Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie and blues, country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as "rock music," though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music; the term "rock and roll" is defined by Encyclopædia Britannica as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music". The term is sometimes used as synonymous with "rock music" and is defined as such in some dictionaries; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy. Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience.
In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation; the migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions.
Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision". The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience. One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll.
The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creating what is recognizable as rock guitar. Country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Inspired by electric blues, Chuck Berry introduced an a
Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring known as Vigilance Telecom Monitoring, is the vigilance and monitoring wing of the Indian Department of Telecommunications. TERM is made up of 34 Cells in India's 22 telecom circles and 10 large telecom districts, each headed by a Senior Administrative Grade level officer, termed as Deputy Director General; the main functions of TERM Cells are vigilance and security of the network. Apart from this, TERM Cells operate the Central Monitoring System, a clandestine mass electronic surveillance program, carry out other functions; the TERM Cells function as the subordinate offices of the DoT in the field. These Cells represent the Licensor. Vigilance Telecom Monitoring Cells were created by the Government to control illegal/clandestine telecom operations. Three VTM Cells were set up in October 2004 at Delhi and Hyderabad, a fourth cell was created at Chennai the following month. Cells were added at Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal in August 2006, at Andaman and Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, North East-I, North East-II, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh in January 2007.
Cells were added in March 2007 for Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Kolkata and Pune, taking the total number of VTM Cells to 34. VTM Cells were renamed to Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring Cells, with effect from 5 August 2008; the Government felt that the new name reflected "the entire gamut of functions assigned to the Cells" and "distinguished their role vis-vis staff-vigilance activities". TERM Cells analyze and resolve complaints received through the Public Grievance portal or from other sources. TERM Cells were given the task of checking the compliance of EMF radiation norms, as prescribed by Government, in 2010. TERM Cells collect a fee from operators for carrying out EMF testing. Other functions of TERM Cells are checking mobile spectrum utilization and investigation of complaints regarding telecom and Internet services. Due to the growth of the business process outsourcing industry in India, the DoT decided to decentralize the registration of Other Service Providers, being done by the DoT, HQ.
The job of registering OSPs and telemarketers was given to TERM Cells. The task of registering telemarketers was given to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. OSP registrations are done using software developed with the help of the National Informatics Centre; the website for OSP registration is http://dotosp.gov.in. TERM Cells were given the task of service testing of licensed TSPs in the licensed service area and checking their roll-out obligations as per the license conditions; as per the license agreement, all the TSPs are required to roll out their services within prescribed time periods, which means they have to offer their services in the districts selected by them by a fixed date. This crosschecked for quality and other parameters by the DoT, termed as Service Testing. TERM Cells issue Service Test Result Certificates against the cases tested by them. Apart from this TERM Cells send compiled data pertaining to roll out obligation for imposing Liquidated Damage charges on the TSPs do not comply with roll-out obligation conditions.
TERM Cells collect a fee from operators for carrying out testing. The Central Monitoring System is a clandestine mass electronic surveillance program installed by the Centre for Development of Telematics, an Indian Government owned telecommunications technology development centre, operated by TERM Cells; the CMS gives India's security agencies and income tax officials centralized access to India's telecommunications network and the ability to listen in on and record mobile and satellite calls and voice over Internet Protocol, read private emails, SMS and MMS, geolocate people using Mobile phone tracking, all in real time. It can monitor posts on social media and Google searches, without any parliamentary or judicial oversight. There are 34 TERM Cells in India's 24 telecom circles and 10 large telecom districts; each cell is headed by a Senior Administrative Grade level officer, termed as Deputy Director General. National Technical Research Organisation, India's technical intelligence agency.
NETRA, a mass surveillance, internet traffic analysis system. NATGRID, the Indian national intelligence grid. Mass surveillance in India Ministry of Communications and Information Technology
Gareth Evans was a British philosopher who made substantial contributions to logic, philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. He is best known for his posthumous work The Varieties of Reference, edited by John McDowell; the book considers different kinds of reference to objects, argues for a number of conditions that must obtain for reference to occur. Gareth Evans was born in London on 12 May 1946, he was educated at Dulwich College and University College, Oxford where he read Philosophy and Economics. His philosophy tutor was one of the most eminent Oxford philosophers of the time. Evans became close friends with philosopher Derek Parfit and other prominent members of his academic field such as Christopher Peacocke and Crispin Wright, he was a senior scholar at Christ Church, Oxford and a Kennedy Scholar at Harvard University and University of California, Berkeley. He died in Oxford in 1980 of lung cancer at the age of 34, his collected papers and a book, The Varieties of Reference, edited by John McDowell, were published posthumously.
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy writes "Evans's untimely death was a great loss for British philosophy". In the acknowledgements of his Reasons and Persons, Derek Parfit writes "I owe much to the intensity of his love of truth, his extraordinary vitality." In his brief career Evans made substantial contributions to logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind. Aside from Strawson, Michael Dummett and John McDowell were important influences on his work. Evans was one of many in the UK who took up the project of developing formal semantics for natural languages, instigated by Donald Davidson in the 1960s and 1970s, he co-edited Meaning with John McDowell on this subject. He wrote a paper, "The Causal Theory of Names", which criticised certain lines of the theory of reference that derived from Saul Kripke's Naming and Necessity and work by Keith Donnellan. A one-page paper in Analysis, "Can There Be Vague Objects?", drew dozens of papers in response and is now considered a key work in metaphysics.
Evans's book The Varieties of Reference was unfinished at the time of his death. It was edited for publication, supplemented with appendices drawn from his notes, by McDowell, has subsequently been influential in both philosophy of mind and philosophy of language; the theory of reference prior to the 1970s was dominated by the view that the meaning of an ordinary name is a description of its object: so, for example, Aristotle means the author of De Caelo. This was Russell's view, was and is taken by many to be equivalent to Frege's view. Following Kripke's Naming and Necessity lectures, the view came to prevail that names had no descriptive content, or sense: that the referent of a name was not what "fit" its meaning, but whichever object had been the initial cause of the name's being used. Evans concedes that names do not in general have descriptive meanings, but argues that the proponents of the new theory had much too simplistic a view, he argues for what he calls Russell's principle: that a person cannot be thinking about an object unless he knows, in some non-trivial way, which object he is thinking about.
In particular, Evans argues. From Russell's work, Evans draws the point that some of the thoughts one has are such that if their object did not exist it would not be possible to think that thought at all; these he calls Russellian thoughts. He claims that a certain version of the new theory, which he calls the photograph model of mental representation, violates Russell's principle. According to the photograph model, "the causal antecedents of the information involved in a mental state... are claimed to be sufficient to determine which object the state concerns". Thus, on the photograph model, contrary to Russell's principle, one may have a thought about some object without discriminating knowledge of that object, just so long as the mental state is caused in the appropriate way. Evans argues that any causal theory of reference, like that of the photograph model, must be restricted in certain ways: it is necessary to consider, one by one, the various kinds of Russellian thoughts people can have about objects, to specify in each case what conditions must be met for them to meet Russell's principle—only under those conditions can one have a thought about a specific object or objects.
In particular, Evans discusses at length. Evans states it thus:...if a subject can be credited with the thought that a is F he must have the conceptual resources for entertaining the thought that a is G, for every property of being G of which he has a conception. The generality constraint, according to Evans, is intended to capture the structure that there is in thought; as Evans puts it, "The thought that John is happy has something in common with the thought that Harry is happy, the thought that John is happy has something in common with the thought that John is sad". The generality constraint requires that if one is to have a thought about an object one must be able to conc