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Bulgaria

Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.

After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million resides in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces. The population has declined since the late 1980s. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe.

Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Bulgaria is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index, the lowest development rank in the EU alongside Romania. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and is difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", so, in the derivative, the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.

The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.

It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, w

Middletown and New Jersey Railroad

The Middletown and New Jersey Railroad is one of two railroads in the city of Middletown, New York. The MNJ consists of 43 miles of track in southeastern New York serving Orange County and the Hudson Valley; the railroad operates and has trackage rights on three additional branch lines totalling 40 miles leased from Norfolk Southern in Orange County. It was known as the Middletown and New Jersey Railway until 2009, when East Penn Railroad parent Regional Rail, LLC bought the line through a new subsidiary. In 2015, Regional Rail was in turn acquired by Levine Leichtman Capital Partners. In 2012, The Middletown and New Jersey Railroad, LLC received a $1.6 million New York State Department of Transportation grant to perform rail upgrades on the four lines it operates in Orange County. The railroad rehabilitated the line between Campbell Hall and Warwick and portions of the track in Middletown and between Walden and Montgomery; the first railroad to reach Middletown was the New York and Erie Railroad, a predecessor of the Erie Railroad, which reached the hamlet on June 1, 1843 and remained the only railroad in the immediate region for over two decades.

In the early 1840s, the NY&E fostered the growth of the Orange County dairy industry by developing the capacity to ship fluid milk to New York City without spoilage. This development provided the area's dairy farmers, who had hitherto been limited to the shipment of butter, with a far more profitable business opportunity. Furthermore, by accelerating the expansion of Orange County's dairy industry, this development helped foster the creation of a number of small railroads in southeast New York State including the predecessor of the Middletown and New Jersey, the Middletown and Water Gap Railroad; the NY&E was reorganized as the Erie Railroad on April 30, 1861. In 1866, public meetings were held in Middletown and Unionville, New York to discuss the viability of a railroad via these hamlets to Deckertown, Sussex County, New Jersey. A route was surveyed from there to Middletown, but, as built, the Middletown and Water Gap Railroad only extended from a connection with the NY&E in Middletown to Unionville, reached on December 6, 1867, after fourteen months of construction.

Freight cars received from the Erie made the 14-mile trip to Unionville starting January 13, 1868. The MU&WG was built to the 6-foot broad gauge of the Erie; the road was leased to the Erie and commenced regular operations as the Erie's "Unionville Branch" on May 15, 1868. On January 11, 1866, the New York and Oswego Midland Railroad was incorporated with the goal of linking Oswego, New York, on Lake Ontario, with the Hudson River at a point across from New York City; the NY&OM reached Middletown in 1871 and hoped to connect with three New Jersey companies to form a through route to New York Harbor. The three New Jersey roads merged in 1870 to form the New Jersey Midland Railroad, which built west in 1871 from Two Bridges to the New Jersey/New York state line at Hanford, just south of Unionville; the link between the NY&OM and the NJM would be the MU&WG, leased by the NY&OM effective April 1, 1872. The MU&WG was standard-gauged, the NY&OM built just over 1 mile of track to bridge the MU&WG over the Erie and connect it to the NY&OM at East Main Street, Middletown.

The NY&OM soon entered bankruptcy and dropped the lease on the MU&WG, leased by the NJM in 1873. The NJM reorganized into the Midland Railroad of New Jersey in 1880 and in 1881 merged with several other roads to form the New York and Western Railroad. Meanwhile, the NY&OM reorganized as the New York and Western in 1879, the Erie reorganized as the New York, Lake Erie & Western in 1878; the MU&WG wound up in a favorable situation with connections to three major carriers, the NYLE&W and O&W in Middletown and the NYS&W at Hanford. This offered the MU&WG's shippers the choice of multiple freight routings and enabled the shortline to gain better freight rates and a bigger share of the revenue by having the big carriers compete for its traffic; this advantage continued for decades and was enjoyed by its successors, the M&U and the M&NJ, until the late 1950s. The MU&WG was the west end of the NYS&W until the NYS&W built west in 1882 from Two Bridges to Gravel Place, near Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, to gain a link to the anthracite fields via a connection with the Delaware and Western.

The MU&WG functioned as the NYS&W's Middletown Branch. In 1898, the Erie Railroad, successor to the NYLE&W in 1895, gained control of the NYS&W and thus gained control of the MU&WG for the second time; the MU&WG was a desirable property because of the tremendous milk traffic it originated the greatest in the United States at that time on a mile for mile basis. Milk was shipped to the New York metropolitan region via all three of the MU&WG's connections. Creameries and condenseries were built along the route at Pounds Station, Slate Hill, Johnson and Unionville; the MU&WG was taken over by the bondholders of its two mortgages on September 8, 1913 because the Erie failed to pay the interest on the bonds. The bondholders organized an independent shortline, the Middletown and Unionville Railroad, which began operations on December 1, 1913 under Vice President and General Manager J. A. Smith; the road enjoyed the revenues from its heavy milk traffic and condensed, as well as related commodities such as livestock, feed and coal for the powerhouses.

The M&U was sold at a foreclosure sale on January 15

Last Rebellion

Last Rebellion is a role-playing video game video game developed by Nippon Ichi Software and Hit Maker and published by Nippon Ichi Software in Japan as well as in North America and Tecmo Koei in Europe for the PlayStation 3. The game was released on January 28, 2010 in Japan, in North America on February 23, 2010, in Europe on March 26, 2010; the game takes place in the world of Junovald, governed by the will of two gods: Meitilia and Formival. Meitilia is the god of death, presiding over the destruction of life while Formival is the god of life, presiding over the birth of all life and the creation of everything. Meitilia is said to have blessed two types of people - Sealers - with special powers. Blades have the unparalleled power to destroy things physically while Sealers have the magical power to destroy souls. Formival's power on the other hand grants him the ability to revive any dead object. Creatures in the face of death allow their souls to escape from their body; the souls of the creatures would manifest into monsters which are more powerful and stronger than before.

These creatures are known as the Belzeds, which cannot be killed by normal means - instead requiring the skills of both a Blade and a Sealer to destroy both its body and soul. The game follows the main protagonist, Nine Asfel, whose homeland was ravaged by civil war nine years ago, leading to the land becoming a nesting ground for the Belzeds. A group of Sorcerers and Wizards had created a barrier surrounding the kingdom to prevent a massacre by the Belzeds. In order to solve the problem of the Belzeds, King Arzelide summoned Nine whose skills are recognized as the best of the blades and Aisha, whose Sealer powers have isolated her from the rest of kingdom, to eliminate the Belzeds. Exploration is free-roaming; the battle system will allow the player to target specific body parts of an enemy, the reaction will be realistic. By strategically striking key areas of the body, players can strip the enemy of their ability to fight. Players can switch forth between the two characters during battle. Since Nine and Aisha share a single turn, the player must strategically choose which character will execute their attacks first.

Nine AsfelHe is a powerful Blade. He remains calm despite the attention he receives for being a Blade, he dislikes being bound to a single place or a set of rules and speaks sarcastically and without regard for the feelings of the people around him. Aisha RomandineShe is a Sealer gifted - and cursed - with exceptional potential, her extraordinary powers have led to her sometimes being unable to properly control them, leading to the loss of many innocent lives. The people had her locked away from the rest of the world for fear of such accidents, leading her to be protected and cared for by the Imperial authorities, she is proud and stands up for what she thinks is right. Alfred FormilloHe is the younger brother of Nine, he was adopted and raised by the king at a young age leading to his persona being a complete opposite of Nine, he is a Blade possessing formidable powers as a necromancer focusing on the task at hand and possesses a strong sense of duty. Like Nine however he is honest and blunt. Azelride LorvinHe is the king of the country and is a sorcerer who possesses unprecedented skill, giving him the title of the Keeper of Lorvin.

He had used his power to form a great barrier around his kingdom to protect it during the Great War. MeiktilliaShe is praised as being the god of the opposite of Formival, she is known as the one who absorbs all of life. Her power is what provides Aisha with their abilities as a Blade and Sealer, she grows interested in them and grants them more power than before. The game was first announced on May 2009 by Nippon Ichi Software for an October 2009 release; however it was announced on November 2, 2009 that the game would be delayed to an early 2010 release. On November 4, 2009 Nippon Ichi Software announced that the game would be released in Japan on January 28, 2010. On December 22, 2009 it was revealed that the game would be released in North America in February 2010. On January 16, 2010 it was announced that the game would be released in Europe on March 12, 2010 and would be published by Tecmo Koei. Opening theme"Ever Last" Artist: Hironobu KageyamaEnding theme"Saigo no Michishirube" Artist: Haruka Shimotsuki The game has received unfavorable reviews, with a Metacritic score of 44% based on 30 reviews.

NIS America's president, Haru Akenaga, stated that the game was "not the kind of title we should release in the United States because of its quality", that he felt "really sorry for our customers because we released that title". Official Japanese Site Official North American Site