Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
The Oldsmobile Bravada is a front-engine, five-door mid-size SUV manufactured and marketed by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors — across three generations and as a rebadged variant of the Chevrolet Blazer and GMC Jimmy. It was the only SUV marketed by Oldsmobile; the first generation and second-generation used the GMT330 platform, the third generation used the GMT360 platform. The third generation was the only version offered in Canada; the 1991 Bravada was an upscale version of the then-new 4-door S-Blazer/Jimmy. It was the first truck-based vehicle offered by Oldsmobile since the 1920s, at that time was a United States-only vehicle. Unlike its siblings, the Bravada was only offered with "Smart Trak" all-wheel drive, power equipment, body-colored bumpers and exterior trim, the 4.3 L W-code engine. At the heart of Smart Trak system was the Borg Warner 4472 transfer case, offering 65% rear and 35% front torque with more to the front when it slips. Anti-lock brakes and remote keyless entry were standard.
The 4.3 L V6 engine got a horsepower boost to 200 for 1992. For'92, the Bravada's instrument panel was modified to differ from its siblings. 1993 saw the addition of an overhead console with compass and reading lights. An optional Gold package with gold exterior badging and special gold aluminum wheels was new for'93; this version was produced through 1994. 1991 - 4.3 L LB4 V6, TBI, 160 hp /230 lb·ft 1992–1994 - 4.3 L L35 Vortec 4300 V6, CPFI, 200 hp The first generation Bravada with the 160 hp engine averaged United States Environmental Protection Agency city/highway 17 miles per US gallon /22 miles per US gallon. The second generation with the 200 hp engine averaged 16 miles per US gallon /21 miles per US gallon; the Bravada was refreshed than its platform mates, with no 1995 models produced. The 1996 and 1997 models' body featured more rounded lines than their predecessor; this generation Bravada could be distinguished from the Chevrolet Blazer and GMC Jimmy by its Oldsmobile-styled body-colored split grille, premium alloy wheels, lower bodyside cladding.
Standard fare including daytime running lamps. The interior styling was more appealing to the eye with less ridges and squares, much like the exterior. In keeping with its premium image, the Bravada's interior was modified and upgraded, to differ from its Chevrolet/GMC siblings; the front bucket seats were similar to those found on the Aurora. Other interior features included standard leather seating, woodgrain trim, its unique center console with a leather-wrapped console shifter. In 1997, 4-wheel anti-lock disc brakes became the rear spoiler was deleted; as with the previous generation, the Oldsmobile Bravada was available only in 4-door, 5-passenger configuration. Another refreshening occurred in 1998; the "Smart Trak" system now featured the computer controlled NP-136 transfer case, which works more like a traction control. The Bravada was now run RWD in normal operations and only when wheel slip is detected does the "Smart Trak" kick into AWD. A revised interior including dual airbags, heated seats, a new front fascia which included the new Aurora inspired Oldsmobile logo.
OnStar was available in 1999 as a cell phone unit becoming integrated into the rearview mirror in 2001 with available features like hands-free calling and virtual advisor. A Bose sound system was added for 1999 and the fuel injection was updated in 2000, though output remained the same. A new two-tone exterior dubbed the Platinum Edition was made available in 2000; this generation was phased out in 2001 to make way for the new GMT360 Bravada. 1996–2001 - 4.3 L L35 Vortec 4300 V6, SCPI, 191 hp with single exhaust The second generation Bravada EPA city/highway averaged 16 miles per US gallon /21 miles per US gallon. The new 2002 Bravada hit showrooms in February 2001; the third generation Bravada holds the distinction of being both the first GMT360 truck introduced, as well as the last new Oldsmobile model. Like the Chevrolet TrailBlazer and GMC Envoy, it used the new 270 hp Atlas I6 engine. Rear-wheel drive was available for the first time as well, making this the first rear wheel drive Oldsmobile since the 1992 Custom Cruiser.
The Bravada entered Canada at this time. This was the first Oldsmobile with a straight-6 engine since the Omega of 1976, the only GMT360 not to offer a V8 engine option. Production of the Bravada ended with the demise of the Oldsmobile marque in 2004; the last 500 Bravadas were produced as "Final 500" special editions, each featuring custom seat embroidering and exterior badging inspired by vintage Oldsmobile logos, dark cherry metallic paint, unique chrome alloy wheels, a medallion featuring that particular Bravada's production number, ranging from 1 to 500. The last Bravada, the number 500, rolled off the assembly line on January 12, 2004; the closing of the last factory that manufactured the trucks was the subject of an emotional 2009 HBO documentary - “The Last Truck: Closing of a G. M. Plant”; the Bravada bodyshell was continued by its joint replacements, the 2004-2007 Buick Rainier and the 2005-2009 Saab 9-7X - the latter of which remained in production until December 2008. 2002–2004 LL8 4.2 L I6, 270 hp The third generation Bravada EPA city/highway averaged 15 miles per US
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a U. S. nonprofit organization funded by auto insurance companies, established in 1959 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. It works to reduce the number of motor vehicle traffic collisions, the rate of injuries and amount of property damage in the crashes that still occur, it carries out research and produces ratings for popular passenger vehicles as well as for certain consumer products such as child car booster seats. It conducts research on road design and traffic regulations, has been involved in promoting policy decisions; the Institute's front crash test differs from that of the U. S. government's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration New Car Assessment Program in that its tests are offset. This test exposes 40% of the front of the vehicle to an impact with a deformable barrier at 40 mph; the IIHS began this crash test in January 1995. The IIHS evaluates six individual categories, assigning each a "Good", "Acceptable", "Marginal", or "Poor" rating before determining the vehicle's overall frontal impact rating.
As with the NHTSA's frontal impact test, vehicles across different weight categories may not be directly compared. This is because the heavier vehicle is considered to have an advantage if it encounters a lighter vehicle or is involved in a single-vehicle crash; the IIHS demonstrated this by crashing three midsize sedans with three smaller "Good" rated minicars. For example, three minicars were rated "Poor" in these special offset head-on car-to-car tests in 2009, while the midsize cars rated "Good" or "Acceptable". On August 14, 2012, IIHS released the first results for a second, more demanding frontal offset test; the new test, used in addition to the 40% offset test introduced in 1995, subjects only 25% of the front end of the vehicle to a 40 mph impact. The new test is far more demanding on the vehicle structure than the 40% offset test. In the first round of test, composed of 11 midsized luxury and near-luxury vehicles, most vehicles did poorly; the rating system is similar to the 40% offset, but has some key differences: hip/thigh and lower leg/foot ratings replace individual ratings for each leg and foot, full score cannot be attained without deployment of front and side curtain airbags.
A Medical College of Wisconsin study found small-overlap collisions result in increased head, spine and pelvis injuries. This sort of collision is common on two-lane roads with two-way traffic where a center median is absent. Single vehicle crashes account for 40 percent of small-overlap crashes. According to the IIHS, 25% of frontal crash deaths are due to small overlap crashes, with the outer front wheel first to receive the impact forces rather than the more central crash absorbing structure; the IIHS has since tested family cars, compact cars, minicars and midsized SUVs, muscle cars and large pickup trucks through the small-overlap test. In 2009, the IIHS celebrated its 50th anniversary. To illustrate how much automotive safety has progressed in five decades, IIHS tested a 1959 Chevrolet Bel Air crashing head-on, 40% offset with a 2009 Chevrolet Malibu at 40 mph, it put the video of the crash on the Internet and "the results were no surprise to anyone with a passing familiarity with cars."
The Bel Air's occupant compartment was extensively damaged by the crash. Coupled with the car's lack of modern safety features such as airbags and seat belts, this resulted in the crash test dummy in the Bel Air recording forces that would have caused fatal injuries to a real driver, they "would not only hit the inside of the car and experience a large but the car would smash you on the inside." Sophisticated engineering and high-strength steel give modern vehicles a huge advantage. This tests the vehicle's driver seat to determine effectiveness of the head restraints; the driver's seat is placed on a sled to mimic rear-end collisions at 20 mph. Rear-end collisions at low to moderate speeds do not result in serious injuries but they are common. In 2005 the IIHS estimated. In the United States rollovers accounted for nearly 25% of passenger vehicle fatalities. Features such as electronic stability control are proven to reduce rollovers and lane departure warning systems may help. Rollover sensing side curtain airbags help to minimize injuries in the event of a rollover.
A maximum of 6 points are awarded. The points are awarded if the front crash prevention system meets government criteria, whether it can reduce the speed or avoid the crash at both 12 and 25 mph. Vehicles that earn one point qualifies as a "basic" rating, while 2 to 4 points means the vehicle earns an "advanced" rating. A "superior" rating is given. In March 2016, the IIHS released ratings for headlight performance, their first test involved family cars, most earned marginal or poor ratings. Only one vehicle, the Toyota Prius V, earned a good rating; the Institute evaluated headlights for small SUVs 4 months and none of the vehicles tested earn a good rating. On October 2016, they released ratings for pickup trucks, the Honda Ridgeline was the only pickup to earn a good rating on the headlights test; the Top Safety Pick is an annual award to the best-performing cars of the year. To receive a Top Safety Pick, the vehicle must receive "Good" overall marks in the moderate overlap front, driver-side small overlap front, roof strength and seat head restraint tests, rega
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. This designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufacturers of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle; this layout is the most traditional form, remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a great deal of space is packaged in a location passengers and luggage would not use; the main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle. Car handling is not ideal, but predictable. In contrast with the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the FWD layout eliminates the need for a central tunnel or a higher chassis clearance to accommodate a driveshaft providing power to the rear wheels.
Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the driven wheels, FWD cars are considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, gravel or wet tarmac; when hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout due to the shift of weight to the rear wheels when climbing. The cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the driven wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates less grip is available for cornering, which can result in understeer. High-performance vehicles use the FWD layout because weight is transferred to the rear wheels under acceleration, while unloading the front wheels and reducing their grip putting a cap on the amount of power which could realistically be utilized.
Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but negates the benefit of extra power. This was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29, 1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV, 1949 Saab 92 and the 1959 Mini. In the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, General Motors. Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focused on luxury vehicles, however retained the rear-wheel-drive layout in their smaller cars, though their MINI marque are FWD. There are four different arrangements for this basic layout, depending on the location of the engine, the heaviest component of the drivetrain.
The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. The engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the front of the car. With the engine so far back, the weight distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal; the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight distribution issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the car's low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling, remarkable for the era. Renault is the most recent user of this format - having used it on the Renault 4, the first generation Renault 5, but it has since fallen out of favor since it encroaches into the interior space; the 1946 Panhard Dyna X, designed by Jean-Albert Grégoire, had the engine longitudinally in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the engine and the differential at the rear of the assembly.
This arrangement, used by Panhard until 1967 had a weight distribution problem analogous to that of the Cord L29 mentioned above. However, the Panhard's air-cooled flat twin engine was light, mounted low down with a low centre of gravity reducing the effect; the air-cooled flat twin engine of the Citroën 2CV was mounted low, in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the axle line and the differential between the two. This became quite popular; this is the standard configuration of Subaru front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 1979, Toyota introduced and launched their first front-wheel-drive car, the Tercel, it had its engine longitudinally mounted, unlike most other front-wheel-drive cars on the market at that time; this arrangement continued on the second-generation Tercel, until 1987, the third generation received a new, transversely mounted engine. Other front-wheel-drive Toyota models, such as Camry, Corolla, had transversely mounted engines from the beginning on; the 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado used a novel arrangement which had the engine and transmission in a'side-by-side' arrangem
A mid-size car— known as intermediate— is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars that are larger than compact cars, but smaller than full-size cars. The equivalent European category is D-segment, called "large family car". Mid-size cars are manufactured in a variety of body styles, including sedans, station wagons and convertibles; the automobile that defined this size in the United States was the Rambler Six, introduced in 1956, although it was called a "compact" car at that time. Much smaller than any standard contemporary full-size cars, it was called a compact to distinguish it from the small imported cars that were being introduced into the marketplace. By the 1960s, the car was renamed the Rambler Classic and while it retained its basic dimensions, it was now competing with an array of new "intermediate" models from General Motors and Chrysler. During the 1970s, the intermediate class in the U. S. was defined as vehicles with wheelbases between 112 inches and 118 inches.
The domestic manufacturers began changing the definition of "medium" as they developed new models for an evolving market place. A turning point occurred in the late 1970s, when rising fuel costs and government fuel economy regulations caused all car classes to shrink, in many cases to blur. Automakers moved "full-size" nameplates to smaller platforms such as the Ford LTD II and the Plymouth Fury. A comparison test by Popular Science of four intermediate sedans predicted that these will be the "big cars of the future." By 1978, General Motors made its intermediate models smaller. New "official" size designations in the U. S. were introduced by the EPA, which defined market segments by cargo space. Mid-sized cars that were built on the same platform, like the AMC Matador sedan, had a combined passenger and cargo volume of 130 cubic feet, were now considered "full-size" automobiles. Cars that defined the mid-size market in the 1980s and 1990s included the Chrysler K-Cars, the Ford Taurus, the Toyota Camry, upsized into the midsize class in 1991.
The Taurus and Camry came to define the mid-size market for decades. Mid-size cars were the most popular category of cars sold in the United States, with 27.4 percent during the first half of 2012, ahead of crossovers at 19 percent. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, mid-size cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 110–119 cu ft. Car classification Vehicle size class Vehicles listed by EPA class
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he