click links in text for more info

Grand Prix (video game)

Grand Prix is a Formula One Grand Prix motor racing-themed video game. It was designed and programmed by David Crane for the Atari 2600 and published by Activision in 1982; the player drives a Formula One car in a time trial on one of four race tracks, each of which has a different difficulty level. Difficulty is gauged by the length of the course, the number of cars and oil slicks on the track, the number of bridges to cross; the player views the race from a top-down perspective, the screen scrolls from right to left. The player's car maneuvers only on a vertical axis, loses a little speed when it does so; the joystick's button is the throttle: Depressing it accelerates, releasing it decelerates. Pressing the joystick leftward applies the brake; the transmission audibly shifts as the player's car decelerates. Grand Prix is a time trial, the competing cars are obstacles rather than competition for the finish line; the player's car can outpace the other cars, but if it collides with one, its speed drops lower than that of the impacted car.

Driving over an oil slick causes the player's car to skid sideways, but does not slow it down. Once every scale mile, the player crosses a narrow bridge over blue water. Colliding with any wall of the bridge stops the car, the player must gain speed to continue. A patch of oil slicks precedes a bridge; this both forewarns the player, presents a hazard while trying to steer onto the bridge. Competing cars cross do not cross the finish line; each of the game's four race tracks is a straight lined with trees. The shortest, simplest course is Watkins Glen. Brands Hatch is about twice as long as Watkins Glen, has one bridge. Le Mans is about three times as long as Watkins Glen, has two bridges. Monaco is about five times as long as Watkins Glen, has three bridges; the tracks in Grand Prix are named after real Formula One circuits. Watkins Glen International, near Watkins Glen, New York, was the site of the United States Grand Prix from 1961 to 1980. Brands Hatch, near the English town of Swanley, hosted the British Grand Prix in even-numbered years from 1964 through 1986.

The city of Le Mans is the site of the Bugatti Circuit, which hosted the French Grand Prix in 1967. Circuit de Monaco, a street circuit in Monte Carlo, first hosted the Monaco Grand Prix in 1950. After four years of Formula Two races, the annual F1 Monaco Grand Prix resumed, has returned each year since 1955. Although the race tracks in Grand Prix are named after these circuits, they are not reproductions of them; when David Crane developed a technique for painting large, multicolored sprites on the 2600, he made a color pattern that reminded him of Grand Prix racing stripes. This inspired him to design a Grand Prix racing game to apply his new technique. Richard A. Edwards reviewed Grand Prix in The Space Gamer No. 54. Edwards commented that "All in all, the graphics and required skill make Grand Prix a game worth purchasing." In 1995, Activision republished the game in the anthology Activision's Atari 2600 Action Pack for Windows 95

Wipeout (1988 American game show)

Wipeout is an American game show that aired from September 12, 1988, to June 9, 1989, with Peter Tomarken as host. The series was produced by Dames-Fraser Productions and distributed by Paramount Domestic Television. Reruns of the series aired on the USA Network from 1989 to 1991. Canada's GameTV acquired the first 40 episodes of the series, which launched on October 8, 2018. Three contestants competed on each episode; each game featured three new contestants. After several weeks, the show instituted a returning champion policy; the players were shown 16 possible answers on a 4-by-4 grid of monitors. Eleven answers were correct, while the five incorrect ones were referred to as "Wipeouts"; the contestant in the leftmost position began the round. The contestant in control chose one answer at a time. After each correct answer, he/she could either pass control to the next contestant; the first correct answer of the round was worth $25, the value of each subsequent answer increased by $25, with the last one worth $275.

The round ended once all eleven correct answers were found or if all five Wipeouts had been selected. The two contestants with the highest money totals kept their earnings and continued on, while the third place player left with parting gifts and, if he/she had been the champion, any prior winnings. If there was a tie for low score, the tied players were shown 12 answers, they alternated choosing one answer at a time, with a coin toss to decide who would start, the first contestant to find a Wipeout was eliminated. If all eight correct answers were found, the contestant who gave the last one advanced. One of the eleven correct answers was referred to with a prize attached to it. Once the Hot Spot was uncovered, Tomarken would take a token from inside his podium and place it on the desk of the contestant that found it. In order to win the Hot Spot prize, a contestant had to both be in possession of the token at the end of the round and have a high enough score to advance to the Challenge Round.

If the contestant holding the Hot Spot uncovered a Wipeout, the token was taken away and another answer was designated as the Hot Spot. The two remaining contestants advanced to the Challenge Round, playing for a bonus prize and to become the day's champion. For each category in the Challenge around, the contestants were shown a board with 12 answers, eight correct and four Wipeouts, they bid back and forth as to how many correct answers they thought they could name. Bidding ended when one contestant either challenged the other. If the high bidder completed the bid, he/she won the board. One mistake allowed the opponent a chance to steal the board by giving one of the remaining correct answers still on the board. If the opponent could not do so, the high bidder was given another chance to fulfill his/her bid; the Challenge Round was played as a best two-of-three. The high scorer from the first round started the bidding on the first board, while his/her opponent led off for the second. If a third board was needed, a coin toss decided.

The first contestant to win two boards became champion. The opponent kept. Instead of using the 4-by-4 monitor grid from the main game, the bonus round used a grid of 12 larger monitors, arranged in three rows of four; the champion attempted to win a new car by identifying six correct answers in a given category within sixty seconds. After receiving the category, the champion raced to the monitors to select his/her answers. To do this, the champion would have to touch the border around one of the monitors; the monitor would light up to indicate the selection. Once six monitors were selected, the champion raced back to the starting point and hit a button to lock the answers in. To help in their running, all contestants were given a complimentary pair of running shoes from the "Kaepa" shoe company. If there were less than six correct, Tomarken would tell the champion how many he/she had chosen and he/she went back to the grid. In order to change an answer, the champion had to touch the monitor again to turn it off before selecting a new one because no more than six could be lit at once.

The process continued until all six correct answers were found or until the sixty second time limit expired. If the champion managed to find all six answers within the time limit, he/she won the car; this resulted in the champion retiring undefeated once carryover champions were introduced. Otherwise, the champion would keep returning until beaten

Dead Reckoning (1947 film)

Dead Reckoning is a 1947 American film noir starring Humphrey Bogart and Lizabeth Scott and featuring Morris Carnovsky. The picture was directed by John Cromwell and written by Steve Fisher and Oliver H. P. Garrett based on a story by Gerald Drayson Sidney Biddell. Leaving a church, Father Logan, a well known ex-paratrooper padre, is approached by Captain "Rip" Murdock. Murdock needs to tell someone what has happened to him in the past few days in case his enemies get to him. A flashback follows. Just after World War II, paratroopers and close friends Captain Murdock and Sergeant Johnny Drake are mysteriously ordered to travel from Paris to Washington, D. C; when Drake learns that he is to be awarded the Medal of Honor, he disappears before newspaper photographers can take his picture. Murdock goes AWOL, follows the clues and tracks his friend to Gulf City in the southern United States, where he learns Drake is dead – his burned corpse is recovered from a car crash. Murdock finds out, he was accused of killing a rich old man named Chandler because he was in love with his beautiful young wife Coral.

Murdock goes to a nightclub to question a witness in the murder trial. Ord reveals. Murdock meets Coral and Martinelli, the club owner, there. Seeing Coral losing at roulette, Murdock not only recoups her losses at craps, he wins her $16,000. For some reason, she is uncomfortable with the situation; when they go to collect the money in Martinelli's private office, Murdock accepts a drink. When he wakes up the next morning, he finds Ord's dead body planted in his hotel room, he manages to hide the corpse before police Lieutenant Kincaid, responding to an anonymous tip, shows up to search his room. Murdock teams up with Coral. Suspecting that Martinelli had Ord killed in order to get the letter, Murdock breaks into his office, only to find the safe open. Just before he is knocked unconscious by an unseen assailant, he smells jasmine, the same aroma as Coral's perfume; when Murdock awakens, Martinelli has him roughed up by his thug, Krause, to try to find out what is in the coded letter. However, Murdock is able to escape his captors.

The flashback ends, Murdock slips away. Now suspicious of Coral, he goes to her apartment to confront her, she claims to be innocent, but admits that she shot her husband in self-defense. She went to Martinelli for advice and gave him the murder weapon to dispose of, but he has been blackmailing her since. In love with her himself, Murdock agrees to leave town with her, but insists on retrieving the incriminating weapon first, despite Coral's objections, he threatens Martinelli with a gun. The club owner reveals, he killed framed Drake so that Coral could inherit the estate. Murdock gets what he forces Martinelli to precede him out of the building; as he opens the door, Martinelli is killed. Murdock drives off with Coral; as they are speeding away, he accuses her of having just tried to kill him. When she shoots him, the car crashes, he survives. In the hospital, Murdock comforts her in her final moments. Humphrey Bogart as Capt. Warren "Rip" Murdock Lizabeth Scott as Coral "Dusty/Mike" Chandler Morris Carnovsky as Martinelli Charles Cane as Lt. Kincaid William Prince as Sgt.

Johnny Drake/John Joseph Preston Marvin Miller as Krause Wallace Ford as McGee Robert Scott as Band leader George Chandler as bartender Louis Ord The New York Times gave the film a mixed review, praising Bogart as "beyond criticism in a role such as Dead Reckoning affords him", with "some of the best all-around dialogue he has had in a long time." However, it was less kind to his co-star, Scott, "whose face is expressionless and whose movements are awkward and deliberate." Though the plot was considered to be "rambling" and the actions of Bogart's character not plausible at times, "the suspense is skillfully drawn out."Variety magazine praised Bogart and liked the film, writing, "Humphrey Bogart's tense performance raises this average whodunit quite a few notches. Film has good suspense and action, some smart direction and photography... Bogart absorbs one's interest from the start as a tough, quick-thinking ex-skyjumper. Lizabeth Scott stumbles as a nitery singer, but on the whole gives a persuasive sirenish performance."In 2004, film critic Dennis Schwartz was critical of the film.

He wrote, "This second-rate Bogart vehicle has the star depart from his usual tough-guy role, though he manages to get into plenty of the action. It plays as a bleak crime melodrama, too complexly plotted for its own good... There's some fun in watching the Bogart character romance the husky-voiced femme fatale character played by Lizabeth Scott, but not enough fun to overcome how unconvincing is the sinister plot." Dead Reckoning at the American Film Institute Catalog Dead Reckoning on IMDb Dead Reckoning at AllMovie Dead Reckoning at the TCM Movie Database Dead Reckoning at Rotten Tomatoes Dead Reckoning information site and DVD review at DVD Beaver Dead Reckoning film trailer on YouTube

Bernard Fantus

Bernard Fantus was a Hungarian Jewish-American physician. He established the first hospital blood bank in the United States in 1937 at Cook County Hospital, Chicago while he served there as director of the pharmacology and therapeutics department. Bernard Fantus was born to Ida Fantus in Budapest, Hungary; as a child, Fantus was educated at Real-Gymnasium in Austria. From a young age, his parents supported his ambition to be a physician. In 1889, at the age of fifteen, he and his parents immigrated to the United States. In Detroit, Fantus was an apprentice for Mr. Leushner at Paul Leuchner's Drug store, who began training him in pharmacy. By 1902 the family relocated to Illinois. Fantus received his Doctor of Medicine in 1899 from the College of Surgeons, he furthered his education by doing post-graduate work at the University of Strasbourg in 1906 and the University of Berlin in 1909. Fantus received a Master of Science from the University of Michigan in 1917, where he had done research in Pharmacology with Professor Cushny during the summer of 1901.

Fantus married Emily Senn, a nurse who he met at Cook County Hospital, on September 1, 1907. He had a daughter named Ruth. Daughter Ruth Fantus aka Valeri Gendron: AdoptedAfter suffering a heart attack the year prior, Fantus died on April 14, 1940 at the age of sixty-six. Fantus was buried at Forest Home Cemetery. Source: From about 1910-1915, at the Pharmacological Laboratory of the University of Illinois, Fantus conducted research in order to formulate medications that were more enjoyable to children. Knowing that medication in the form of candy would be best for children, Fantus studied candy confection and worked with candy-makers in order to determine that "sweet tablets" would be the best way to administer medicine to kids in a candy form. Fantus' goal was to create medications that were not only palatable to children, but easy and inexpensive to make, in order for them to be available and accessible to the public. Strong emphasis was put on the ability of the tablet to dissolve, to be an attractive color, to have a palatable sweet flavor not reminiscent of typical medicine.

In order to make sweet tablets, one needs a tablet machine. Fantus recommends the No. 25 Machine from the Whitall Tatum Company, which, at the time, was effective and inexpensive at only ten dollars. Fantus found that the most effect way to disguise the taste of medicine and still maintain an effective integrity that met his criteria was with sugar coating and the use of tolu; the idea was to cover the medicine with resin sugar. To saturate the granules of medical powders, Fantus used a solution consisting of tolu and alcohol. Fantus suggests the addition of saccharin to lessen any aftertaste. However, many a child has had its palate offended by liquid medicines to such a degree that it abhors spoon-medicine of any kind, will struggle against the most palatable; when one witnesses the struggling of the average child against the average medicine, one cannot but wonder whether at times the struggle does not do more harm than the medicine can do good, wish that we had other means of administering medicines to the little ones.

As all children love candy, this would seem the form most desirable for them. In 1915, Fantus published. Through his book, Fantus sought to make sweet tablets common place by giving pharmacists and physicians a guide book of sorts, it is the author's hope that this booklet may be instrumental in robbing childhood of one of its terrors, nasty medicine. Sources: Historical Introduction Tabellae Dulces The Uses of Sweet Tablets The Making of Sweet Tablets The Tablet Machine The Construction off Formulae for Sweet Tablets Choice of Flavor Subduing of Tastes Choice of Color Formulae for the Preparation of Sweet Tablets Formulae for Stock PreparationsIn the book, Fantus includes sweet tablet formulas for the following: In 1918, three years after the publication of Candy Medication, Fantus published an article in the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association entitled "Tolu and sugar coating in the disguising of medicines," in which he amended some of his formulas from the book. Source: Therapeutics involves the comprehensive care of patients and is sometimes considered the science of healing.

Preventative medicine and the proper use of drugs in treatments and administration fall under the purview of pharmacologic therapeutics. Therapies worked on: Throughout his career, Fantus became acutely aware of the importance of having access to blood for transfusions and the lack of accessibility that existed at the time. Transfusions were only done directly from donor to patient and were not used for emergency traumas. Fantus was introduced to the idea of blood being stored as the Spanish Revolution was underway and he realized the multitude of possibilities and the abundance of lives that could be saved in times of war, that storing blood for transfusion presented. From information he obtained from Russian publications, Fantus learned that storing blood was a rather simple process and that establishing some sort of laboratory for it in the United States would not be complicated. From that point on, Fantus made it his mission to establish a laboratory where blood could be stored, his daughter Ruth is credited with coming up with the term "blood bank," a phrase which Fantus accepted because everyone in society knows how a bank works, the process of storing blood was

Caladenia longicauda subsp. calcigena

Caladenia longicauda subsp. Calcigena known as the coastal white spider orchid, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, it has a single hairy leaf and up to four white flowers. It grows in coastal sand on the west coast and is distinguished from other subspecies growing in the same area, by its longer sepals and petals, narrow labellum and by the arrangement of the calli on its labellum. Caladenia longicauda subsp. Calcigena is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single hairy leaf, 80–120 mm long and 8–12 mm wide. Up to four white flowers 100–150 mm long and 30–80 mm wide are borne on a spike 250–400 mm tall; the lateral sepals and petals have long drooping tips. The dorsal sepal is erect and the labellum is white, 16–22 mm long and 7–10 mm with long, narrow teeth on its sides. There are four or more rows of pale red calli in its centre but which become crowded and irregularly arranged near the tip. Flowering occurs from September to October.

Caladenia longicauda was first formally described by John Lindley in 1840 and the description was published in A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony. In 2001 Stephen Hopper and Andrew Brown described eleven subspecies, including subspecies calcigena and the descriptions were published in Nuytsia; the subspecies name is derived from the Latin calx, calcis meaning "lime" and -genus meaning "born or produced in a certain situation", referring to the limestone soils in which this orchid grows. The coastal white spider orchid occurs in the area between Bunbury and Cliff Head near Dongara, in the Jarrah Forest and Swan Coastal Plain biogeographic regions where it grows in woodland and heath in sand over limestone. Caladenia longicauda subsp. Calcigena is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife