A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, stone, brick, metal and plastic over the centuries; the symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary and governmental traditions that have developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, they are found in Persian, Hellenistic and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. Dome structures were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, there are numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern period. Advancements in mathematics and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types; the domes of the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums, a variety of functional structures. The English word "dome" derives from the Latin domus from ancient Greek δόμος, which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or "House of God", regardless of the shape of its roof; this is reflected in the uses of the Italian word duomo, the German/Icelandic/Danish word dom, the English word dome as late as 1656, when it meant a "Town-House, Guild-Hall, State-House, Meeting-House in a city." The French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault by 1660. This French definition became the standard usage of the English dome in the eighteenth century as many of the most impressive Houses of God were built with monumental domes, in response to the scientific need for more technical terms.
A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis. The terminology used has been a source of controversy, with inconsistency between scholars and within individual texts, but the term "dome" may be considered a "blanket-word to describe an hemispherical or similar spanning element." A half-dome or semi-dome is a semi-circular shape used in apses. Sometimes called "false" domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward farther than the lower one until they meet at the top. A "false" dome may refer to a wooden dome. "True" domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are in compression from the surrounding earth; the Italian use of the term finto, meaning "false", can be traced back to the 17th century in the use of vaulting made of reed mats and gypsum mortar.
As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the level. The top of a dome is the "crown"; the inner side of a dome is called the "intrados" and the outer side is called the "extrados". The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies halfway between the base and the top; the word "cupola" is another word for "dome", is used for a small dome upon a roof or turret. "Cupola" has been used to describe the inner side of a dome. Drums called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a dome's oculus. A masonry dome outward, they are thought of in terms of two kinds of forces at right angles from one another. Meridional forces are compressive only, increase towards the base, while hoop forces are in compression at the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the top. The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to the weight of its materials.
Grounded hemispherical domes generate significant horizontal thrusts at their haunches. Unlike voussoir arches, which require support for each element until the keystone is in place, domes are stable during construction as each level is made a complete and self-supporting ring; the upper portion of a masonry dome is always in compression and is supported laterally, so it does not collapse except as a whole unit and a range of deviations from the ideal in this shallow upper cap are stable. Because voussoir domes have lateral support, they can be made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a semicircular arch, a dome with the profile of an equilateral arch can be thinner still. The optimal shape for a masonry dome of equal thickness provides for perfect compression, with none of the tension or bending forces against which masonry is weak. For a particular material, the optimal dome geometry is called the funicular surface, the comparable shape in three dimensions to a catenary curve for a two-dimensional arch.
The pointed profiles of many Gothic domes more approximate this optimal shape than do hemispheres, which were favored by Roman and Byza
Rococo, less roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is a ornamental and theatrical style of decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding and pastel colors, sculpted molding, trompe l'oeil frescoes to create the illusions of surprise and drama. It first appeared in France and Italy in the 1730s and spread to Central Europe in the 1750s and 1760s, it is described as the final expression of the Baroque movement. The Rococo style began in France in the first part of the 18th century in the reign of Louis XV as a reaction against the more formal and geometric Style Louis XIV, it was known as the style rocaille style. It soon spread to other parts of Europe northern Italy, Austria, other parts of Germany, Russia, it came to influence the other arts sculpture, furniture and glassware, painting and theatre. The word rococo was first used as a humorous variation of the word rocaille. Rocaille was a method of decoration, using pebbles and cement, used to decorate grottoes and fountains since the Renaissance.
In the late 17th and early 18th century rocaille became the term for a kind of decorative motif or ornament that appeared in the late Style Louis XIV, in the form of a seashell interlaced with acanthus leaves. In 1736 the designer and jeweler Jean Mondon published the Premier Livre de forme rocquaille et cartel, a collection of designs for ornaments of furniture and interior decoration, it was the first appearance in print of the term "rocaille" to designate the style. The carved or molded seashell motif was combined with palm leaves or twisting vines to decorate doorways, wall panels and other architectural elements; the term rococo was first used in print in 1825 to describe decoration, "out of style and old-fashioned." It was used in 1828 for decoration "which belonged to the style of the 18th century, overloaded with twisting ornaments." In 1829 the author Stendhal described rococo as "the rocaille style of the 18th century."In the 19th century, the term was used to describe architecture or music, excessively ornamental.
Since the mid-19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style, Rococo is now considered as a distinct period in the development of European art. Rococo features exuberant decoration, with an abundance of curves, counter-curves and elements modeled on nature; the exteriors of Rococo buildings are simple, while the interiors are dominated by their ornament. The style was theatrical, designed to impress and awe at first sight. Floor plans of churches were complex, featuring interlocking ovals; the style integrated painting, molded stucco, wood carving, quadratura, or illusionist ceiling paintings, which were designed to give the impression that those entering the room were looking up at the sky, where cherubs and other figures were gazing down at them. Materials used painted or left white; the intent was to create an impression of surprise and wonder on first view. Rococo was influenced by chinoiserie and was sometimes in association with Chinese figures and pagodas.
The Rocaille style, or French Rococo, appeared in Paris during the reign of Louis XV, flourished between about 1723 and 1759. The style was used in salons, a new style of room designed to impress and entertain guests; the most prominent example was the salon of the Princess in Hôtel de Soubise in Paris, designed by Germain Boffrand and Charles-Joseph Natoire. The characteristics of French Rococo included exceptional artistry in the complex frames made for mirrors and paintings, which sculpted in plaster and gilded; the furniture featured sinuous curves and vegetal designs. The leading furniture designers and craftsmen in the style included Juste-Aurele Meissonier, Charles Cressent, Nicolas Pineau; the Rocaille style lasted in France until the mid-18th century, while it became more curving and vegetal, it never achieved the extravagant exuberance of the Rococo in Bavaria and Italy. The discoveries of Roman antiquities beginning in 1738 at Herculanum and at Pompeii in 1748 turned French architecture in the direction of the more symmetrical and less flamboyant neo-classicism.
Artists in Italy Venice produced an exuberant rococo style. Venetian commodes imitated the curving lines and carved ornament of the French rocaille, but with a particular Venetian variation. Notable decorative painters included Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who painted ceilings and murals of both churches and palazzos, Giovanni Battista Crosato who painted the ballroom ceiling of the Ca Rezzonico in the quadraturo manner, giving the illusion of three dimensions. Tiepelo travelled to Germany with his son during 1752–1754, decorating the ceilings of the Würzburg Residence, one of the major landmarks of the Bavarian rococo. An earlier celebrated Venetian painter was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, who painted several notable church ceilings; the Venetian Rococo featured exceptional glassware Murano glass, ofte
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion by innovation and by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony; these large ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals and churches, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.
Buildings were at first from those intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete, has had an effect upon the design of churches; the history of church architecture divides itself into periods, into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another, that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size, that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings and that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes; the simplest church building comprises a single meeting space, built of locally available material and using the same skills of construction as the local domestic buildings.
Such churches are rectangular, but in African countries where circular dwellings are the norm, vernacular churches may be circular as well. A simple church may be built of mud brick and daub, split logs or rubble, it may be roofed with thatch, corrugated iron or banana leaves. However, church congregations, from the 4th century onwards, have sought to construct church buildings that were both permanent and aesthetically pleasing; this had led to a tradition in which congregations and local leaders have invested time and personal prestige into the building and decoration of churches. Within any parish, the local church is the oldest building and is larger than any pre-19th-century structure except a barn; the church is built of the most durable material available dressed stone or brick. The requirements of liturgy have demanded that the church should extend beyond a single meeting room to two main spaces, one for the congregation and one in which the priest performs the rituals of the Mass. To the two-room structure is added aisles, a tower and vestries and sometimes transepts and mortuary chapels.
The additional chambers may be part of the original plan, but in the case of a great many old churches, the building has been extended piecemeal, its various parts testifying to its long architectural history. In the first three centuries of the Early Livia Christian Church, the practice of Christianity was illegal and few churches were constructed. In the beginning, Christians worshipped along with Jews in private houses. After the separation of Jews and Christians, the latter continued to worship in people's houses, known as house churches; these were the homes of the wealthier members of the faith. Saint Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians writes: "The churches of Asia send greetings. Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, greet you warmly in the Lord."Some domestic buildings were adapted to function as churches. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europos church, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, a dais was set up.
To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry. Some church buildings were built as church assemblies, such as that opposite the emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia, its destruction was recorded thus: When that day dawned, in the eighth consulship of Diocletian and seventh of Maximian while it was yet hardly light, the perfect, together with chief commanders and officers of the treasury, came to the church in Nicomedia, the gates having been forced open, they searched everywhere for an idol of the Divinity. The books of the Holy Scriptures were found, they were committed to the flames; that church, situated on rising ground, was within view of the palace. The sentiment of Diocletian prevailed, who dreaded lest, so great a fire being once kindled, some part of the city might he burnt; the Pretorian Guards came in battle array, with axes and other iron instruments, having been let loose everywhere, they in a few hours leveled that lofty edifice with the ground. From the first to the early fourth centuries most Christian communities worshipped in private homes secretly.
Some Roman churches, such as the Basilica of San Clemente in Rome, are built directly over the houses where early Christians worshipped. Other early Roman churches are b
The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde. It is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government; the Palace was built beginning in 1722 by Louise Françoise de Bourbon, the duchesse de Bourbon, the legitimized daughter of Louis XIV, as a country house, surrounded by gardens. It was nationalized during the French Revolution, from 1795 to 1799, during the Directory, it was the meeting place of the Council of Five Hundred, which chose the government leaders. Beginning in 1806, Napoleon Bonaparte added the classical colonnade, to mirror that of Church of the Madeleine, facing it across the Seine and the Place de la Concorde; the Palace complex today includes the Hôtel de Lassay, on the west side of the Palais Bourbon. The palace was built for Louise Françoise de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon, the Duchess of Bourbon, the legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan.
Begun in 1722 and finished in 1726, it was located in what was a rural quarter at the edge of Paris, about to become a fashionable residential neighborhood, the Faubourg Saint-Germain. Until that time, the area, called the Pré-au-Clercs, a wooded area popular for fighting duels. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, following the example of the Regent, the aristocracy began to move their residences from Versailles back to Paris. Building space land was scarce in the traditional residential area of the nobility, the densely-populated Marais, so the aristocracy of the Regency looked for land with space for gardens at the edges of the city, either near the Champs-Élysées on the right bank or on the left bank; the Duchess of Bourbon had been known for frivolity at the Court in Versailles, but by the 1720s she had had seven children and was widowed. The reputed lover of the Duchess, Armand de Madaillan de Lesparre, the Count of Lassy proposed the site of the palace to her; the parcel of land for the new palace was large, extending from the Seine to the rue de l'Université.
The original plan called for a country residence surrounded by gardens, modeled after the Grand Trianon Palace at Versailles, designed by Jules Hardouin Mansart, the chief architect of Louis XIV. The Italian architect Lorenzo Giardini made the first plan, but he died in 1722, having made little but the first sketches; the project was taken over by Pierre Cailleteau known as Lassurance, an assistant to Hardouin-Mansart. Cailleteau had worked on the palace of Versailles and Les Invalides, knew the royal style well, but he died in 1724, he was replaced by Jean Aubert a former assistant of Hardouin-Mansart. Aubert had built one of the grandest projects of the time. In the meanwhile, the construction of the neighbouring Hôtel de Lassay had begun, following a plan by another noted architect, Jacques Gabriel, the designer of the buildings around the Place de la Concorde. Both buildings were finished in 1728. Both the Palais Bourbon and the Hôtel de Lassay were in the Italian style, with roofs hidden by balustrades and invisible from street level.
The Palais Bourbon was in a U-shape. The main building was parallel with two wings enclosing a courtyard; the entrance to the courtyard and building was on the Rue de la Université. The entrance to the courtyard had an ornate archway, flanked by two pavilions; the Hôtel de Lassay was rectangular, more modest in size. The two buildings had identical facades facing the Seine; the facades featured alternating columns and windows, decoration on the themes of the seasons, the elements, fitting for the daughter of the Sun King, about Apollo. The space between the buildings, between the buildings and the Seine, was filled with gardens. In addition to the large reception rooms, the interior of the house had many small salons which could be arranged for a variety of purposes, it had a novelty for buildings of the period. None of the original apartments of the Duchess survive; the Duchesse de Bourbon died in 1743, De Lassay died in 1750. The Palace was purchased by Louis XV, who seems to have wished to include it in the plan of the new place Royale which he was building on the other side of the river.
But in 1756 he sold it to grandson of the Duchess, Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé, a military hero in the just-concluded Seven Years' War. The Prince decided to rebuild it, turning it from a country house into a monumental palace, in the new classical revival style. With this end in mind, in 1768 he purchased the neighboring Hôtel de Lassay, planned to make the two buildings into one. A new plan was drawn by Marie-Joseph Peyre, whose style was based on archeological studies of ancient Rome and Greece. Peyre's other neoclassical works included the Odéon Theater. Several different architects were engaged in the project, including for Jacques-Germain Soufflot and Charpentier. For the neoclassical palace of the Prince, the entrance on rue Université was replaced by a larger and more impressive gate, framed by a gallery of columns; the two wings of the building were extended, a pavilion was created with apartments for one of his sons. An abundance of military decoration, including stucco sculptures of shields and weapons, was added to the vestibule, are still v
Jacob given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant, he is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives and Rachel, by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Levi, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin, his only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel"; as a result of a severe drought in Canaan and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob died, the length of Jacob's life was 147 years. Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Isaac and Jacob's first wife, Leah. Jacob is mentioned in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Quran and the Book of Mormon.
According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Yaʿaqob יעקב is derived from aqeb עָקֵב "heel". The historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaʿqob-'el is notably recorded as a placename in a list by Thutmose III; the same name is recorded earlier still, in cuneiform inscriptions. The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright; the Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob. The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel is etymologized as composition of אֵל el "god" and the root שָׂרָה śarah "to rule, have power, prevail over": שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים; the biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob and his twin brother, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering.
She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives after they became two separate nations. The prophecy said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: Esau; the second son they named יעקב, Jacob. The boys displayed different natures as they matured. ... and Esau was a man of the field. Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them differed: "And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob." Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright; as Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested. Isaac requested that Esau make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau.
Rebecca overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger. Rebecca blessed Jacob and she ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned, he feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself insisted that Jacob obey her. Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebekah made the savory meat that Isaac loved. Before she sent Jacob to his father, she dressed him in Esau's garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin. Disguised as Esau, Jacob entered Isaac's room. Surprised that Esau was back so soon, Isaac asked. Jacob responded, "Because the LORD your God brought it to me."
Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac's suspicions were aroused more, because Esau never used the personal name of God. Isaac demanded that Jacob come close so he could feel him, but the
Classical architecture denotes architecture, more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes more from the works of Vitruvius. Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Although classical styles of architecture can vary they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day; the term "classical architecture" applies to any mode of architecture that has evolved to a refined state, such as classical Chinese architecture, or classical Mayan architecture. It can refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy; the term might be used differently from "traditional" or "vernacular architecture", although it can share underlying axioms with it.
For contemporary buildings following authentic classical principles, the term New Classical Architecture may be used. Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient ancient Rome. With a collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, the architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe. In the Byzantine Empire, the ancient ways of building lived on but soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style; the first conscious efforts to bring back the disused language of form of classical antiquity into Western architecture can be traced to the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey, in present-day Germany thus displays a system of alternating attached columns and arches which could be an direct paraphrase of e.g. that of the Colosseum in Rome. Byzantine architecture, just as Romanesque and to some extent Gothic architecture, can incorporate classical elements and details but do not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity.
In general, they are not considered classical archerchitectural styles in a strict sense. During the Italian renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome; this was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruvius, to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy. Nonetheless, the classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a specific interpretation of the classical ideas. In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, one of the earliest Renaissance buildings, the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture. During this time period, the study of ancient architecture developed into the architectural theory of classical architecture.
Most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture; the elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language much in their own right. During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance; as a reaction to late baroque and rococo forms, architectural theorists from circa 1750 through what became known as Neoclassicism again consciously and earnestly attempted to emulate antiquity, supported by recent developments in Classical archaeology and a desire for an architecture based on clear rules and rationality. Claude Perrault, Marc-Antoine Laugier and Carlo Lodoli were among the first theorists of neoclassicism, while Étienne-Louis Boullée, Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Friedrich Gilly and John Soane were among the more radical and influential.
Neoclassical architecture held a strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early 1800s, the part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only or not at all related to classicism, eclecticism. Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the "Nordic Classicism" during the 1920s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance. With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably completely ceased to be practised; as noted above, classical styles of architecture dominated Western architecture for a long time from the Renaissance until the advent of Modernism. That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime s