Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car's first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
Donald Byrne was one of the strongest American chess players during the 1950s and 1960s. He was an International Master, his main career was as a university professor. Byrne won the U. S. Open Chess Championship in 1953 in Milwaukee and around that time he achieved the second-highest rating in the U. S. behind Samuel Reshevsky, against whom Byrne had a winning record. He was awarded the International Master title by FIDE in 1962, played for or captained five U. S. Chess Olympiad teams between 1962 and 1972. In 1972, he led a team representing Pennsylvania State University to the US Amateur Team Championship in Philadelphia; the winning Penn State team consisted of Byrne, Dan Heisman, Steve Wexler, Bill Bickham, Jim Joachim. Byrne's elder brother, Grandmaster Robert Byrne, was a leading player of that time. Byrne was a great ambassador for American chess on good terms with players from both sides of the Iron Curtain. At the 1966 Chess Olympiad in Havana, Fischer, a member of the Worldwide Church of God, would not compete on Saturdays, the tournament officials knew this, yet they scheduled his first game against a Soviet player on Saturday, leading to accusations and hot tempers by the U.
S. and Soviet teams and the tournament officials. Byrne's diplomacy and communication skills and the respect that all the players had for his integrity were enough to get the game rescheduled with everyone saving face; the tournament proceeded without further incident. Host Fidel Castro gave Byrne a beautifully hand-carved chess set to thank him. Byrne was asked by his teammates to be team captain, because of his interpersonal acumen and his generous, helpful nature, he helped all the players analyze their games during adjournments, he succeeded in getting the temperamental Bobby Fischer to "relax and play the game", as he would tell Fischer when stress threatened his continued participation in tournaments. In the late 1950s Byrne contracted lupus, an auto-immune disease that led to the demise of his kidneys and made him allergic to the sun, he was known around campus for his wide-brimmed brown Stetson hat. He would tell stories about his chess exploits turning red from laughter. One story occurred in the 1956 Rosenwald tournament during the Game of the Century between Byrne and Bobby Fischer.
Fischer was winning the game decisively, Byrne asked some of the other players if it would be a good "tip of the hat" to Fischer's superb play to let young Fischer play the game to a checkmate instead of Byrne resigning, which would happen between masters. When the other players agreed, Byrne played the game out. Byrne added "You have to remember, Bobby wasn't yet Bobby Fischer at that time", meaning that the 13-year-old Fischer was "only" a master, not yet the 14-year-old wunderkind and top U. S. player. Two other Byrne stories posted online: Fischer and the Border Patrol and The Hustler Gets Byrned; as a player Byrne popularized the...a5 line in the Yugoslav Attack in the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defence. Against 1. D4 he preferred to play the Gruenfeld Defense; as White he preferred using the English Opening. Born in New York City, Byrne was a professor of English, he taught at Pennsylvania State University from 1961 until his death, having been invited there to teach and to coach the varsity chess team.
Before his time at Penn State, he was a professor at Valparaiso University in Indiana. He was a competitor in the chess club run by master John W. Collins. Collins wrote about his students in the book My Seven Chess Prodigies, which features both Byrne brothers and Robert, the young Bobby Fischer. Byrne died in Philadelphia of complications arising from lupus, he was inducted into the U. S. Chess Hall of Fame in 2003. In the following game, Byrne wins against perennial World Championship contender Efim Geller: Geller–D. Byrne, Moscow 1955 1.e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 g6 6. Be3 Bg7 7.f3 Nc6 8. Qd2 0-0 9.0-0-0 Be6 10. Kb1 Rc8 11.g4 Qa5 12. Nxe6 fxe6 13. Bc4 Nd8 14. Be2 Nd7 15. Bd4 Ne5 16.f4 Ndc6 17. Bxe5 dxe5 18.f5 Nd4 19.fxg6 hxg6 20. Rhf1 Rf4 21.g5 b5 22. Bd3 Rcf8 23. Qg2 b4 24. Ne2 Qc5 25. Qh3 Rf3 26. Rxf3 Rxf3 27. Qg4 Rxd3 28. Rc1 Rd1 29.c3 Rxc1+ 30. Kxc1 Nxe2+ 31. Qxe2 bxc3 32. Qg2 cxb2+ 33. Kxb2 Qb4+ 34. Kc2 a5 35. Qg4 Qc5+ 36. Kb3 Qb6+ 37. Kc3 a4 38.h4 Qd4+ 39. Kc2 Qf2+ 40. Kd3 Qxa2 41.h5 Qb3+ 42. Kd2 gxh5 0–1 In this game Byrne gives Samuel Reshevsky, who had clinched the tournament win the round before, his only defeat in a tournament best known for Bobby Fischer's "Game of the Century" win over Byrne: D. Byrne-Reshevsky, Third Rosenwald Trophy 1956 1.
D4 Nf6 2. C4 c5 3. D5 e6 4. Nc3 ed5 5. Cd5 d6 6. E4 a6 7. A4 g6 8. Nf3 Bg4 9. Be2 Bf3 10. Bf3 Nbd7 11. O-O Bg7 12. Bf4 Qc7 13. Rc1 O-O 14. B4 Rfe8 15. A5 Qb8 16. Bc5 Nc5 17. Na4 Na4 18. Qa4 Qd8 19. Qb4 Bf8 20. H3 Rb8 21. Rfe1 b6 22. Ab6 Qb6 23. Qb6 Rb6 24. E5 de5 25. Be5 Ba3 26. Rcd1 Bb2 27. Bc7 Re1 28. Re1 Rb4 29. Rb1 Bc3 30. Rb4 Bb4 31. D6 Bc3 32. Bc6 Be5 33. G3 g5 34. Bd8 Kg7 35. D7 h5 36. Ba5 Nd7 37. Bd7 Kg6 38. Kg2 f5 39. Bc8 g4 40. H4 f4 1-0 Hooper, David; the Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. P. 53. ISBN 0-19-281986-0. "Former chess coach named to Hall of Fame" remembrance in a Penn State publication Inductee Biography at the Chess Hall of Fame Donald Byrne player profile and games at Chessgames.com
A courtier is a person, in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage. The earliest historical examples of courtiers were part of the retinues of rulers; the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, the social and political life were completely mixed together. Monarchs often expected the more important nobles to spend much of the year in attendance on them at court. Not all courtiers were noble, as they included clergy, clerks, secretaries and middlemen with business at court. All those who held a court appointment could be called courtiers but not all courtiers held positions at court; those personal favourites without business around the monarch, sometimes called the camarilla, were considered courtiers. As social divisions became more rigid, a divide present in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, opened between menial servants and other classes at court, although Alexandre Bontemps, the head valet de chambre of Louis XIV, was a late example of a "menial" who managed to establish his family in the nobility.
The key commodities for a courtier were access and information, a large court operated at many levels: many successful careers at court involved no direct contact with the monarch. The largest and most famous European court was that of the Palace of Versailles at its peak, although the Forbidden City of Beijing was larger and more isolated from national life. Similar features marked the courts of all large monarchies, including in India, Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Ancient Rome, Byzantium or the Caliphs of Baghdad or Cairo. Early medieval European courts travelled from place to place following the monarch as he travelled; this was the case in the early French court. But, the European nobility had independent power and was less controlled by the monarch until around the 18th century, which gave European court life greater complexity; the earliest courtiers coincide with the development of definable courts beyond the rudimentary entourages or retinues of rulers. There were courtiers in the courts of the Akkadian Empire where there is evidence of court appointments such as that of cup-bearer, one of the earliest court appointments and remained a position at courts for thousands of years.
Two of the earliest titles referring to the general concept of a courtier were the ša rēsi and mazzāz pāni of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. In Ancient Egypt we find a title translated as high great overseer of the house; the courts influenced by the court of the Neo-Assyrian Empire such as those of the Median Empire and the Achaemenid Empire had numerous courtiers After invading the Achaemenid Empire Alexander the Great returned with the concept of the complex court featuring a variety of courtiers to the Kingdom of Macedonia and Hellenistic Greece. The imperial court of the Byzantine Empire at Constantinople would contain at least a thousand courtiers; the court's systems became prevalent in other courts such as those in the Balkan states, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Byzantinism is a term, coined for this spread of the Byzantine system in the 19th century. In modern English, the term is used metaphorically for contemporary political favourites or hangers-on. In modern literature, courtiers are depicted as insincere, skilled at flattery and intrigue and lacking regard for the national interest.
More positive representations include the role played by members of the court in the development of politeness and the arts. Examples of courtiers in fiction: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from William Shakespeare's Hamlet. Sir Lancelot from Arthurian legend, Gríma Wormtongue from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Count Hasimir Fenring and Gaius Helen Mohiam from Frank Herbert's Dune. Petyr Baelish and Varys from George R. R. Martin's A Song of Fire. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington from J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter books; the Book of the Courtier, by Baldassare Castiglione Camarilla Courtesan Éminence grise Royal mistress Sycophant Courtly love Brokerage at the Court of Louis XIV, by Sharon Kettering. 1, pp. 69-87.