|Republic of Bulgaria|
Република България (Bulgarian)
Мила Родино (Bulgarian)
Mila Rodino (transliteration)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2011)||Bulgarians (84.8%), Turks (8.8%), Romani (4.9%), others and undefined (1.5%)|
|Religion||Bulgarian Orthodox Church|
|3 March 1878[note 1]|
• Declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire
|5 October 1908[note 2]|
|110,993.6 km2 (42,854.9 sq mi) (103rd)|
• Water (%)
• 31 December 2016 estimate
|64.9/km2 (168.1/sq mi) (95th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$152.374 billion (76th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$55.954 billion (81st)|
• Per capita
high · 56th
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
• Summer (DST)
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||BG|
Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period, its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Persians, Celts, Romans and others. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars; in 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgaria's population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most commercial and cultural activities are centred to the capital and largest city, Sofia as well as the second and the third largest cities - Plovdiv and Varna, the strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.
The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation, it is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The name Bulgaria is derived from Bulgars, an extinct tribe of Turkic origin that established the country. Some historians question the identification of the Bulgars as a Turkic tribe and suggest an Iranian origin, their name is not completely understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is possibly derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha ("to mix", "shake", "stir") and its derivative bulgak ("revolt", "disorder"). Alternate etymologies include derivation from a compound of Proto-Turkic bel ("five") and gur ("arrow" in the sense of "tribe"), a proposed division within the Utigurs or Onogurs ("ten tribes").
Prehistory and antiquity
Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture and the eneolithic Varna culture (fifth millennium BC). The latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation, some of these first gold smelters produced the coins, weapons and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure, containing the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. This site also offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria and kept it until 479 BC. With influence from the Persians, the bulk of the Thracian tribes were united in the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC by king Teres, but were later subjugated by Alexander the Great and by the Romans in 46 AD.
After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control. By this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the Wulfila Bible. The first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria.
First Bulgarian Empire
In 680 the Turkic semi-nomadic Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska. A peace treaty with Byzantium in 681 marked the beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire, the Bulgars gradually mixed with the local population, adopting a common language on the basis of the local Slavic dialect.
Succeeding rulers strengthened the Bulgarian state throughout the 8th and 9th centuries. Krum doubled the country's territory, killed Byzantine emperor Nicephorus I in the Battle of Pliska, and introduced the first written code of law. Paganism was abolished in favour of Eastern Orthodox Christianity under Boris I in 864, this conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet developed at Preslav which strengthened central authority and helped fuse the Slavs and Bulgars into a unified people. A subsequent cultural golden age began during the 34-year rule of Simeon the Great, who also achieved the largest territorial expansion of the state.
Wars with Magyars and Pechenegs and the spread of the Bogomil heresy weakened Bulgaria after Simeon's death. Consecutive Rus' and Byzantine invasions resulted in the seizure of the capital Preslav by the Byzantine army in 971. Under Samuil, Bulgaria briefly recovered from these attacks, but this rise ended when Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army at Klyuch in 1014. Samuil died shortly after the battle, and by 1018 the Byzantines had ended the First Bulgarian Empire.
Second Bulgarian Empire
After his conquest of Bulgaria, Basil II prevented revolts and discontent by retaining the rule of the local nobility and by relieving the newly conquered lands of the obligation to pay taxes in gold, allowing them to be paid in kind instead, he also allowed the Bulgarian Patriarchate to retain its autocephalous status and all its dioceses, but reduced it to an archbishopric. After his death Byzantine domestic policies changed and a series of unsuccessful rebellions broke out, the largest being led by Peter Delyan; in 1185 Asen dynasty nobles Ivan Asen I and Peter IV organised a major uprising which resulted in the re-establishment of the Bulgarian state. Ivan Asen and Peter laid the foundations of the Second Bulgarian Empire with Tarnovo as the capital.
Kaloyan, the third of the Asen monarchs, extended his dominion to Belgrade and Ohrid. He acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the pope and received a royal crown from a papal legate, the empire reached its zenith under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241), when commerce and culture flourished. The strong economic and religious influence of Tarnovo made it a "Third Rome", unlike the already declining Constantinople.
The end of the Asen dynasty in 1257 was followed by significant decline marked by internal conflicts, incessant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks and Mongol suzerainty. By the end of the 14th century, factional divisions between the feudal landlords and the spread of Bogomilism had caused the Second Bulgarian Empire to fragment into three separate states—the tsardoms at Vidin and Tarnovo and the Despotate of Dobruja. These rump states continued to be in frequent conflict with the Byzantines, Hungarians, Serbs, Venetians and Genoese. By the late 14th century the Ottoman Turks had started their conquest of Bulgaria and had taken most towns and fortresses south of the Balkan mountains.
Tarnovo was captured by the Ottomans after a three-month siege in 1393, the Ottomans completed their conquest of Bulgarian lands south of the Danube after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, which brought about the fall of the Vidin Tsardom. Bulgarian nobility was subsequently eliminated and the peasantry was enserfed to Ottoman masters, while much of the educated clergy fled to other countries.
Christians were considered an inferior class of people under the Ottoman system. Bulgarians were thus subjected to heavy taxes, their culture was suppressed, and they experienced partial Islamisation. Ottoman authorities established a religious administrative community called the Rum Millet, which governed all Orthodox Christians regardless of their ethnicity. Most of the local population then gradually lost its distinct national consciousness, identifying only by its faith. However, the clergy remaining in some isolated monasteries kept their ethnic identity alive, enabling its survival in remote rural areas, and in the militant Catholic community in the northwest of the country.
As the Ottoman Empire began to decline, Habsburg Austria and Russia saw Bulgarian Christians as potential allies, the Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in 1598, and then a second one in 1686, the Chiprovtsi Uprising in 1688 and Karposh's Rebellion in 1689. The Russian Empire under Catherine the Great also asserted itself as a protector of Christians in Ottoman lands with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774.
The Western European Enlightenment in the 18th century influenced the initiation of a National awakening of Bulgaria, it restored national consciousness and provided an ideological basis for the liberation struggle, resulting in the 1876 April Uprising. Up to 30,000 Bulgarians were killed as Ottoman authorities put down the rebellion, the massacres prompted the Great Powers to take action. They convened the Constantinople Conference in 1876, but their decisions were rejected by the Ottomans, this allowed the Russian Empire to seek a military solution without risking confrontation with other Great Powers, as had happened in the Crimean War. In 1877 Russia declared war on the Ottomans and defeated them with the help of Bulgarian rebels, particularly during the crucial Battle of Shipka Pass.
Third Bulgarian state
The Treaty of San Stefano was signed on 3 March 1878 by Russia and the Ottoman Empire, and included a provision to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire, the other Great Powers immediately rejected the treaty out of fear that such a large country in the Balkans might threaten their interests. It was superseded by the subsequent Treaty of Berlin, signed on 13 July, which provided for a much smaller state comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia, leaving large populations of ethnic Bulgarians outside the new country. This significantly contributed to Bulgaria's militaristic foreign affairs approach during the first half of the 20th century.
The Bulgarian principality won a war against Serbia and incorporated the semi-autonomous Ottoman territory of Eastern Rumelia in 1885, proclaiming itself an independent state on 5 October 1908; in the years following independence, Bulgaria increasingly militarised and was often referred to as "the Balkan Prussia". It became involved in three consecutive conflicts between 1912 and 1918—two Balkan Wars and World War I, after a disastrous defeat in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria again found itself fighting on the losing side as a result of its alliance with the Central Powers in World War I. Despite fielding more than a quarter of its population in a 1,200,000-strong army and achieving several decisive victories at Doiran and Monastir, the country capitulated in 1918. The war resulted in significant territorial losses and a total of 87,500 soldiers killed. More than 253,000 refugees immigrated to Bulgaria from 1912 to 1929 due to the effects of these wars, placing additional strain on the already ruined national economy.
The resulting political unrest led to the establishment of a royal authoritarian dictatorship by Tsar Boris III (1918–1943). Bulgaria entered World War II in 1941 as a member of the Axis but declined to participate in Operation Barbarossa and saved its Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps. The sudden death of Boris III in the summer of 1943 pushed the country into political turmoil as the war turned against Germany and the communist guerrilla movement gained momentum, the government of Bogdan Filov subsequently failed to achieve peace with the Allies. Bulgaria did not comply with Soviet demands to expel German forces from its territory, resulting in a declaration of war and an invasion by the USSR in September 1944, the communist-dominated Fatherland Front took power, ended participation in the Axis and joined the Allied side until the war ended.
The left-wing uprising of 9 September 1944 led to the abolition of monarchic rule, but it was not until 1946 that a one-party people's republic was established. It became a part of the Soviet sphere of influence under the leadership of Georgi Dimitrov (1946–1949), who laid the foundations of a rapidly industrialising Stalinist state which saw repressions and executions of thousands of dissidents. By the mid-1950s standards of living rose significantly, while political repressions were lessened. By the 1980s both national and per capita GDPs quadrupled, but the economy remained prone to debt spikes, the most severe taking place in 1960, 1977 and 1980. The Soviet-style planned economy saw some market-oriented policies emerging on an experimental level under Todor Zhivkov (1954–1989), his daughter Lyudmila bolstered national pride by promoting Bulgarian heritage, culture and arts worldwide. In 1984, the government launched an assimilation campaign against the minority ethnic Turks that forced them to adopt Slavic names in an attempt to erase their identity, these policies resulted in the emigration of some 300,000 ethnic Turks to Turkey.
The Communist Party gave up its political monopoly on 10 November 1989 under the influence of the Revolutions of 1989. Zhivkov resigned and Bulgaria embarked on a transition to a parliamentary democracy, the first free elections in June 1990 were won by the Communist Party, now rebranded as the Bulgarian Socialist Party. A new constitution that provided for a relatively weak elected president and for a prime minister accountable to the legislature was adopted in July 1991, the new system initially failed to improve living standards or create economic growth—the average quality of life and economic performance remained lower than under communism well into the early 2000s. A 1997 reform package restored economic growth, but living standards continued to suffer, after 2001 economic, political and geopolitical conditions improved greatly, and Bulgaria achieved high Human Development status. It became a member of NATO in 2004 and participated in the War in Afghanistan. After several years of reforms it joined the European Union in 2007 despite concerns about government corruption. Bulgaria hosted the 2018 Presidency of the Council of the European Union at the National Palace of Culture in Sofia.
Bulgaria occupies a portion of the eastern Balkan peninsula, bordering five countries—Greece and Turkey to the south, Macedonia and Serbia to the west, and Romania to the north. The land borders have a total length of 1,808 kilometres (1,123 mi), and the coastline has a length of 354 kilometres (220 mi). Its total area of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi) ranks it as the world's 105th-largest country. Bulgaria's geographic coordinates are 43° N 25° E.
The most notable topographical features are the Danubian Plain, the Balkan Mountains, the Thracian Plain, and the Rhodope Mountains. The southern edge of the Danubian Plain slopes upward into the foothills of the Balkans, while the Danube defines the border with Romania, the Thracian Plain is roughly triangular, beginning southeast of Sofia and broadening as it reaches the Black Sea coast.
The Balkan mountains run laterally through the middle of the country, the mountainous southwest of the country has two alpine ranges—Rila and Pirin, which border the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains to the east. Bulgaria is home to the highest point of the Balkan peninsula, Musala, at 2,925 metres (9,596 ft) and its lowest point is sea level. Plains occupy about one-third of the territory, while plateaus and hills occupy 41 per cent, the country has a dense network of about 540 rivers, most of which are relatively small and with low water levels. The longest river located solely in Bulgarian territory, the Iskar, has a length of 368 kilometres (229 mi). Other major rivers include the Struma and the Maritsa in the south.
Bulgaria has a dynamic climate, which results from its being positioned at the meeting point of Mediterranean and continental air masses and the barrier effect of its mountains. Northern Bulgaria averages 1 °C (1.8 °F) cooler and registers 200 millimetres (7.9 in) more precipitation annually than the regions south of the Balkan mountains. Temperature amplitudes vary significantly in different areas, the lowest recorded temperature is −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F), while the highest is 45.2 °C (113.4 °F). Precipitation averages about 630 millimetres (24.8 in) per year, and varies from 500 millimetres (19.7 in) in Dobrudja to more than 2,500 millimetres (98.4 in) in the mountains. Continental air masses bring significant amounts of snowfall during winter.
Biodiversity and environment
The interaction of climatic, hydrological, geological and topographical conditions have produced a relatively wide variety of plant and animal species. Bulgaria is one of the countries with highest biodiversity in Europe. Bulgaria's biodiversity is conserved in three national parks, 11 nature parks and 16 biosphere reserves. Nearly 35 per cent of its land area consists of forests, where some of the oldest trees in the world, such as Baikushev's pine and the Granit oak, grow. Most of the plant and animal life is central European, although representatives of Arctic and alpine species are present at high altitudes, its flora encompass more than 3,800 species of which 170 are endemic and 150 are considered endangered. A checklist of larger fungi of Bulgaria reported that more than 1,500 species occur in the country. Animal species include owls, rock partridges, wallcreepers and brown bears. The Eurasian lynx and the eastern imperial eagle have small, but growing populations.
In 1998, the Bulgarian government approved the National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy, a comprehensive programme seeking the preservation of local ecosystems, protection of endangered species and conservation of genetic resources. Bulgaria has some of the largest Natura 2000 areas in Europe covering 33.8% of its territory. It also adopted the Kyoto Protocol and achieved its objective of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 30 percent from 1990 to 2009.
However, pollution from factories and metallurgy works and severe deforestation continue to cause major problems to the health and welfare of the population. Air pollution is more severe than in any other European country, particularly in urban areas affected by coal-based power stations and automobile traffic. One of these, the lignite-fired Maritsa Iztok-2 power station, is also causing the highest damage costs to health and the environment in the entire European Union.Pesticide usage in the agriculture and antiquated industrial sewage systems produce extensive soil and water pollution with chemicals and detergents, over 75% of surface rivers meet the standards for good quality. An improvement of water quality began in 1998 and has maintained a sustainable trend of moderate improvement. According to Yale University's 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Bulgaria is a "modest performer" in protecting the environment.
Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy where the prime minister is the most powerful executive position, the political system has three branches—legislative, executive and judicial, with universal suffrage for citizens at least 18 years old. The Constitution of Bulgaria also provides possibilities of direct democracy. Elections are supervised by an independent Central Election Commission that includes members from all major political parties. Parties must register with the commission prior to participating in a national election. Normally, the prime minister–elect is the leader of the party receiving the most votes in parliamentary elections, although this is not always the case.
Political parties gather in the National Assembly, a body of 240 deputies elected to four-year terms by direct popular vote, the National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the prime minister and other ministers, declare war, deploy troops abroad, and ratify international treaties and agreements. The president serves as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the authority to return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the presidential veto by a simple majority vote of all members of parliament. Overall, Bulgaria displays a pattern of unstable governments.
Boyko Borisov is serving his third term as prime minister since 2009, when his centre-right, pro-EU party GERB won the general election and ruled as a minority government with 117 seats in the National Assembly. However, his first government resigned on 20 February 2013 after nationwide protests caused by high costs of utilities, low living standards, corruption and the failure of the democratic system. The protest wave was notable for self-immolations, spontaneous demonstrations and a strong sentiment against political parties.
The subsequent snap elections in May resulted in a narrow win for GERB, but the Bulgarian Socialist Party eventually formed a government led by Plamen Oresharski after Borisov failed to secure parliamentary support. The Oresharski government resigned in July 2014 amid continuing large-scale protests. A caretaker government took over and called the October 2014 elections which resulted in a third GERB victory, but a total of eight parties entered parliament. Borisov's party formed a coalition with several right-wing parties. Borisov resigned again after the candidate backed by his party failed to win the 2016 Presidential election, the March 2017 snap election was again won by GERB, but with a mere 95 seats in Parliament. GERB formed a coalition with the far-right United Patriots, who hold 27 seats.
Bulgaria has a typical civil law legal system, the judiciary is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and oversee the application of laws in subordinate courts, the Supreme Judicial Council manages the system and appoints judges. The legal system is one of Europe's most inefficient, and the lack of transparency and corruption are pervasive.
Law enforcement is carried out by organisations mainly subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior, the National Police Service (NPS) combats general crime, maintains public order and supports the operations of other law enforcement agencies. NPS fields 26,578 police officers in its local and national sections, the Ministry of the Interior also heads the Border Police Service and the National Gendarmerie—a specialised branch for anti-terrorist activity, crisis management and riot control. Counterintelligence and national security are the responsibility of the State Agency for National Security, established in 2008.
Bulgaria is a unitary state, since the 1880s, the number of territorial management units has varied from seven to 26. Between 1987 and 1999 the administrative structure consisted of nine provinces (oblasti, singular oblast). A new administrative structure was adopted in parallel with the decentralisation of the economic system, it includes 27 provinces and a metropolitan capital province (Sofia-Grad). All areas take their names from their respective capital cities, the provinces subdivide into 264 municipalities.
Municipalities are run by mayors, who are elected to four-year terms, and by directly elected municipal councils. Bulgaria is a highly centralised state, where the national Council of Ministers directly appoints regional governors and all provinces and municipalities are heavily dependent on it for funding.
Foreign relations and security
Bulgaria became a member of the United Nations in 1955 and since 1966 has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times, most recently from 2002 to 2003, it was also among the founding nations of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 1975. Euro-Atlantic integration has been a priority since the fall of Communism, although the Communist leadership also had aspirations of leaving the Warsaw Pact and joining the European Communities by 1987. Bulgaria signed the European Union Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005, and became a full member of the European Union on 1 January 2007. In addition, it has a tripartite economic and diplomatic collaboration with Romania and Greece, good ties with China and Vietnam and a historical relationship with Russia.
Historically, Bulgaria deployed significant numbers of both civilian and military advisors in Soviet-allied countries like Nicaragua and Libya. The first deployment of foreign troops on Bulgarian soil since World War II occurred in 2001, when the country hosted six KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and 200 support personnel for the war effort in Afghanistan. International military relations were further expanded with accession to NATO in March 2004 and the US-Bulgarian Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in April 2006. Bezmer and Graf Ignatievo air bases, the Novo Selo training range, and a logistics centre in Aytos subsequently became joint military training facilities cooperatively used by the United States and Bulgarian militaries.
Domestic defence is the responsibility of the all-volunteer military of Bulgaria, branched into land forces, navy and an air force. The land forces consist of two mechanised brigades and eight independent regiments and battalions; the air force operates 106 aircraft and air defence systems in six air bases, and the navy operates various ships, helicopters and coastal defence weapons. Active troops dwindled from 152,000 in 1988 to 31,300 in 2017, supplemented by 3,000 reservists and 16,000 paramilitary. The inventory consists mostly of Soviet equipment like Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-25 jets, S-300PT air defence systems and SS-21 Scarab short-range ballistic missiles.
Bulgaria has an open market economy in the upper middle income range, where the private sector accounts for more than 80% of GDP. From a largely agricultural country with a predominantly rural population in 1948, by the 1980s Bulgaria had transformed into an industrial economy with scientific and technological research at the top of its budgetary expenditure priorities, the loss of COMECON markets in 1990 and the subsequent "shock therapy" of the planned system caused a steep decline in industrial and agricultural production, ultimately followed by an economic collapse in 1997. The economy largely recovered during a period of rapid growth several years later, but the average salary of 1,036 leva (€529) per month remains the lowest in the EU. More than a fifth of the labour force are employed on a minimum wage of €1 per hour.
A balanced budget was achieved in 2003 and the country began running a surplus the following year. Expenditures amounted to $21.15 billion and revenues were $21.67 billion in 2017. Most government spending on institutions is earmarked for security, the ministries of defence, the interior and justice are allocated the largest share of the annual government budget, whereas those responsible for the environment, tourism and energy receive the least amount of funding. Taxes form the bulk of government revenue at 30 per cent of GDP. Bulgaria has some of the lowest corporate income tax rates in the EU at a flat 10 per cent rate, the tax system is two-tier. Value added tax, excise duties, corporate and personal income tax are national, whereas real estate, inheritance, and vehicle taxes are defined by local authorities. Bulgaria also has the third-lowest public debt in the Union at 28.7 per cent of GDP in 2016. Strong economic performance in the early 2000s reduced government debt from 79.6 per cent in 1998 to 14.1 per cent in 2008.
The Yugozapaden planning area is the most developed region with a per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of €20,600 ($27,400) in 2014. It includes the capital city of Sofia and the surrounding Sofia Province, which alone generate 42 per cent of national gross domestic product. PPP GDP per capita and the cost of living stood at 47 per cent of the EU average in 2015. National PPP GDP was estimated at $143.1 billion in 2016, with a per capita value of $20,116. Economic growth statistics take into account illegal transactions from the informal economy, which is the largest in the EU as a percentage of economic output, the currency is the lev, issued by the Bulgarian National Bank and pegged to the euro at a rate of 1.95583 levа for 1 euro.
After several consecutive years of high growth, repercussions of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 resulted in a 5.5 per cent contraction of GDP in 2009 and unemployment above 12 per cent. Industrial output declined 10 per cent, mining by 31 per cent, and ferrous and metal production marked a 60 per cent drop. Positive growth was restored in 2010 but intercompany debt exceeded €51 billion, meaning that 60 per cent of all Bulgarian companies were mutually indebted. By 2012, it had increased to €83 billion, or 227 per cent of GDP, the government implemented strict austerity measures with IMF and EU encouragement to some positive fiscal results, but the social consequences of these measures have been "catastrophic" according to the International Trade Union Confederation.
Siphoning of public funds to the families and relatives of politicians from incumbent parties has also resulted in fiscal and welfare losses to society. Bulgaria ranks 71st in the Corruption Perceptions Index and experiences the worst levels of corruption in the European Union, a phenomenon that remains a source of profound public discontent. Along with organised crime, corruption has led to a rejection of the country's Schengen Area application and withdrawal of foreign investment. Government officials reportedly engage in embezzlement, influence trading, government procurement violations and bribery with impunity. Government procurement in particular is a critical area in corruption risk. An estimated 10 billion leva ($5.99 billion) of state budget and European cohesion funds are spent on public tenders each year; nearly 14 billion ($8.38 billion) were spent on public contracts in 2017 alone. A large share of these contracts are awarded to a few politically connected companies amid widespread irregularities, procedure violations and tailor-made selection or award criteria. Despite repeated criticism from the European Commission, EU institutions abstain from taking measures against Bulgaria because it is not seen by Brussels as a "problem country" like Poland or Hungary.
The labour force is 3.36 million people, of whom 6.8 per cent are employed in agriculture, 26.6 per cent are employed in industry and 66.6 per cent are employed in the services sector. Extraction of metals and minerals, production of chemicals, machinery, petroleum refining steel and automotive component manufacturing are among the major industrial activities. Mining alone employs 24,000 people and generates about five per cent of the country's GDP; the number of employed in all mining-related industries is 120,000. Bulgaria is Europe's sixth-largest coal producer. Local deposits of coal, iron, copper and lead are vital for the manufacturing and energy sectors.
Two-thirds of Bulgarian food and agricultural exports go to OECD countries, although cereal and vegetable yields dropped by 40 per cent between 1990 and 2008, output has since increased, and the 2016-2017 season registered the biggest grain yields in a decade. Bulgaria is also the largest global producer of lavender and rose oil widely used in fragrances. Of the services sector, tourism is the most significant contributor to economic growth; in recent years, Bulgaria has emerged as a travelling destination with its inexpensive resorts and beaches outside the reach of the tourist industry. Most of the visitors are British, Romanian, German and Russian. Sofia, Veliko Tarnovo, coastal resorts Golden Sands and Sunny Beach and winter resorts Bansko, Pamporovo and Borovets are some of the locations most visited by tourists.
Science and technology
Spending on research and development amounts to 0.95 per cent of GDP, and the bulk of public R&D funding goes to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS). Private businesses accounted for more than 73 per cent of R&D expenditures and employed 42 per cent of Bulgaria's 22,000 researchers in 2015. The same year, Bulgaria ranked 39th out of 50 countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, the highest score being in education (24th) and the lowest in value-added manufacturing (48th). Chronic government underinvestment in research since 1990 has forced many professionals in science and engineering to leave Bulgaria.
Despite the lack of funding, research in chemistry, materials science and physics remains strong. Three per cent of economic output is generated by the information and communication technologies sector where 40,000 to 51,000 software engineers are employed. More than 26 per cent of them are women, the highest percentage of females in ICT in any EU country. High levels of female participation are a legacy of the Soviet era, when the country was known as a "Communist Silicon Valley" due to its key role in COMECON computing technology production. Bulgaria is also a regional leader in high performance computing and operates Avitohol, the most powerful supercomputer in Southeast Europe.
Bulgaria has made numerous contributions to space exploration, these include two scientific satellites, more than 200 payloads and 300 experiments in Earth orbit, as well as two cosmonauts since 1971. Bulgaria was the first country to grow wheat and vegetables in space with its Svet greenhouses on the Mir space station. It was involved in the development of the Granat gamma-ray observatory and the Vega program, particularly in modelling trajectories and guidance algorithms for both Vega probes. Bulgarian instruments have been used in the exploration of Mars, including a spectrometer that took the first high quality spectroscopic images of Martian moon Phobos with the Phobos 2 probe. Cosmic radiation en route to and around the planet has been mapped by Liulin-ML dosimeters on the ExoMars TGO. Variants of these instruments have also been fitted to the Chandrayaan-1 lunar probe and the International Space Station. Bulgaria's first geostationary communications satellite—BulgariaSat-1—was launched by SpaceX in June 2017.
Telephone services are widely available, and a central digital trunk line connects most regions. More than 90 per cent of fixed lines are served by Vivacom (BTC), while mobile services are provided by three operators—A1, Telenor and Vivacom. Internet penetration stood at 66 per cent, or 4.66 million users, in late 2017.
Bulgaria's strategic geographic location and well-developed energy sector make it a key European energy centre despite its lack of significant fossil fuel deposits. Coal accounts for 40% of national energy production, followed by nuclear power from the Kozloduy reactors (35%) and renewable sources (20%). Biomass has become the primary source of renewable power after more than a decade of growth in the sector.
The national road network has a total length of 19,512 kilometres (12,124 mi), of which 19,235 kilometres (11,952 mi) are paved. Railroads are a major mode of freight transportation, although highways carry a progressively larger share of freight. Bulgaria has 6,238 kilometres (3,876 mi) of railway track and currently a total of 81 kilometres (50 miles) of high-speed lines are in operation. Rail links are available with Romania, Turkey, Greece, and Serbia, and express trains serve direct routes to Kiev, Minsk, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Sofia and Plovdiv are the country's air travel hubs, while Varna and Burgas are the principal maritime trade ports.
The population of Bulgaria is 7,364,570 people according to the 2011 national census, the majority of the population, or 72.5 percent, reside in urban areas; approximately one-sixth of the total population is concentrated in Sofia. Bulgarians are the main ethnic group and comprise 84.8 percent of the population. Turkish and Roma minorities comprise 8.8 and 4.9 percent, respectively; some 40 smaller minorities comprise 0.7 percent, and 0.8 percent do not self-identify with an ethnic group. The Roma minority is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 11 per cent of the population.
Bulgaria is in a state of demographic crisis, it has had negative population growth since the early 1990s, when the economic collapse caused a long-lasting emigration wave. Some 937,000 to 1,200,000 people—mostly young adults—left the country by 2005, the total fertility rate (TFR) was estimated in 2013 at 1.43 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. The majority of children are born to unmarried women. Furthermore, a third of all households consist of only one person and 75.5 percent of families do not have children under the age of 16. The resulting birth rates are among the lowest in the world while death rates are among the highest.
More than 80% of all deaths are due to cancer and cardiovascular conditions. Mortality rates may be amenable with timely, adequate health care, which the current system fails to provide fully. Although healthcare in Bulgaria is universal, out-of-pocket expenses account for nearly half of all healthcare spending, and significantly limit access to medical care. Other problems disrupting medical care provision are the emigration of doctors due to low wages, understaffed and under-equipped regional hospitals, and frequent changes to the basic service package for those insured. Personnel or equipment shortages in some fields are so severe that patients may seek treatment in neighboring countries.
Public expenditures for education are far below the European Union average as well. Educational standards were once high, but have deteriorated significantly over the past decade. Bulgarian students were among the highest-scoring in the world in terms of reading in 2001, performing better than their Canadian and German counterparts; by 2006, scores in reading, math and science had dropped. The PISA study of 2015 found 41.5% of pupils in the 9th grade to be functionally illiterate in reading, maths and science. Average literacy stands at 98.4% with no significant difference between sexes. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Science partially funds public schools, colleges and universities, sets criteria for textbooks and oversees the publishing process. Education in primary and secondary public schools is free, the process spans through 12 grades, where grades one through eight are primary and nine through twelve are secondary level. Higher education consists of a 4-year bachelor degree and a 1-year master's degree. Bulgaria's highest-ranked higher education institution is Sofia University.
All ethnic groups speak Bulgarian, either as a first or as a second language. Bulgarian is the only language with official status and native for 85.2 percent of the population. The oldest written Slavic language, Bulgarian is distinguishable from the other languages in this group through certain grammatical peculiarities such as the lack of noun cases and infinitives, and a suffixed definite article.
Largest cities and towns
Largest cities or towns in Bulgaria
|6||Stara Zagora||Stara Zagora||138,272||16||Veliko Tarnovo||Veliko Tarnovo||68,783|
The Constitution of Bulgaria defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom, but designates Orthodoxy as a "traditional" religion, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church gained autocephalous status in 927 AD, and currently has 12 dioceses and over 2,000 priests. More than three-quarters of Bulgarians subscribe to Eastern Orthodoxy. Sunni Muslims are the second-largest community and constitute 10 percent of the religious makeup, although a majority of them are not observant and find the use of Islamic veils in schools unacceptable. Less than three percent are affiliated with other religions, 11.8 percent do not self-identify with a religion and 21.8 percent refused to state their beliefs.
Contemporary Bulgarian culture blends a formal culture that helped forge a national consciousness towards the end of Ottoman rule, and millenium-old folk traditions. An essential element of Bulgarian folklore is fire, used to banish evil spirits and illnesses. Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva (veela) are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters. Some rituals against evil spirits have survived and are still practised, most notably the kukeri and survakari. Martenitsa is also widely celebrated. Nestinarstvo, a ritual fire-dance of Thracian origin, is included in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Nine historical and natural objects have been inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Pirin National Park, Sreburna Nature Reserve, the Madara Rider, the Thracian tombs in Sveshtari and Kazanlak, the Rila Monastery, the Boyana Church, the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo and the ancient city of Nesebar. The Rila Monastery was established by Saint John of Rila, Bulgaria's patron saint, whose life has been the subject of numerous literary accounts since Medieval times.
The Middle Ages were marked by the literary schools of Preslav and Ohrid, these were essentially the first Slavic scholarly institutions, and their establishment in the 10th century is associated with a golden period in Bulgarian literature. This emphasis on Christian scholarship made the Bulgarian Empire a centre of Slavic culture, bringing Slavic peoples under the influence of Christianity and providing them with a written language. Its alphabet, Cyrillic script, was developed by the Preslav Literary School, the Tarnovo Literary School, on the other hand, is associated with a Silver age of literature defined by historical and mystical themes under the Asen and Shishman dynasties. Many literary and artistic masterpieces were destroyed by the Ottoman conquerors, and artistic activities did not re-emerge until the National Revival in the 19th century. Ivan Vazov's enormous body of work covered every genre and touched upon every facet of Bulgarian society, bridging pre-Liberation works with literature of the newly-established state. Notable later works are Bay Ganyo by Aleko Konstantinov, the Nietzschean poetry of Pencho Slaveykov, the Symbolist poetry of Peyo Yavorov and Dimcho Debelyanov, the Marxist-inspired works of Geo Milev and Nikola Vaptsarov, and the Socialist realism novels of Dimitar Dimov and Dimitar Talev. Tzvetan Todorov is a notable contemporary author, while Bulgarian-born Elias Canetti was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981.
А religious visual arts heritage includes frescoes, murals and icons, many produced by the medieval Tarnovo Artistic School. Like literature, it was not until the National Revival when Bulgarian visual arts began to reemerge. Zahari Zograf was a pioneer of the visual arts in the pre-Liberation era. After the Liberation, Ivan Mrkvička, Anton Mitov, Vladimir Dimitrov, Tsanko Lavrenov and Zlatyu Boyadzhiev introduced newer styles and substance, depicting scenery from Bulgarian villages, old towns and historical subjects. Christo is the most famous Bulgarian artist of the 21st century, known for his outdoor installations.
Folk music is by far the most extensive traditional art and has slowly developed throughout the ages as a fusion of Far Eastern, Oriental, medieval Eastern Orthodox and standard Western European tonalities and modes. Bulgarian folk music has a distinctive sound and uses a wide range of traditional instruments, such as gadulka, gaida, kaval and tupan. A distinguishing feature is extended rhythmical time, which has no equivalent in the rest of European music, the State Television Female Vocal Choir won a Grammy Award in 1990 for its performances of Bulgarian folk music. Written musical composition can be traced back to the works of Yoan Kukuzel (c. 1280–1360), but modern classical music began with Emanuil Manolov, who composed the first Bulgarian opera in 1890. Pancho Vladigerov and Petko Staynov further enriched symphony, ballet and opera, which singers Ghena Dimitrova, Boris Hristov and Nikolay Gyaurov elevated to a world-class level. Bulgarian performers have also gained acclaim in other genres like electropop (Mira Aroyo), jazz (Milcho Leviev) and blends of jazz and folk (Ivo Papazov).
Cultural events are advertised in the largest media outlets, including the Bulgarian National Radio, and daily newspapers Dneven Trud, Dnevnik and 24 Chasa. Bulgarian media were described as generally unbiased in their reporting in the early 2000s, and print media had no legal restrictions. Since then, freedom of the press has declined to the point where Bulgaria scores 111th globally in the World Press Freedom Index, lower than all European Union members and membership candidate states, the government has siphoned EU funds to sympathetic media outlets and bribed others to be less critical on problematic topics, while attacks against individual journalists have increased. Collusion between politicians, oligarchs and the media is widespread.
Bulgarian cuisine is similar to those of other Balkan countries and demonstrates a strong Turkish and Greek influence. Yogurt, lukanka, banitsa, shopska salad, lyutenitsa and kozunak are among the best-known local foods. Oriental dishes such as moussaka, gyuvech, and baklava are also present. Meat consumption is lower than the European average, given a notable preference for a large variety of salads. Bulgaria was the world's second-largest wine exporter until 1989, but has since lost its positions, the 2016 harvest yielded 128 million litres of wine, of which 62 million was exported mainly to Romania, Poland and Russia. Mavrud, Rubin, Shiroka melnishka, Dimiat and Cherven Misket are the typical grapes used in Bulgarian wine. Rakia is a traditional fruit brandy which was consumed in Bulgaria as early as the 14th century.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Bulgaria performs well in sports such as wrestling, weight-lifting, boxing, gymnastics, volleyball, football and tennis. The country fields one of the leading men's volleyball teams, ranked sixth in the world according to the 2013 FIVB rankings. Football is by far the most popular sport. Some famous players are Dimitar Berbatov, former Manchester United and Tottenham Hotspur forward, Georgi Asparuhov, former Levski Sofia forward and Hristo Stoichkov, winner of the Golden Boot and the Golden Ball and the most successful Bulgarian player of all time. Prominent domestic clubs include PFC CSKA Sofia and PFC Levski Sofia. The best performance of the national team at FIFA World Cup finals came in 1994, when it advanced to the semi-finals by defeating consecutively Greece, Argentina, Mexico and Germany, finishing fourth. Bulgaria has participated in most Olympic competitions since its first appearance at the 1896 games, when it was represented by Charles Champaud, the country has won a total of 224 medals: 52 gold, 89 silver, and 83 bronze, which puts it in 24th place in the all-time ranking.
Stefka Kostadinova is the reigning world record holder in the women's high jump at 2.09 metres (6 feet 10 inches), which she jumped during the 1987 World Championships in Athletics in Rome. Her world record is one of the oldest in modern athletics. Altogether Kostadinova set seven world records – three outdoors and four indoors, she also holds the women's world record for having jumped over 2.00 metres (6 feet 7 inches) 197 times.
Yordanka Donkova is a former hurdling athlete, notable for winning an Olympic gold medal and bronze medal as well as 9 medals at European indoor and outdoor championships. Donkova set four 100 m hurdles world records in 1986, her fifth world record, a time of 12.21 set in 1988, stood until 2016.
- Outline of Bulgaria
- International rankings of Bulgaria
- List of twin towns and sister cities in Bulgaria
- География на България. Физическа и икономическа география. АИ „Марин Дринов“. 1997.
- География на България. „ФорКом“. 2002. ISBN 9544641238.
- Пенин, Румен (2007). Природна география на България. Булвест 2000. p. 18. ISBN 9789541805466.
- NSI Census data 2015.
- "Bulgaria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Dobrev, Petar. "Езикът на Аспаруховите и Куберовите българи". 1995. (in Bulgarian)
- Bakalov, Georgi. Малко известни факти от историята на древните българи. Part 1 & Part 2. (in Bulgarian)
- Gurov, Dilian (March 2007). "The Origins of the Bulgars" (PDF). p. 3.
- Bowersock, Glen W. & al. Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World, p. 354. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-51173-5.
- Karataty, Osman. In Search of the Lost Tribe: the Origins and Making of the Croatian Nation, p. 28.
- Slavchev, Vladimir (2004–2005). Monuments of the final phase of Cultures Hamangia and Savia on the territory of Bulgaria (PDF). Revista Pontica. 37–38. pp. 9–20. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Chapman, John (2000). Fragmentation in Archaeology: People, Places, and Broken Objects. Routledge. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-415-15803-9.
- Roberts, Benjamin W.; Thornton, Christopher P. (2009). "Development of metallurgy in Eurasia". Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum. p. 1015. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
In contrast, the earliest exploitation and working of gold occurs in the Balkans during the mid-fifth millennium BC, several centuries after the earliest known copper smelting. This is demonstrated most spectacularly in the various objects adorning the burials at Varna, Bulgaria (Renfrew 1986; Highamet al. 2007). In contrast, the earliest gold objects found in Southwest Asia date only to the beginning of the fourth millennium BC as at Nahal Qanah in Israel (Golden 2009), suggesting that gold exploitation may have been a Southeast European invention, albeit a short-lived one.
- Sigfried J. de Laet, ed. (1996). History of Humanity: From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century BC. UNESCO / Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
The first major gold-working centre was situated at the mouth of the Danube, on the shores of the Black Sea in Bulgaria ...
- Grande, Lance (2009). Gems and gemstones: Timeless natural beauty of the mineral world. The University of Chicago Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-226-30511-0. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
The oldest known gold jewelry in the world is from an archaeological site in Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria, and is over 6,000 years old (radiocarbon dated between 4,600BC and 4,200BC).
- "The Gumelnita Culture". Government of France. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
The Necropolis at Varna is an important site in understanding this culture.
- "Bulgaria Factbook". United States Central Command. December 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011.
- "Bulgar (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Boardman, John; Edwards, I.E.S.; Sollberger, E. (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History – part1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC. 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0521224969.
Yet we cannot identify the Thracians at that remote period, because we do not know for certain whether the Thracian and Illyrian tribes had separated by then. It is safer to speak of Proto-Thracians from whom there developed in the Iron Age...
- Kidner; et al. (2013). Making Europe: The Story of the West (2 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 57. ISBN 978-1111841317.
(...) In addition, the Persians gained Thrace (modern-day Bulgaria)
- Thonemann, Peter; Price, Simon (2010). The Birth of Classical Europe: A History from Troy to Augustine. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0141946863.
Darius extended the eastern and western boundaries of the empire still further, conquering the Indus Valley and much of modern Bulgaria (ancient Thrace)
- Roisman & Worthington 2011, pp. 135–138, 343–345.
- Roisman & Worthington, pp. 135–138, 343–345.
- "The Expedition of Cyrus". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Nagle, D. Brendan (2006). Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations. Oxford University Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-19-517825-4.
However, one of the Thracian tribes, the Odrysians, succeeded in unifying the Thracians and creating a powerful state
- Hornblower, Simon (2003). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 1515. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
Shortly afterwards the first King of the Odrysae, Teres attempted to carve an empire out of the territory occupied by the Thracian tribes (Thuc.2.29 and his sovereignty extended as far as the Euxine and the Hellespont)
- Ivanov, Lyubomir (2007). ESSENTIAL HISTORY OF BULGARIA IN SEVEN PAGES. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. p. 2. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
In particular, in the mid-4th century a group of Goths settled in the region of Nikopolis ad Istrum (present Nikyup near Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria), where their leader Bishop Wulfila (Ulfilas) invented the Gothic alphabet and translated the Holy Bible into Gothic to produce the first book written in Germanic language.
- Hock, Hans Heinrich; Joseph, Brian D. (1996). Language History, Language Change and Language Relationship: an introduction to historical and comparative linguistics. Walter de Gruyter & Co. p. 49. ISBN 3-11-014784-X. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
The oldest extensive text is a Gothic Bible translation produced by the Gothic bishop Wulfilas (meaning 'Little Wolf') in the 4th century
- "The monastery in the village of Zlatna Livada – the oldest in Europe" (in Bulgarian). LiterNet. 30 April 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- D. Angelov (1971). "The Formation of the Bulgarian Nation". Наука и изкуство, "Векове". pp. 409–410.
- Browning, Robert (1988). Byzantium and Bulgaria. Studia Slavico-Byzantina et Mediaevalia Europensia. I. pp. 32–36.
- Trever, Albert Augustus. History of Ancient Civilization. Harcourt, Brace. p. 571.
The Thracian interior, however, was never really Romanized or even Hellenized
- Zlatarski, Vasil (1938). History of the First Bulgarian Empire. Period of Hunnic-Bulgarian domination (679–852) (in Bulgarian). p. 188. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Runciman, Steven (1930). A History of the First Bulgarian Empire. G. Bell and Sons. p. 26.
- Ivanov, Lyubomir (2007). ESSENTIAL HISTORY OF BULGARIA IN SEVEN PAGES. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Krum (Bulgar khan)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "The Spread of Christianity". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
Although Boris's baptism was into the Eastern church, he subsequently wavered between Rome and Constantinople until the latter was persuaded to grant de facto autonomy to Bulgaria in church affairs.
- Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-954158-4.
- "Reign of Simeon I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
Bulgaria's conversion had a political dimension, for it contributed both to the growth of central authority and to the merging of Bulgars and Slavs into a unified Bulgarian people.
- Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-954158-4.
No single act did more, in the long run, to weld Christian Slav and Proto-Bulgar into a Bulgarian people than the conversion of 864.
- The First Golden Age.
- "Reign of Simeon I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
Under Simeon's successors Bulgaria was beset by internal dissension provoked by the spread of Bogomilism (a dualist religious sect) and by assaults from Magyars, Pechenegs, the Rus, and Byzantines.
- Browning, Robert (1975). Byzantium and Bulgaria. Temple Smith. pp. 194–5. ISBN 0-85117-064-1.
- "Reign of Simeon I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Samuel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Scylitzae, Ioannis (1973). Synopsis Historiarum. Corpus Fontium Byzantiae Historiae (Hans Thurn ed.). p. 457. ISBN 978-3-11-002285-8.
- Pavlov, Plamen (2005). "The plots of 'master Presian the Bulgarian'". Rebels and adventurers in medieval Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). LiterNet. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
And, in the Spring of 1018, "the party of capitulation" prevailed and Basil II freely entered the then capital of Bulgaria Ochrid.
- Ostrogorsky, Georg (1969). History of the Byzantine State. Rutgers University Press. p. 311.
- Cameron, Averil (2006). The Byzantines. Blackwell Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-4051-9833-2.
- "Bulgaria – Second Bulgarian Empire". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- James David Bourchier (1911). "History of Bulgaria". Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- Ivanov, Lyubomir (2007). ESSENTIAL HISTORY OF BULGARIA IN SEVEN PAGES. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. p. 4. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
The capital Tarnovo became a political, economic, cultural and religious centre seen as 'the third Rome' in contrast to Constantinople's decline after the Byzantine heartland in Asia Minor was lost to the Turks during the late 11th century.
- "The Golden Horde". Library of Congress Mongolia country study. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
The Mongols maintained sovereignty over eastern Russia from 1240 to 1480, and they controlled the upper Volga area, the territories of the former Volga Bulghar state, Siberia, the northern Caucasus, Bulgaria (for a time), the Crimea, and Khwarizm
- "Bulgaria – Ottoman rule". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
With the capture of a rump Bulgarian kingdom centred at Bdin (Vidin) in 1396, the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared. ... The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam and Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters.
- Jireček, K. J. (1876). Geschichte der Bulgaren (in German). Nachdr. d. Ausg. Prag. ISBN 3-487-06408-1. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Minkov, Anton (2004). Conversion to Islam in the Balkans: Kisve Bahası – Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670–1730. BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 90-04-13576-6.
- Detrez, Raymond (2008). Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans. Peter Lang Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 90-5201-374-8.
- Fishman, Joshua A. (2010). "Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity," Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives. Oxford University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-19-537492-4.
There were almost no remnants of a Bulgarian ethnic identity; the population defined itself as Christians, according to the Ottoman system of millets, that is, communities of religious beliefs. The first attempts to define a Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19th century.
- Roudometof, Victor; Robertson, Roland (2001). Nationalism, globalization, and orthodoxy: the social origins of ethnic conflict in the Balkans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 68–71. ISBN 0-313-31949-9.
- Crampton, R. J. (1987). Modern Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-27323-4. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Carvalho, Joaquim (2007). Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence. Edizioni Plus. p. 261. ISBN 88-8492-464-2.
- "Bulgaria – Ottoman administration". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- The Final Move to Independence.
- "Reminiscence from Days of Liberation*". Novinite. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- San Stefano, Berlin and Independence.
- Blamires, Cyprian (2006). World Fascism: A historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 107. ISBN 1-57607-941-4. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
The "Greater Bulgaria" re-established in March 1878 on the lines of the medieval Bulgarian empire after liberation from Turkish rule did not last long.
- "Timeline: Bulgaria – A chronology of key events". BBC News. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Historical Setting.
- Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-954158-4.
- Dillon, Emile Joseph (February 1920). "XV". The Inside Story of the Peace Conference. Harper. ISBN 978-3-8424-7594-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
The territorial changes which the Prussia of the Balkans was condemned to undergo are neither very considerable nor unjust.
- Pinon, Rene (1913). L'Europe et la Jeune Turquie: les aspects nouveaux de la question d'Orient (in French). Perrin et cie. ISBN 978-1-144-41381-9. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
On a dit souvent de la Bulgarie qu'elle est la Prusse des Balkans
- Tucker, Spencer C; Wood, Laura (1996). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 173. ISBN 0-8153-0399-8.
- Broadberry, Stephen; Klein, Alexander (8 February 2008). "Aggregate and Per Capita GDP in Europe, 1870–2000: Continental, Regional and National Data with Changing Boundaries" (PDF). Department of Economics at the University of Warwick, Coventry. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "WWI Casualty and Death Tables". PBS. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Mintchev, Vesselin (October 1999). "External Migration in Bulgaria". South-East Europe Review (3/99): 124. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Chenoweth, Erica (2010). Rethinking Violence: States and Non-State Actors in Conflict. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-262-01420-5.
Bulgaria, for example, had a net surplus of refugees and was faced with the daunting task of absorbing thousands of Bulgarian refugees from Greece over a relatively short period. While international loans from the Red Cross and other organizations helped to defray the substantial costs of accommodating surplus populations, it placed a strenuous financial burden on states that were still recovering from the war an experiencing economic downturn as well as political upheaval.
- Bulgaria in World War II: The Passive Alliance.
- Wartime Crisis.
- Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2008). Hitler's new disorder: the Second World War in Yugoslavia. Columbia University Press. pp. 238–240. ISBN 0-231-70050-4. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
When Bulgaria switched sides in September...
- Crampton, R. J. (2005). A concise history of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-521-61637-9. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Hanna Arendt Center in Sofia, with Dinyu Sharlanov and Venelin I. Ganev. Crimes Committed by the Communist Regime in Bulgaria. Country report. "Crimes of the Communist Regimes" Conference. 24–26 February 2010, Prague.
- Valentino, Benjamin A (2005). Final solutions: mass killing and genocide in the twentieth century. Cornell University Press. pp. 91–151.
- Domestic Policy and Its ResultsQuote: "...real wages increased 75 percent, consumption of meat, fruit, and vegetables increased markedly, medical facilities and doctors became available to more of the population..."
- After Stalin.
- Stephen Broadberry; Alexander Klein (27 October 2011). "Aggregate and per capita GDP in Europe, 1870–2000" (PDF). pp. 23, 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Vachkov, Daniel; Ivanov, Martin (2008). Bulgarian Foreign Debt 1944–1989. Siela. pp. 103, 153, 191. ISBN 9789542803072.
- The Economy.
- The Political Atmosphere in the 1970s.
- Bohlen, Celestine (17 October 1991). "Vote Gives Key Role to Ethnic Turks". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
in 1980s ... the Communist leader, Todor Zhivkov, began a campaign of cultural assimilation that forced ethnic Turks to adopt Slavic names, closed their mosques and prayer houses and suppressed any attempts at protest. One result was the mass exodus of more than 300,000 ethnic Turks to neighboring Turkey in 1989
- "Cracks show in Bulgaria's Muslim ethnic model". Reuters. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Government and Politics.
- "Bulgarian Politicians Discuss First Democratic Elections 20y After". Novinite. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "The destructive Bulgarian transition". Le Monde diplomatique (in Bulgarian). 1 October 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- World Socialist Web Site (24 July 2001). "Ex-King Simeon II named new prime minister of Bulgaria". Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Library of Congress 2006, p. 16.
- "Human Development Index Report" (PDF). United Nations. 2005. p. 220. Retrieved 4 December 2011. Compare with 2004 Report, page 140. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "NATO Update: Seven new members join NATO". NATO. 29 March 2004. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Bos, Stefan (1 January 2007). "Bulgaria, Romania Join European Union". VOA News. Voice of America. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
- "Bulgaria Absolutely Ready to Take Over EU Presidency, Minister Says". Bulgarian Telegraph Agency. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Library of Congress 2006, p. 4.
- Penin, Rumen (2007). Природна география на България. Bulvest 2000. p. 18. ISBN 978-954-18-0546-6.(in Bulgarian)
- "Countries ranked by area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Мусала". Българска енциклопедия А-Я (in Bulgarian). Bulgarian Academy of Sciences / Trud. 2002. ISBN 954-8104-08-3. OCLC 163361648.
- Donchev, D. (2004). Geography of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). Ciela. p. 68. ISBN 954-649-717-7.
- "Extreme temperature records worldwide". MeteorologyClimate. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "Характеристика на флората и растителността на България". Bulgarian-Swiss program by biodiversity. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Видово разнообразие на България" (PDF). UNESCO report. 2013.
- "The future of Bulgaria's natural parks and their administrations". Gora Magazine. June 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011. (in Bulgarian)
- "Europe & North America: 297 biosphere reserves in 36 countries". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Bulgaria – Environmental Summary, UNData, United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- ""The living eternity" tells about the century-old oak in the village of Granit" (in Bulgarian). Stara Zagora Local Government. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria: Plant and animal life". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Characteristics of the flora and vegetation in Bulgaria". Bulgarian-Swiss Foundation for the Protection of Biodiversity. Retrieved 20 December 2011. (in Bulgarian)
- Denchev, C. & Assyov, B. Checklist of the larger basidiomycetes ın Bulgaria. Mycotaxon 111: 279–282 (2010).
- "Brown bear conservation in Bulgaria". Frankfurt Zoological Society. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "The big return of the lynx in Bulgaria". BirdsOfEurope. 23 May 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011. (in Bulgarian)
- "Biodiversity in Bulgaria". Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Report on European Environment Agency about the Nature protection and biodiversity in Europe". European Environment Agency. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Status of Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Bulgaria Achieves Kyoto Protocol Targets – IWR Report". Novinite. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Kanev, Petar (2009). "България от Космоса: сеч, пожари, бетон ... и надежда". *8* Magazine (in Bulgarian). Klub 8 (2).
- "Bulgaria's Air Is Dirtiest in Europe, Study Finds, Followed by Poland". The New York Times. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "High Air Pollution to Close Downtown Sofia". Novinite. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria's Sofia, Plovdiv Suffer Worst Air Pollution in Europe". Novinite. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Industrial facilities causing the highest damage costs to health and the environment". European Environment Agency. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "Bulgaria's quest to meet the environmental acquis". European Stability Initiative. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Report on European Environment Agency about the quality of freshwaters in Europe". European Environment Agency. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "2012 Environmental Performance Index". Yale University. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Library of Congress 2006, p. 17.
- "Fitch: Early Bulgaria Elections Would Create Fiscal Uncertainty". Reuters. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's government will include far-right nationalist parties for the first time". The Washington Post. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgarian Cabinet Faces No-Confidence Vote Over Atomic Plant". Bloomberg Businessweek. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Bulgarian government resigns amid growing protests". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Protests in Bulgaria and the new practice of democracy". Al Jazeera. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- "Protests in Bulgaria and the new practice of democracy". Al Jazeera. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Rightist GERB holds lead in Bulgaria's election". Reuters. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "PM Hopeful: New Bulgarian Cabinet Will Be 'Expert, Pragmatic'". Novinite.com. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- Buckley, Neil (29 May 2013). "Bulgaria parliament votes for a 'Mario Monti' to lead government". FT.com. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Seiler Bistra; Emiliyan Lilov (26 June 2013). "Bulgarians protest government of 'oligarchs'". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Timeline of Oresharski's Cabinet: A Government in Constant Jeopardy". Novinite.com. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Bulgaria's PM Plamen Oresharski Resigns". Novinite.com. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "Bulgaria's President Names Georgi Bliznashki as Prime Minister". Novinite. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "Bulgaria's 42nd Parliament Dissolved, Elections on October 5". Novinite.com. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Petrov, Angel. "Bulgaria's Grand Parliament Chessboard Might Be Both Ailment and Cure". Novinite.com. Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Bulgaria's Borisov plasters together coalition government". Reuters. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "The Bulgarian Legal System and Legal Research". Hauser Global Law School Program. August 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "US State Dept criticises Bulgaria on prisons, judiciary, corruption, people-trafficking and violence against minorities". The Sofia Globe. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Съдебната ни система – първенец по корупция" (in Bulgarian). News.bg. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Brunwasser, Matthew (5 November 2006). "Questions arise again about Bulgaria's legal system". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Transparency International report: Bulgaria perceived as EU's most corrupt country". Bulgarian National Radio. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Bulgaria Sets Up Anti-Corruption Unit; Security Chief Steps Down". Bloomberg L.P. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Interpol. "Interpol entry on Bulgaria". Interpol. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "National Police Service". Ministry of Interior of Bulgaria. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Summary of staff and vacancies in structures of the Ministry of the Interior" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). Ministry of the Interior. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "State Agency for National Security Official Website". State Agency for National Security. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "LOCAL STRUCTURES IN BULGARIA". Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Historical development of the administrative and territorial division of the Republic of Bulgaria" (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Regional Development. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "The oblasts in Bulgaria. Portraits". Ministry of Regional Development. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "The United Nations Security Council". The Green Papers Worldwide. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Todor Zhivkov's dream – Bulgaria in the EC in '87" (in Bulgarian). Dnes.bg. 15 August 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Todor Zhivkov was thinking of joining Bulgaria to the EC". Vsekiden (in Bulgarian). 3 September 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- ""Deutsche Welle": Todor Zhivkov wanted Bulgaria to join the EC". Vesti (in Bulgarian). 3 September 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "European Commission Enlargement Archives: Treaty of Accession of Bulgaria and Romania". European Commission. 25 April 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria – relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Bulgaria – Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Vietnam Thanks Bulgaria for University Graduates". Novinite. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Old ties with Russia weigh on Bulgarian decision in spy poisoning case". Reuters. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria Grows Uneasy as Trump Complicates Its Ties to Russia". The New York Times. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
For many reasons, including economic necessity, a common culture and deep historical ties...
- "Bulgaria torn between Russia and the West". Deutsche Welle. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria - Russia Relations". GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Arms Sales.
- Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s.
- "Bulgaria Factbook". Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "US, Bulgaria sign defence co-operation agreement". Southeast European Times. 28 April 2006. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Armed Forces Development Plan" (PDF). Ministry of Defence of Bulgaria. 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Military Personnel.
- Hackett, James, ed. (2017). The Military Balance 2017. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-1857439007.
- "Bulgaria Will Modernize Its Army. "Fighters, infantry fighting vehicles"". Defence24. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "S-300 Surface-to-air Missile System" (PDF). Aerospace Daily & Defense Report. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "SS-21 Scarab: Russia's Forgotten (But Deadly) Ballistic Missile". The National Interest. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- CIA World Factbook (2017). "Bulgaria Economy Profile 2017". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
- "World Bank: Data and Statistics: Country Groups". The World Bank Group. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- "Bulgaria Overview". USAID. 2002. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Bulgaria – Late Communist rule". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Bulgaria gave the highest priority to scientific and technological advancement and the development of trade skills appropriate to an industrial state. In 1948 approximately 80 percent of the population drew their living from the soil, but by 1988 less than one-fifth of the labour force was engaged in agriculture, with the rest concentrated in industry and the service sector.
- "The economies of Bulgaria and Romania". European Commission. January 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- OECD Economic Surveys. OECD. 1999. p. 24.
The previous 1997 Economic Survey of Bulgaria documented how a combination of difficult initial conditions, delays in structural reforms, ... culminated in the economic crisis of 1996–97.
- "Average monthly wages and salaries in March 2017". BTV. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "One out of six employees in the EU27 was a low-wage earner in 2010" (PDF). Eurostat. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "Budgeting in Bulgaria" (PDF). OECD Journal on Budgeting. OECD. 2009/3: 137, 138. 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Field listing: Budget". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "2018 Budget: More for salaries, health and pensions". Kapital Daily. 23 October 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Field listing: Taxes and other revenue". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "These are the 29 countries with the world's lowest levels of tax". Business Insider. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Structure of Bulgarian Tax System". Ministry of Finance of Bulgaria. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "General government gross debt - annual data" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant), by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "GDP - regional level". National Statistical Institute. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Comparative price levels". Eurostat. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Bulgaria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "EU: Countries to Begin Counting Drugs, Prostitution in Economic Growth". Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "SHADOW ECONOMY" (PDF). Eurostat. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "Fixed currency exchange rates". Bulgarian National Bank. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Unemployment rate". Eurostat. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Real GDP growth rate – volume". Eurostat. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Economist: financial crisis brewed by U.S. market fundamentalism". Xinhua News Agency. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Inter-company debt – one of Bulgarian economy's serious problems". Bulgarian National Radio. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Business points to a major disproportion in Bulgaria" (in Bulgarian). Dir.bg. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "ITUC Frontlines Report 2012: Section on Bulgaria". Novinite. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Bulgaria, Romania Rapped for Public Procurement Fraud". Novinite. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Center for the Study of Democracy (2007). Anti-corruption Reforms in Bulgaria: Key Results and Risk. Center for the Study of Democracy. p. 44.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index: Transparency International". Transparency International. 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Cloud of corruption hangs over Bulgaria as it takes up EU presidency". The Guardian. 28 December 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgarian corruption at 15-year high". The Telegraph. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgarian border officers suspended over airport security lapse". Reuters. 24 March 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria savors EU embrace despite critics". Reuters. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's government faces no-confidence vote over corruption". Reuters. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "10 bln. leva are spent on public procurement every year".
- "A record in public procurement: tenders worth nearly 14 billion lv unveiled". Kapital Daily. 29 December 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Stefanov, Ruslan (2015). "The Bulgarian Public Procurement Market: Corruption Risks and Dynamics in the Construction Sector" (PDF). Government Favouritism in Europe: The Anticorruption Report 3. Barbara Budrich Publishers: 35. ISBN 978-3-8474-0795-9. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Public procurement in Bulgaria" (PDF). Study on administrative capacity in the EU. European Commission. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's government faces no-confidence vote over corruption". Reuters. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Field listing: Labor force". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Field listing of labor force by occupation". Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Industries Field Listing". Central Intelligence Agency. 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria Automotive Report". Economist Intelligence Unit. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
In particular, offset arrangements linked to the contract of Daimler (Germany) to supply vehicles to the Bulgarian armed forces have been boosting the local automotive parts sector.
- "Bulgaria: Selling off steel". Oxford Business Group. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Mining Industry Accounts for 5% of Bulgaria's GDP – Energy Minister". Novinite. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's ore exports rise 10% in H1 2011 – industry group". The Sofia Echo. 18 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Total Primary Coal Production (Thousand Short Tons)". U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Resource Base.
- "Agricultural Policies in non-OECD countries: Monitoring and Evaluation" (PDF). OECD. 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria – Natural conditions, farming traditions and agricultural structures". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Bulgaria – Economic Summary, UNData, United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Experts: Bumper Year for Wheat Producers in Dobrich Region". Bulgarian Telegraph Agency. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Bulgarian lavender producers worried about demand drop". China Post. 14 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgarian rose oil keeps its top place on world market". Bulgarian National Radio. 31 May 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria is Again the World's First Producer of Lavender Oil". Novinite. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "General information to the tourism sector in Bulgaria" (PDF). OECD Library. 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Bulgaria 'cheapest holiday destination'". The Sofia Echo. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Europe (without the euro)". The Guardian. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Nights spent by foreigners and arrivals of foreigners in accommodation establishments by country of origin in 2012". National Statistical Institute. 22 February 2013. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Bulgarian tourism gets 42M leva boost". The Sofia Echo. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Eurostat R&D statistics". Eurostat. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "EU Presidency Puts Lagging Bulgarian Science in the Spotlight". Novinite. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "R&D Spending in Bulgaria Up in 2015, Mostly Driven by Businesses". Novinite. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "The 2015 Bloomberg Innovation Index". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- Shopov, V. (2007). "The impact of the European scientific area on the 'Brain leaking' problem in the Balkan countries". Nauka (in Bulgarian) (1).
- "Bulgaria strives to become tech capital of the Balkans". The Financial Times. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's ICT Sector Turnover Trebled over Last Seven Years - Deputy Economy Minister". BTA. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Girls and women under-represented in ICT". Eurostat. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria builds on legacy of female engineering elite". The Financial Times. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "The Great Bulgarian BrainDrain". Delft Technical University. 2 October 2003. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Bulgaria's small computing army". Kapital Daily. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Burgess, Colin; Vis, Bert (2016). Interkosmos: The Eastern Bloc's Early Space Program. Springer. pp. 247–250. ISBN 978-3-319-24161-6.
- "Cosmonauts Eager, Hopeful for Reboot of Bulgaria's Space Program". Novinite. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Ivanova, T.N.; Kostov, P.T.; Sapunova, S.M.; Dandolov, I.W.; Salisbury, F.B.; Bingham, G.E.; Sytchov, V.N.; Levinskikh, M.A.; Podolski, I.G.; Bubenheim, D.B.; Jahns, G. (January–April 1998). "Six-month space greenhouse experiments—a step to creation of future biological life support systems". Acta Astronautica. Space Research Institute. 42 (1–8): 11–23. Bibcode:1998AcAau..42...11I. doi:10.1016/S0094-5765(98)00102-7. PMID 11541596.
- Mishev, Dimitar (2004). Space Research in Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (via the Marin Drinov publishing house). p. 162. ISBN 954-430-994-2.
16 June 1990: Onboard research on the Mir Space Station under the Interkosmos program begin with the Bulgarian-developed SVET space greenhouse ...
- Harland, David M.; Ulivi, Paolo (2009). Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part 2: Hiatus and Renewal, 1983-1996. Springer. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-387-78904-0.
- Dimitrova, Milena (2008). The Golden Decades of Bulgarian Electronics. Trud. pp. 257–258.
- Badescu, Viorel; Zacny, Kris (2015). Inner Solar System: Prospective Energy and Material Resources. Springer. p. 276. ISBN 978-3-319-19568-1.
- Semkova, Jordanka; Dachev, Tsvetan (2015). "Radiation environment investigations during ExoMars missions to Mars – objectives, experiments and instrumentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences. 47 (25): 485–496. ISSN 1310-1331. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- "Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment (RADOM)". ISRO. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Dachex, Yu.; Dimitrov, F.; Tomov, O.; Matviichuk; Spurny; Ploc (2011). "Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instruments". Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Oxford University Press. 144 (1–4): 675–679. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncq506. ISSN 1742-3406. PMID 21177270.
- "BulgariaSat-1 Mission". SpaceX. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Library of Congress 2006, p. 14.
- "Bulgaria: 2011 Telecommunication Market and Regulatory Developments" (PDF). European Commission. 2011. p. 2. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Bulgaria Opens Tender for Fourth Mobile Operator". Novinite. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Europe Internet Usage Stats and Market Report". Internetworldstats.com. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "Energy Hub". Oxford Business Group. 13 October 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria joins Poland in appeal against EU pollution crackdown". Reuters. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Kozloduy NPP EAD 2016 Annual Report" (PDF). AETs Kozloduy EAD. p. 18. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Bulgaria - Power Generation". International Trade Administration. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Bulgaria among EU countries with highest consumption of electricity from renewables". Bulgarian National Radio. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "World rankings by total road length". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "The trains from Plovdiv to Dimitrovgrad now with 160 km/h". Dariknews. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "Bulgaria to Turkey wiring underway". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "Bozhkov is building the "Maritsa" high-speed rail line". Standart (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "The Plovdiv-Burgas train will travel with 200 km/h" (in Bulgarian). Snews.bg. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "Trains in Bulgaria". EuRail. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- NSI Census data 2011, p. 3.
- NSI Census data 2011, p. 7.
- NSI Census data 2011, p. 12.
- NSI Census data 2011, p. 4.
- "Census results: population by residence, ethnic group and age". National Statistical Institute. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Field listing: Ethnic Groups". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "World Bank: The demographic crisis is Bulgaria's most serious problem". Klassa. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Demographic crisis in Bulgaria deepening". Bulgarian National Radio. 12 March 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Will EU Entry Shrink Bulgaria's Population Even More?". Deutsche Welle. 26 December 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- Roth, Klaus; Lauth Bacas, Jutta (2004). Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe. The British Library. ISBN 9783643108968. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Country Comparison :: Population growth rate". Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Birth rates by country". Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Death rates by country". Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Country Health Profile, p. 1
- "Bulgaria: Health Care & Long-Term Care Systems" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Georgieva, Lidia; Salchev, Petko (2007). "Bulgaria Health system review" (PDF). Health Systems in Transition. European observatory on health systems and policies. 9 (1): xvi, 12. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Country Health Profile, p. 7
- Country Health Profile, pp. 8, 11, 12.
- "The Bulgaria 2012 Review: Health and Healthcare". Novinite. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Education in Bulgaria" (PDF). 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Library of Congress 2006, p. 6.
- "International study: 40% of Bulgarian ninth-graders functionally illiterate in science, maths and reading". The Sofia Globe. 2016-12-06. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
- "Field Listing: Literacy". Central Intelligence Agency. 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Structure of the Education System in Bulgaria". Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria: University Ranking". Webometrics. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Study in Bulgaria". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Paul Robert Magocsi (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- James David Bourchier (1911). "Bulgaria – Language". Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Census results" (PDF). 2011.
- "The Bulgarian Constitution". Parliament of Bulgaria. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Kiminas, D. (2009). The Ecumenical Patriarchate. Wildside Press LLC. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4344-5876-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Carvalho, Joaquim (2007). Religion and power in Europe: conflict and convergence. Pisa University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-88-8492-464-3. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgarian Orthodox Church". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- NSI Census data 2011, p. 5.
- "Bulgaria's Muslims not deeply religious: study". Hürriyet Daily News. Agence France-Presse. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Bulgaria – The arts". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
The early impetus of Bulgarian traditions in the arts was cut short by the Ottoman occupation in the 14th century, and many early masterpieces were destroyed. ... the foundations were laid for later artists such as Vladimir Dimitrov, an extremely gifted painter specializing in the rural scenes of his native country ... At the beginning of the 21st century, the best-known contemporary Bulgarian artist was Christo, an environmental sculptor known for wrapping famous structures
- MacDermott, Mercia (1998). Bulgarian folk customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 64–70. ISBN 1-85302-485-6. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Creed, Gerald W. (2011). Masquerade and Postsocialism: Ritual and Cultural Dispossession in Bulgaria. Indiana University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-253-22261-9.
- "The Martenitsa Story". The Sofia Echo. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- MacDermott, Mercia (1998). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 226. ISBN 1-85302-485-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
While dancing round fires and jumping over fires forms part of many Slav customs, dancing on fire does not, and it is therefore likely that nestinarstvo was inherited by the Bulgarians from the Hellenized Thracians who inhabited the land before them.
- "Nestinarstvo, messages from the past: the Panagyr of Saints Constantine and Helena in the village of Bulgari". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria – Profile". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgarian Literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Giatzidis, Emil (2002). An Introduction to post-Communist Bulgaria: Political, economic and social transformation. Manchester University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-7190-6094-X. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Thus, with its early emphasis on Christian Orthodox scholarship, Bulgaria became the first major centre of Slavic culture
- Riha, Thomas (1964). Readings in Russian Civilization. University of Chicago press. p. 214. ISBN 0-226-71853-0. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
And it was mainly from Bulgaria that a rich supply of literary monuments was transferred to Kiev and other centres.
- McNeill, William Hardy (1963). The Rise of the West. The University of Chicago Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-226-56141-0. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Accordingly, when Bulgaria was converted to Christianity (after 865), bringing massive Slavic-speaking populations within the pale of Christendom, a new literary language, Old Church Slavonic, directly based upon Bulgarian speech, developed for their use.
- Ertl, Alan W (2008). Toward understanding Europe: A political précis of continental integration. Universal Publishers, Inc. p. 436. ISBN 1-59942-983-7. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
At the beginning of the 10th century a new alphabet – the Cyrillic alphabet – was developed on the basis of Greek and Glagolitic cursive at the Preslav Literary School.
- "French-Bulgarian Theorist Tzvetan Todorov Wins Top Spanish Award". Novinite. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Lorenz, Dagmar C. G. (17 April 2004). "Elias Canetti". Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company Limited. ISSN 1747-678X. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Grabar, André (1928). La peinture religiouse en Bulgarie. P. Geuthner. p. 95.ASIN: B005ZI4OV8
- Kremenliev, Boris A. (1952). Bulgarian-Macedonian Folk Music. University of California Press. p. 52. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
Bulgaria's scales are numerous, and it may be demonstrated that they are a fusion of Eastern and Western influences. ... first, Oriental scales; second, church modes: the osmoglasie ... third, the conventional scales of Western Europe. ... Among the scales which have comes to the Balkans from Asia, the pentatonic is one of the most widely used in Bulgaria. Whether it came from China or Japan, as Dobri Hristov suggests...
- "32nd Grammy Awards Winners". Grammy Awards. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Lang, David Marshall (1976). The Bulgarians: from pagan times to the Ottoman conquest. Westview Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-89158-530-5.
John Kukuzel, the eminent Bulgarian/born reformer of Byzantine music.
- "The 2011/2012 season of the National Opera and Ballet House". Bulgarian National Radio. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Obituary: Ghena Dimitrova". The Telegraph. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Forbes, Elizabeth (29 June 1993). "Obituary: Boris Christoff". The Independent. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Kozinn, Allan (29 June 1993). "Boris Christoff, Bass, Dies at 79; Esteemed for His Boris Godunov". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Nicolai Ghiaurov, Operatic Bass, Dies at 74". The New York Times. 3 June 2004. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- "Media Landscape – Bulgaria". European Journalism Centreaccessdate=2 May 2014.
Library of Congress – Federal Research Division (October 2006). "Country Profile: Bulgaria" (PDF). Library of Congress. pp. 18, 23. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
Mass Media: In 2006 Bulgaria's print and broadcast media generally were considered unbiased, although the government dominated broadcasting through the state-owned Bulgarian National Television (BNT) and Bulgarian National Radio (BNR) and print news dissemination through the largest press agency, the Bulgarian Telegraph Agency. [...]Human Rights: In the early 2000s, Bulgaria generally has been rated highly on the issue of human rights. However, some exceptions exist, although the media have a record of unbiased reporting, Bulgaria's lack of specific legislation protecting the media from state interference is a theoretical weakness.
- Media Landscape – Bulgaria, European Journalism Centre Archived 22 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Bulgaria". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Why Bulgaria is the EU's lowest ranked country on press freedom index". The Guardian. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 61, 62. ISBN 978-0-313-37626-9. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria Bounces Back". Novinite. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- "Bulgaria ranks 22nd in wine". Novinite.com. 21 October 2016.
- "Bulgaria wine production 2016". See news. 14 February 2017.
- "Wines of Bulgaria". Chicago now.
- "Archeological Find Proves Rakia Is Bulgarian Invention". Novinite. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria- Sport and recreation". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
In international sports competition, Bulgarians have excelled in tennis, wrestling, boxing, and gymnastics, but the country's greatest repute may be in weight-lifting. ... Fans of football (soccer), the most popular sport in Bulgaria, were buoyed by the success of the national team in the 1994 World Cup, when it advanced to the semi-final match under the leadership of forward Hristo Stoichkov, the premier league in Bulgaria has 16 teams, of which four play in Sofia: CSKA, Levski, Slavia, and Lokomotiv.
- "FIVB official rankings as per October 7, 2013". International Volleyball Federation (FIVB). 7 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "Hristo Stoichkov – Bulgarian League Ambassador". Professional Football Against Hunger. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Rankings of A Group". BgClubs. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Ingo Faulhaber. "Best club of 20th century ranking at the official site of the International Federation of Football History and Statistics". Iffhs.de. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- "Athens 1896". Bulgarian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria". Official website of the Olympic movement. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria" (in Bulgarian). National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- Chary, Frederick B. The History of Bulgaria (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations) (2011) excerpt and text search
- Crampton, R. J. A Concise History of Bulgaria (2005). Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-61637-9.
- Bell, John D., ed. (1998). Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society, and Culture after Communism. Westview. ISBN 978-0-8133-9010-9
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2011) Lost in Transition: Ethnographies of Everyday Life After Communism. Duke University Press.
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2010) Muslim Lives in Eastern Europe: Gender, Ethnicity and the Transformation of Islam in Postsocialist Bulgaria. Princeton University Press.
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2005) The Red Riviera: Gender, Tourism and Postsocialism on the Black Sea. Duke University Press.
- "Country Profile: Bulgaria" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Curtis, Glenn E.; Mitova, Pamela; Marsteller, William; Soper, Karl Wheeler (1993) [1992 research]. "Country Study: Bulgaria". Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Historical Setting". Chapter 1. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "The First Golden Age". Chapter 1. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "The Final Move to Independence". The Bulgarian Independence Movement. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "San Stefano, Berlin, and Independence". The Bulgarian Independence Movement. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Bulgaria in World War II: The Passive Alliance". World War II. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Wartime Crisis". World War II. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "After Stalin". Communist Consolidation. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "Domestic Policy and Its Results". Communist Consolidation. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". The Zhivkov Era. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "The Political Atmosphere in the 1970s". The Zhivkov Era. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Topography". The Society and its Environment. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Climate". The Society and its Environment. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "The Economy". Chapter 3. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Resource Base". The Economy. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Government and Politics". Chapter 4. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Arms Sales". National Security. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Military Personnel". National Security. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
- Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-14-4435-163-7.
- "State of Health in the EU. Country Health Profile: Bulgaria 2017" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 20 May 2018.