. They remained together until his death 55 years later. In 1923 Abbott produced a cut-rate vaudeville tab show called Broadway Flashes, which toured on the small-time Gus Sun circuit. Abbott began performing as a straight man in the show, he continued producing and performing in burlesque shows on the Mutual Burlesque wheel, as his reputation grew, he began working with veteran comedians like Harry Steppe and Harry Evanson. Abbott suffered from epilepsy starting from about 1926. In 1964, he suffered the first in a series of strokes. Abbott crossed paths with Lou Costello in the early 1930s when Abbott was producing and performing in Minsky's Burlesque shows and Costello was a rising comic, they first worked together in stock burlesque in 1935 at the Eltinge Theatre on 42nd Street, after an illness sidelined Costello's regular partner. They formally teamed up in 1936, performed together in burlesque, minstrel shows, stage shows.
In 1938, they received national exposure as regulars on the Kate Smith Hour radio show, which led to roles in a Broadway musical, The Streets of Paris in 1939. In 1940, Universal signed the team for One Night in the Tropics. Despite having minor roles and Costello stole the film with several classic routines, including an abbreviated version of "Who's On First?" Universal signed the team to a two-picture deal, the first film, Buck Privates, became a major hit and led to a long-term contract with the studio. It was directed by Arthur Lubin who said "I don't think there has been a finer straight man in the business than Bud Abbott. Lou would go off the script - because he was that clever with lines - and Bud would bring him right back."During World War II, Abbott and Costello were among the most popular and highest-paid stars in the world. Between 1940 and 1956 they earned a percentage of the profits on each, they were among the Top 10 box office stars from 1941 through 1951, placed No. 1 in 1942.
They had their own radio program throughout the 1940s, first on NBC from 1942 to 1947, from 1947 to 1949 on ABC. During a 35-day tour in the summer of 1942, the team sold $85 million worth of War Bonds. In the 1950s, they introduced their comedy to live television on The Colgate Comedy Hour, launched their own half-hour filmed series, The Abbott and Costello Show. Relations between Abbott and Costello were strained by egos and salary disputes. In their burlesque days, they split their earnings 60%–40%, favoring Abbott, because the straight man was always viewed as the more valuable member of the team; this was changed to 50%–50%, but after a year in Hollywood, Costello insisted on a 60%–40% split in his favor, it remained so for the remainder of their careers. Costello demanded that the team be renamed "Costello and Abbott", but this was rejected by Universal Studios, resulting in a "permanent chill" between the two partners, according to Lou's daughter Chris Costello in her biography Lou's on First.
Their relationship was further strained by Abbott's alcohol abuse, a habit motivated by his desire to stave off epileptic seizures. The team's popularity waned in the 1950s, the IRS demanded substantial back taxes, forcing the partners to sell most of their assets, including the rights to many of their films; when the team's long-term contract with Universal was up in 1954, they demanded more money than the studio was willing to pay, they were dropped. In November 1956, Lou was the subject of the Ralph Edwards-produced TV show, “This Is Your Life.” This was just before the team opened in Las Vegas for. Abbott and Costello split in 1957. Costello made solo appearances on several TV shows and did one film, "The Thirty-Foot Bride of Candy Rock" Lou died on March 3, 1959. Abbott faced financial difficulties in the late 1950s when the IRS disallowed $500,000 in tax exemptions which forced him to sell his home and come out of semi-retirement. In 1960, Abbott began performing with Candy Candido, to good reviews.
But Abbott called it quits, remarking that "No one could live up to Lou." The following year, Abbott performed in a dramatic television episode of General Electric Theater titled "The Joke's on Me". In 1966, Abbott provided his own voice for the Hanna-Barbera animated series The Abbott and Costello Cartoon Show, with Stan Irwin providing the voice of Lou Costello. Bud and Betty Abbott were married for 55 years; the c
Class 316 and Class 457 were TOPS classifications assigned to a single electric multiple unit at different stages of its use as a prototype for the Networker series. In the late 1980s, the Network SouthEast division of British Rail, which operated the railway network in South East England, started to develop a new standard train, known as the Networker. To test out the technical arrangements for the Networker, a test train was used, converted from former Class 210 carriages, which were built in 1982 by Derby Litchurch Lane Works as prototype'Second Generation' Diesel Electric Multiple Unit, but were withdrawn after a few years; the test unit was formed for trials on the 750 V direct current third rail system of the Southern Region, was numbered 457001. As with all Southern Region electric multiple units only the last four digits of the unit number were carried; the unit formation was: Later, the unit was altered to undertake trials on the 25 kV alternating current overhead wire system used on electrified lines north of the River Thames.
The unit was renumbered as a Class 316 unit, number 316999. To enable it to work on the AC electrification, a pantograph trailer from a Class 313 unit 313034 was inserted into the set, replacing one of the intermediate trailers; this spare vehicle has since been incorporated into a Class 455/9 DC suburban unit, replacing a damaged Trailer Second Open vehicle. The unit formation was: After the AC trials were complete, the set was returned to the Southern Region for storage, minus the Class 313 trailer, which returned to its previous formation; the two driving cars were preserved at the Electric Railway Museum, one being resold to the Eversholt Rail Group and inserted into set 455913 in 2013 after being rebuilt at Wolverton railway works to replace a carriage destroyed in an accident. The vehicle was converted to a 455 MSO; the remaining intermediate trailer was scrapped. Vehicle details are shown below: Class 316 was reserved in the British Rail Fleet List for an AC EMU for the Piccadilly to Victoria underground line proposed for Manchester in the 1970s.
The specifications and some outline design proposals for the new fleet was prepared at the Railway Technical Centre but never proceeded to tender with the project cancelled. The Class 316 designation was used in 1992 for a three car Class 307 EMU used as a testbed unit for new traction equipment. Class 457 Class 457 restoration
In the U. S. state of Vermont, villages are named communities located within the boundaries of an incorporated town. Villages may be unincorporated. An incorporated village is a defined area within a town, either granted a village charter by a special act of the legislature, or organized under the general law. Village governments are subordinate to the government of the town. A village is a defined municipality and provides some municipal services, such as potable water, sewage and fire services, garbage collection, street lighting and maintenance, management of cemeteries, building code enforcement. Other municipal services not provided by the village are provided by the parent town. Incorporated villages in Vermont are administratively similar to villages in New York. Vermont is the only state in New England. Village officers include a clerk, five bailiffs/trustees, a treasurer, a tax collector; the trustees have powers similar to the selectmen of towns. As of 2011, there were 35 incorporated villages with active governments in Vermont.
There were more but most have since disincorporated, while a few were chartered as cities. Below is a list of incorporated villages, ordered by date of incorporation. Existing villages are indicated in boldface. E. T. Howe, "Vermont Incorporated Villages: A Vanishing Institution", Vermont History 73, 16. "Continuing Issues:Villages and cities". Vermont State Archives. Vermont Secretary of State. Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-11-12. D. G. Sanford, Vermont Municipalities: an index to their charters and special acts. J. S. Garland, New England town law: a digest of statutes and decisions concerning towns and town officers. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Vermont". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 1027. "Any community containing thirty or more houses may, with the approval of the selectmen of the town, receive a separate village organization. Their officials are a clerk, five trustees, a collector of taxes and a treasurer". Vermont Statutes Online, Title 24 and 24 Appendix U.
S. Census Bureau, Census of population, data for 1930–2000