Buick is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors. Named for automotive pioneer David Buick, it was among the first American marques of automobiles, was the company that established General Motors in 1908. Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant had served as Buick's general manager and major investor. Buick was the first production automobile maker in the world to equip its cars with overhead valve engines, which it did in the year 1904. For much of its existence in the North American market, Buick has been marketed as a premium automobile brand, selling luxury vehicles positioned above GM's mainstream brands, while below the flagship luxury Cadillac division. In addition to wealthier buyers, Buick has had a reputation of appealing to older buyers. In 2017, Buick sold more than 1.4 million vehicles worldwide, a record for the brand. The main market is China. Buicks are sold in the United States and Mexico. Buick is one of the oldest automobile brands in the world and the oldest in the United States..
The first two Buick automobiles were made in 1899 and 1900 at the "Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company" by chief-engineer Walter Marr, but company owner David Dunbar Buick was reluctant to begin making automobiles, being satisfied with stationary and marine engine production, so Marr left Buick in 1901 to found his own automobile company under his own name. His replacement was Eugene Richard, who applied for a patent in 1902 for Marr's valve-in-head engine, which patent, number 771,095, was awarded to Richard in the name of Buick in 1904. In 1903, the third Buick automobile was made, this time by Richard, but in 1904 Buick, whose company was now called "Buick Motor Company", moved from Detroit to Flint and Richard stayed behind. Marr was rehired in Flint as chief engineer; that year, 37 Buick automobiles were made, production increasing to 750 in 1905, 1,400 in 1906, 4,641 in 1907, 8,800 in 1908, taking the number one spot away from close competitors Oldsmobile and Maxwell. David Buick incorporated his company as the Buick Motor Company on May 19, 1903, in Detroit, Michigan.
Buick had been financed by friend and fellow automobile enthusiast, Benjamin Briscoe, who in September, 1903 sold control of the business to James H. Whiting, of Flint Wagon Works, in Flint, Michigan. Whiting moved Buick to Flint, to a location across the street from his factory, with the idea of adding Buick's engines to his wagons. David Buick stayed on as a manager, re-hired Walter Marr as chief engineer; the engine Buick and Marr developed for this automobile was a two-cylinder valve-in-head engine of 159 cubic inches, with each cylinder horizontal and opposed to the other by 180 degrees. Whiting built only a few automobiles in 1904, the model B, before running out of capital, causing him to bring in William C. Durant that year as controlling investor. Durant built a few more model B's in 1904, stepped up production for the model C in 1905, spent the next four years turning Buick into the biggest-selling automobile brand in the US. During the 19th century, Durant had made his fortune as co-owner in Flint, with Josiah Dallas Dort, of the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, which by 1904 was the largest carriage-making company in the country and one of the largest in the world.
Durant moved most Buick production to the former Durant-Dort Imperial Wheel plant in Jackson, Michigan in 1905. Buick continued car production in Jackson through 1907; the Jackson plant continued production with Buick trucks through 1912. David Buick sold his stock upon departure in 1906, making him a wealthy man, but he died in modest circumstances 25 years later. In 1907, Durant agreed to supply motors to R. S. McLaughlin in Canada, an auto maker, in 1908 he founded General Motors. Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built in Detroit, Michigan by Walter Lorenzo Marr; some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller steering similar to the Oldsmobile Curved Dash. In mid-1904, another prototype was constructed for an endurance run, which convinced Whiting to authorize production of the first models offered to the public; the architecture of this prototype was the basis for the Model B. The first Buick made for sale, the 1904 Model B, was built in Flint, Michigan at a re-purposed factory, known as the Flint Wagon Works.
There were 37 Buicks made that none of which survive. There are, two replicas in existence: the 1904 endurance car, at the Buick Gallery & Research Center in Flint, a Model B assembled by an enthusiast in California for the division's 100th anniversary. Both of these vehicles use various parts from Buicks of that early era, as well as fabricated parts; these vehicles were each constructed with the two known surviving 1904 engines. The early success of Buick is attributed to what it called the valve-in-head engine, now known as the overhead valve, engine patented by Eugene Richard and developed by Richard and Marr; the Model F weighed 1,800 lbs. The creation of General Motors is attributed in part to
Ko Sichang is a district of Chonburi Province, Thailand. It consists of the island of its adjoining islands. Ko Sichang is in the Gulf of Thailand, 12 km off the shore of Si Racha District. Three kings of the Chakri Dynasty, King Rama IV, Rama V, Rama VI visited the island for rest. King Rama V built a summer palace, Phra Chuthathut Palace, named after his son, born on this island, Prince Chuthathut; the royal residence was abandoned in 1893 after the French occupied the island during a conflict with Thailand over control of neighboring Laos. In 1900, parts of the palace was reassembled as part of Vimanmek Mansion in Bangkok; the British diplomat John Crawfurd, visiting the islands in 1822 during his mission, described the island in his book Journal of an embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms. He reported that Francis Buchanan-Hamilton called the islands of Ko Sichang District the "Dutch Islands", Ko Sichang itself "Amsterdam", due to frequent visits by ships of the Dutch East India Company during the 17th century.
American diplomat Edmund Roberts visited the island in the 1830s, describing the area as being occupied by "a few fisherman" who grew yams, capsicums and cucumbers. The island was a minor district under the Mueang Samut Prakan District of Samut Prakan Province. On 1 January 1943, it was reassigned to the Si Racha District of Chonburi Province. On 4 July 1994 the minor district was upgraded to a full district. Ko Sichang has a tropical savanna climate. Maximum temperatures remain hot throughout the year, ranging from 29.6 °C in December to 32.9 °C in April. The monsoon season runs from May with heavy rainfall; the district consists of a single sub-district Tha Thewawong, further subdivided into seven villages. The district is covered by the township Ko Sichang. Ko Sampan Yue Ko Kham Noi Ko Kham Yai Ko Prong Ko Ran Dok Mai Ko Yai Thao Ko Khangkhao Ko Thai Ta Muen List of islands of Thailand Ko Sichang travel guide from Wikivoyage Website of the district Amphoe Ko Sichang from amphoe.com
The Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art is a multimedia contemporary art gallery in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. SECCA has no permanent collection but offers exhibitions of works by artists with regional and international recognition. Although founded as a private institution, it became an operating entity of the North Carolina Museum of Art under the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources in 2007. Admission is free. SECCA has been accredited by the American Alliance of Museums since 1979, one of only 300 museums in the United States to earn this distinction. SECCA was founded in 1956 as The Winston-Salem Gallery of Fine Arts in Old Salem. James Gordon Hanes of the locally prominent Hanes family, who died in 1972, bequeathed his 1929 Norman Revival home and grounds to the gallery; the home was augmented with purpose-built exhibition space, SECCA moved to the new location in 1977 under its current name. In 1990 the facility expanded again. SECCA was the subject of national political and media notoriety in 1989 when 23 U.
S. Senators signed a letter challenging its involvement, along with the National Endowment for the Arts, with a $15,000 arts prize awarded to controversial photographer Andres Serrano. Former U. S. Senators Jesse Helms and Alfonse D'Amato denounced SECCA in speeches on the floor of the Senate, taking particular issue with what has become Serrano's most famous work, "Piss Christ," a photograph of a crucifix submerged in the artists's urine. Financial difficulties that began in 2003 forced SECCA to convey its property and operations to the state. Exhibitions since 2010 include works by Tomory Dodge, Jennifer West, Stanislav Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová, Alison Elizabeth Taylor, Clark Whittington, Mark Jenkins, Lee Walton. SECCA has three exhibition rooms with 9,000 square feet of a 300-seat auditorium. In addition, portions of the Hanes house and grounds are available for viewing and functions; the complex reopened in 2010 after an extensive renovation. Official site
Saltillo Soccer Fútbol Club is a football club that plays in the Tercera División de México. It is based in Coahuila; the club was founded in 1994 when Monterrey bought the promoted Halcones de Aguascalientes who moved the club to Saltillo, Coahuila. The club's first tournament was played in 1994–1995 in the Primera A. Saltillo always finished in the middle of the standings and whenever they did have a good club the players were promoted to the first team Monterrey; the club was never able to play in the Primera División de México. In 2001 the clubs Monterrey and Tigres decided to trade affiliated clubs and so Club Saltillo Soccer became Tigrillos U. A. N. L. Saltillo' and so the club ceased to exist. Tigrillos was defunct in 2003. Tercera División de México: 1994–1995 Football in Mexico Real Saltillo Soccer Forum Real Saltillo
The term kill chain was used as a military concept related to the structure of an attack. Conversely, the idea of "breaking" an opponent's kill chain is a method of defense or preemptive action. More Lockheed Martin adapted this concept to information security, using it as a method for modeling intrusions on a computer network; the cyber kill. However, acceptance is not universal, with critics pointing to what they believe are fundamental flaws in the model. One military kill chain model is the "F2T2EA", which includes the following phases: Find: Identify a target. Find a target within surveillance or reconnaissance data or via intelligence means. Fix: Fix the target's location. Obtain specific coordinates for the target either from existing data or by collecting additional data. Track: Monitor the target's movement. Keep track of the target until either a decision is made not to engage the target or the target is engaged. Target: Select an appropriate weapon or asset to use on the target to create desired effects.
Apply command and control capabilities to assess the value of the target and the availability of appropriate weapons to engage it. Engage: Apply the weapon to the target. Assess: Evaluate effects of the attack, including any intelligence gathered at the location; this is an integrated, end-to-end process described as a "chain" because an interruption at any stage can interrupt the entire process. The "Four Fs" is a military term used in the United States military during World War II. Designed to be easy to remember, the "Four Fs" are as follows: Find the enemy – Locate the enemy Fix the enemy – Pin them down with suppressing fire Fight the enemy – Engage the enemy in combat or flank the enemy – Send soldiers to the enemy's sides or rear Finish the enemy – Eliminate all enemy combatants A new American military contingency plan called "Kill Chain" is the first step in a new strategy to use satellite imagery to identify North Korean launch sites, nuclear facilities and manufacturing capability and destroy them pre-emptively if a conflict seems imminent.
The plan was mentioned in a joint statement by the United States and South Korea. Computer scientists at Lockheed-Martin corporation described a new "intrusion kill chain" framework or model to defend computer networks in 2011, they wrote that attacks may occur in phases and can be disrupted through controls established at each phase. Since the "cyber kill chain™" has been adopted by data security organizations to define phases of cyber-attacks. A cyber kill chain reveals the phases of a cyber attack: from early reconnaissance to the goal of data exfiltration; the kill chain can be used as a management tool to help continuously improve network defense. According to Lockheed Martin, threats must progress through several phases in the model, including: Reconnaissance: Intruder selects target, researches it, attempts to identify vulnerabilities in the target network. Weaponization: Intruder creates remote access malware weapon, such as a virus or worm, tailored to one or more vulnerabilities. Delivery: Intruder transmits weapon to target Exploitation: Malware weapon's program code triggers, which takes action on target network to exploit vulnerability.
Installation: Malware weapon installs access point usable by intruder. Command and Control: Malware enables intruder to have "hands on the keyboard" persistent access to target network. Actions on Objective: Intruder takes action to achieve their goals, such as data exfiltration, data destruction, or encryption for ransom. Defensive courses of action can be taken against these phases: Detect: determine whether an attacker is poking around Deny: prevent information disclosure and unauthorized access Disrupt: stop or change outbound traffic Degrade: counter-attack command and control Deceive: interfere with command and control Contain: network segmentation changesA U. S. Senate investigation of the 2013 Target Corporation data breach included analysis based on the Lockheed-Martin kill chain framework, it identified several stages where controls did not detect progression of the attack. Different organizations have constructed their own kill chains to try to model different cyber threats. FireEye proposes a linear model similar to Lockheed-Martin's.
In FireEye's kill chain the persistence of threats is emphasized. This model stresses that a threat does not end after one cycle Reconnaissance Initial Intrusion into the Network Establish a Backdoor into the Network Obtain User Credentials Install Various Utilities Privilege Escalation/ Lateral Movement/ Data Exfiltration Maintain Persistence Among the critiques of Lockheed Martin's cyber kill chain model as threat assessment and prevention tool is that the first phases happen outside the defended network, making it difficult to identify or defend against actions in these phases; this methodology is said to reinforce traditional perimeter-based and malware-prevention based defensive strategies. Others have noted; this is troublesome given the likelihood of successful attacks that breach the internal network perimeter, why organizations "need to develop a strategy for dealing with attackers inside the firewall. They need to think of every attacker as potential insider”. A unified version of the kill chain was developed to overcome common critiques against the traditional cyber kill chain, by uniting and extending Lockheed Martin's Kill Ch
That's My Bush! is an American sitcom that aired on Comedy Central from April 4 to May 23, 2001. The show was created by best known for creating South Park. Despite the political overtones, the show itself was a broad lampoon of American sitcoms, including lame jokes, a laugh track, stock characters such as klutzy bimbo secretary Princess, know-it-all maid Maggie, helpful "wacky" next door neighbor Larry; the series was conceived in the wake between Bush and Al Gore. Parker and Stone were sure that Gore would win the election, tentatively titled the show Everybody Loves Al. However, due to the controversy regarding the election's outcome, the series was pushed back. Instead, the show was plotted around Bush at the workplace; the show received positive reviews, with The New York Times commenting, "That's My Bush! is a satire of hero worship itself. This politically astute criticism is embedded in so much hysterical humor that the series never seems weighty." The series centers on the fictitious personal life of President George W. Bush, played by Timothy Bottoms.
Carrie Quinn Dolin played Laura Bush, Kurt Fuller played Karl Rove. Episodes dealt with the topics of abortion, gun control, the war on drugs, drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the death penalty; every episode ended with George saying "One of these days, Laura, I'm gonna punch you in the face!", a parody of Jackie Gleason's line from The Honeymooners, "One of these days, Alice... Bang, zoom! Right to the moon!" The show was more of a spoof of the banality of television sitcoms in general, rather than a cutting political satire. As The A. V. Club put it: Bush!'s irresistibly gimmicky premise—a workplace sitcom centering on Bush and his wife Laura—represents a perverse act of extended misdirection. While audiences waited for Parker and Stone to tear into the Bush administration, they instead attacked the hoary conventions of 1970s and 1980s sitcoms, which proved a apt target for satire and pop-culture riffing. Timothy Bottoms as President George W. Bush Carrie Quinn Dolin as First Lady Laura Bush Kurt Fuller as Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove Marcia Wallace as Maggie Hawley Kristen Miller as Princess Stevenson John D'Aquino as Larry O'Shea Parker and Stone stated before the 2000 presidential election that they would create a satire about whoever won.
According to their DVD commentary, they were "95% certain that Gore would win" and started developing the series under the title Everybody Loves Al. When the final election results were in limbo, production was delayed until the winner was determined. With Bush's election, the title became the entendre rich That's My Bush! The final episode involved Dick Cheney forcing Bush to step down, featured an alternate title music called That's My Dick! which in the episode, changed to What A Dick! The entire idea behind the series was to parody sitcoms; the premise developed into one of the U. S. President in office. Parker recalled; the duo were "95 percent sure" that Democratic candidate Al Gore would win, tentatively titled the show Everybody Loves Al. It was the same show: a lovable main character, the sassy maid, the wacky neighbor. Parker said; the duo watched a lot of Fawlty Towers in preparation. The duo signed a deal with Comedy Central to produce a live action sitcom, titled Family First, scheduled to debut on February 28, 2001.
They threw a party the night of the election with the writers, with intentions to begin writing the following Monday and shooting the show in January 2001 with the inauguration. With the confusion of who the President would be, the show's production was pushed back; the duo wanted to write a "family sitcom", with the Bush family. Comedy Central, prohibited Parker and Stone from including the Bush twins; the writers turned the Bush twins character into Princess. "An Aborted Dinner Date" was the show's pilot episode. The episode features Felix the Fetus, made and operated by the Chiodo Brothers, who worked with Parker and Stone on Team America: World Police, they created the cat Punk'kin in "The First Lady's Persqueeter". The show's producers consider the second episode aired, "A Poorly Executed Plan", the true first episode; this was Parker and Stone's first live action production to be a part of the Writers Guild of America, West. The show's writers got a big dry-erase board and on one side, they would write down political ideas and on the other side would be typical sitcom stories.
They would combine the two ideas, in what Stone described as "a Three's Company mix-up kind of thing." That's My Bush! was filmed at Sony Pictures Studios, was the first time Parker and Stone shot a show on a production lot. The show was not shot in front of a live audience, so as to keep control over the show and by necessity, thanks to various shots they would be unable to do in a normal show, they had built several rooms from the White House in their studio and were allowed "one new, rotating set" per week. Parker described the sets as "amazing," and they were in fact packaged up after the show's run and sent to other White House-related productions; the show's producers gained inspiration by going on a private tour of the White House thanks to Anne Garefino, executive producer, who once worked at the White House for PBS. A White H