A U-bolt is a bolt in the shape of the letter U with screw threads on both ends. U-bolts have been used to support pipework, pipes through which fluids and gasses pass; as such, U-bolts were measured using pipe-work engineering speak. A U-bolt would be described by the size of pipe it was supporting. U-bolts are used to hold ropes together. For example, a 40 Nominal Bore U-bolt would be asked for by pipe work engineers, only they would know what that meant. In reality, the 40 nominal bore part bears little resemblance to the size and dimensions of the U-bolt; the nominal bore of a pipe is a measurement of the inside diameter of the pipe. Engineers are interested in this because they design a pipe by the amount of fluid / gas it can transport; as U-bolts are now being used by a much wider audience to clamp any kind of tubing / round bar a more convenient measurement system needs to be used. Four elements uniquely define any U-bolt: Material type Thread dimensions Inside diameter Inside height U-Bolts britishbolts.co.uk U-bolts lowes.com U-BOLTS-R-US u-bolts-r-us.co.uk
Italian Grand Prix
The Italian Grand Prix is one of the longest running events on the Formula One calendar. The Italian and British Grands Prix are the only Formula One World Championship Grands Prix staged continuously since the championship was introduced in 1950, as the Monaco and Belgian Grands Prix have missed a few seasons since hosting races in the 1950 inaugural season; every Formula One Italian Grand Prix in the World Championship era has been held at Monza except in 1980, when it was held at Imola. The Italian Grand Prix counted toward the European Championship from 1935 to 1938, it was designated the European Grand Prix seven times between 1923 and 1967, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. Motor racing has always been popular in Italy, the first Italian Grand Prix motor racing championship took place on 4 September 1921 at a 10.7-mile circuit near Brescia, the site of the Gordon Bennett races in the early 1900s. However, the race is more associated with the course at Monza, a racing facility just outside the northern city of Milan, built in 1922 in time for that year's race, has been the location for most of the races over the years.
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza was completed in 1922 and was just the third permanent autodrome in the world at that time. European motor racing pioneers Vincenzo Lancia and Felice Nazzaro laid the last two bricks at Monza; the circuit was 10 km long, with a road circuit combined into one. It was fast, always provided excitement; the 1923 race included one of Harry A. Miller's rare European appearances with his single seat "American Miller 122" driven by Count Louis Zborowski of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang fame; the 1928 race was the first of many tragedies. Italians Emilio Materassi in a Talbot and Giulio Foresti in a Bugatti were battling around the fast circuit; as they came off the banking onto the left side of the pit straight, one of the front wheels of Materassi's overtaking Talbot touched one of the rear wheels of the Bugatti. Materassi lost control of the car, swerved left, cleared a 10-foot wide ditch and ploughed into the unprotected grandstand opposite the pits, killing himself and 27 spectators, injuring another 26.
It was the worst accident in motor racing history and remained so until the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Italian Grand Prix went on a three-year hiatus until the 1931 race, held in late May instead of the traditional early September, was won by Giuseppe Campari and Tazio Nuvolari, sharing an Alfa Romeo; the race was something of an endurance race in those days. The great Nuvolari won again in this time held in early June. In 1933, with the race being held this time at the traditional timeframe of early September, disaster struck again. Three top drivers were killed during three heat races. There was a reported patch of oil on the south banking that had come from a Duesenberg, driven by Count Carlo Felice Trossi, Giuseppe Campari in a Ferrari-entered Alfa Romeo and his protege Baconin Borzacchini in a Maserati were battling ferociously. Borzacchini went through the oily patch, lost control, spun wildly and the Maserati overturned and violently flipped multiple times, by the time the wrecked car came to a stop, Borzacchini was pinned underneath his car, not having been thrown out.
While Borzacchini's Maserati was crashing all over the track, Campari swerved to avoid him, by doing this, his car went up and flew off the banking and crashed into trees situated right next to the track. Campari broke his neck and was killed and Borzacchini died that day in a Monza hospital. Prior to the third heat, there was a drivers meeting to discuss the oil patch and it was cleaned up. On the eighth lap, Polish aristocrat Count Stanislas Czaykowski was on the south banking when his Bugatti's engine blew up, a fuel line broke, the fuel caught fire after touching the hot front section of the Bugatti where the engine and gearbox were and the burning fuel sprayed onto Czaykowski. Blinded by the smoke and flames on him, he went up and flew off the banking- at the same spot where Campari and Borzacchini had crashed; the Polish driver, unable to put out the flames on his body, fuelled by the fuel from his wrecked Bugatti burned to death. Italian Luigi Fagioli was declared the winner of the event.
Enzo Ferrari, close to Campari and Borzacchini. Today, racing historians conclude that the events of this race marked a watershed, notably for Enzo Ferrari, it was the end to the beginning of a harsher new age. Safety in those days was non-existent; the circuit's condition was identical of that to an ordinary town and country road, except instead of the surface being made of dirt and/or tarmac, it was made of tarmac, concrete and/or bricks. Spectators stood close to or next to the track and they had no protection of any kind other than common sense. What was tragic about Campari's death was that he had announced his retirement at the French Grand Prix two months earlier, to focus on his opera singing exploits. After the disastrous 1933 race, something had to be done to Monza. There were chicanes added at certain points on the circuit and only most of the road circuit and part of the high speed oval was used
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and may be able to operate at higher revolutions per minute than a two-valve engine, delivering more power. A multi-valve engine design has three, four, or five valves per cylinder to achieve improved performance. Any four-stroke internal combustion engine needs at least two valves per cylinder: one for intake of air and fuel, another for exhaust of combustion gases. Adding more valves increases valve area and improves the flow of intake and exhaust gases, thereby enhancing combustion, volumetric efficiency, power output. Multi-valve geometry allows the spark plug to be ideally located within the combustion chamber for optimal flame propagation. Multi-valve engines tend to have smaller valves that have lower reciprocating mass, which can reduce wear on each cam lobe, allow more power from higher RPM without the danger of valve bounce; some engines are designed to open each intake valve at a different time, which increases turbulence, improving the mixing of air and fuel at low engine speeds.
More valves provide additional cooling to the cylinder head. The disadvantages of multi-valve engines are an increase in manufacturing cost and a potential increase in oil consumption due to the greater number of valve stem seals; some SOHC multi-valve engines use a single fork-shaped rocker arm to drive two valves so that fewer cam lobes will be needed in order to reduce manufacturing costs. Three-valve cylinder headThis has two smaller intake valves. A three-valve layout allows better breathing than a two-valve head, but the large exhaust valve results in an RPM limit no higher than a two-valve head; the manufacturing cost for this design can be lower than for a four-valve design. The three-valve design was common in early 1990s; the Ducati ST3 V-twin had 3-valve heads. Four-valve cylinder headThis is the most common type of multi-valve head, with two exhaust valves and two similar inlet valves; this design allows similar breathing as compared to a three-valve head, as the small exhaust valves allow high RPM, this design is suitable for high power outputs.
Five-valve cylinder headLess common is the five-valve head, with two exhaust valves and three inlet valves. All five valves are similar in size; this design allows excellent breathing, and, as every valve is small, high RPM and high power outputs are theoretically available. Although, compared to a four-valve engine, a five-valve design should have a higher maximum RPM, the three inlet ports should give efficient cylinder-filling and high gas turbulence, it has been questioned whether a five-valve configuration gives a cost-effective benefit over four-valve designs. After making five-valve Genesis engines for several years, Yamaha has reverted to the cheaper four-valve design, examples of the five-valve engines is the various 1.8l 20vT engines manufactured by AUDI AG and the rare 1.6l 4A-GE engine of Toyota. Beyond five valvesFor a cylindrical bore and equal-area sized valves, increasing the number of valves beyond five decreases the total valve area; the following table shows the effective areas of differing valve quantities as proportion of cylinder bore.
These percentages are based on simple geometry and do not take into account orifices for spark plugs or injectors, but these voids will be sited in the "dead space" unavailable for valves. In practice, intake valves are larger than exhaust valves in heads with an number of valves-per-cylinder. 2 = 50% 3 = 64% 4 = 68% 5 = 68% 6 = 66% 7 = 64% 8 = 61% Turbocharging and supercharging are technologies that improve engine breathing, can be used instead of, or in conjunction with, multi-valve engines. The same applies to variable valve timing and variable intake manifolds. Rotary valves offer improved engine breathing and high rev performance but these were never successful. Cylinder head porting, as part of engine tuning, is used to improve engine performance; the first motorcar in the world to have an engine with two overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder was the 1912 Peugeot L76 Grand Prix race car designed by Ernest Henry. Its 7.6-litre monobloc straight-4 with modern hemispherical combustion chambers produced 148 bhp.
In April 1913, on the Brooklands racetrack in England, a specially built L76 called "la Torpille" beat the world speed record of 170 km/h. Robert Peugeot commissioned the young Ettore Bugatti to develop a GP racing car for the 1912 Grand Prix; this chain-driven Bugatti Type 18 had three valves per cylinder. It produced appr. 100 bhp at 2800 could reach 99 mph. The three-valve head would be used for some of Bugatti's most famous cars, including the 1922 Type 29 Grand Prix racer and the legendary Type 35 of 1924. Both Type 29 and Type 35 had a 100 bhp 2-liter SOHC 24-valve NA straight-8 that produced 0.82 bhp per cubic inch. A. L. F. A. 40/60 GP was a working early racing car prototype made by the company now called Alfa Romeo. Only one example was built in 1914, modified in 1921; this design of Giuseppe Merosi was the first Alfa Romeo DOHC engine. It had four valves per 90-degree valve angle and twin-spark ignition; the GP engine had a displacement of 4.5-liter and produced 88 bhp at 2950 rpm, after modifi
Saint-Gaudens is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Saint-Gaudens lies at an altitude of 405 m on a ledge overlooking the valley of the Garonne, it faces the Pyrenees and is a natural crossroads for routes between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Toulouse and the Val d'Aran in Catalonia. It has been inhabited since ancient times and was called Mas-Saint-Pierre, before taking the name of the young shepherd, martyred by the Visigoths at the end of the 5th century for refusing to renounce his faith; the town developed around the 11th century Romanesque church. It was granted its city charter in 1202 and became the capital of the Nébouzan area, protected by solid ramparts; as an important regional marketplace, Saint-Gaudens became the economic capital of the Comminges. The town was damaged by Protestant forces under Montgomery in 1569, became the seat of the Nébouzan Assembly after coming under the control of the French crown in 1607.
The name was changed to "Mont-Unité" during the Revolution and the area became part of the Haute-Garonne départment. The Collegiate Church of St. Peter and St. Gaudens, with its cloister and chapter house, this was one of the most important religious buildings in the Comminges, it was home to a college of canons ordinary, a community founded by Bishop Bertrand. The 11th century romanesque church, built on the typical Pyrenean plan as a basilica with a nave and two aisles, stands on the site of an earlier construction, it was extended in the 12th and 13th centuries with the construction of the cloister and chapter house. The lateral north door was added in the 16th century. Several tall buildings are reminders of the city's mediaeval period, with plain façades to which balconies were added at the end of the 19th century. Other buildings, including some town houses, date back to the 18th century, are decorated with stone carvings; some buildings have façades with pediments and cornices, mouldings and gabled dormer windows.
On Boulevard Bepmale, the façades that face the Sun, with a view of the Pyrenees, have balconies and galleries up to their top floors. St Gaudens has a Rugby League team playing in the Saint-Gaudens Bears. St Gaudens hosts a popular rugby union team SSGL; the Open International Féminin Midi-Pyrénées Saint-Gaudens Comminges, an ITF Women's Circuit tennis tournament, is held in Saint-Gaudens. The 2014 Tour de France cycle race began stage 17 in Saint Gaudens, with a 124.5 kilometres route to Saint-Lary. Saint-Gaudens is twinned with: Avranches, France Barbastro, Spain Vielha e Mijaran, Spain Yves Giraud-Cabantous, racing driver Grand Prix du Comminges Sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE Official website Saint-Gaudens Tourist Office website
Grand Prix motor racing
Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour, but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators. Grand Prix motor racing evolved into formula racing, one can regard Formula One as its direct descendant; each event of the Formula One World Championships is still called a Grand Prix. Motor racing was started in France, as a direct result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a shop window for their cars; the first motoring contest took place on July 22, 1894 and was organised by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal. The Paris–Rouen rally was 126 km, from Porte Maillot in Paris, through the Bois de Boulogne, to Rouen.
Count Jules-Albert de Dion was first into Rouen after 6 hours 48 minutes at an average speed of 19 km/h. He finished 3 minutes 30 seconds ahead of Albert Lemaître, followed by Auguste Doriot, René Panhard, Émile Levassor; the official winners were Peugeot and Panhard as cars were judged on their speed and safety characteristics, De Dion's steam car needed a stoker which the judges deemed to be outside of their objectives. In 1900, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. the owner of the New York Herald and the International Herald Tribune, established the Gordon Bennett Cup. He hoped the creation of an international event would drive automobile manufacturers to improve their cars; each country was allowed to enter up to three cars, which had to be built in the country that they represented and entered by that country's automotive governing body. International racing colours were established in this event; the 1903 event occurred in the aftermath of the fatalities at the Paris-Madrid road race, so the race, at Athy in Ireland, though on public roads, was run over a closed circuit: the first closed-circuit motor race.
In the United States, William Kissam Vanderbilt II launched the Vanderbilt Cup at Long Island, New York in 1904. Some anglophone sources wrongly list a race called the Pau Grand Prix in 1901; this may stem from a mistranslation of the contemporary French sources such as the magazine La France Auto of March 1901. The name of the 1901 event was the Circuit du Sud-Ouest and it was run in three classes around the streets of Pau; the Grand Prix du Palais d'Hiver was the name of the prizes awarded for the lesser classes. The Grand Prix de Pau was the name of the prize awarded for the'Heavy' class, thus Maurice Farman was awarded the'Grand Prix de Pau' for his overall victory in the Circuit du Sud-Ouest driving a Panhard 24 hp. In L'Histoire de l'Automobile/Paris 1907 Pierre Souvestre described the 1901 event as: "... dans le Circuit du Sud-Ouest, à l'occasion du meeting de Pau... " The only race at the time to carry the name Grand Prix was organised by the Automobile Club de France, of which the first took place in 1906.
The circuit used, based in Le Mans, was triangular in shape, each lap covering 105 kilometres. Six laps were to run each day, each lap took an hour using the primitive cars of the day; the driving force behind the decision to race on a circuit - as opposed to racing on ordinary roads from town to town - was the Paris to Madrid road race of 1903. During this race a number of people, both drivers and pedestrians - including Marcel Renault - were killed and the race was stopped by the French authorities at Bordeaux. Further road based events were banned. From the 32 entries representing 12 different automobile manufacturers, at the 1906 event, the Hungarian-born Ferenc Szisz won the 1,260 km race in a Renault; this race was regarded as the first Grande Épreuve, which meant "great trial" and the term was used from on to denote up to the eight most important events of the year. Races in this period were nationalistic affairs, with a few countries setting up races of their own, but no formal championship tying them together.
The rules varied from country to country and race to race, centered on maximum weights in an effort to limit power by limiting engine size indirectly. The cars all had mechanics on board as well as the driver, no one was allowed to work on the cars during the race except for these two. A key factor to Renault winning this first Grand Prix was held to be the detachable wheel rims, which allowed tire changes to occur without having to lever the tire and tube off and back on the rim. Given the state of the roads, such repairs were frequent. A further historic confusion arose in the early 1920s when the Automobile Club de France attempted to pull off a retrospective political trick by numbering and renaming the major races held in France before the 1906 French Grand Prix as being Grands Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, despite their running pre-dating the formation of the Club. Hence, the 1895 Paris–Bordeaux–Paris Trail was renamed I Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France.