SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bulgarian Armed Forces

The Bulgarian Army represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of Bulgaria; the Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership while overall military command remains in the hands of the Defence Staff, headed by the Chief of the Defence. There are three main branches, named the Land Forces, the Air Forces and the Naval Forces and the term "Bulgarian Army" encompasses them all together. Throughout history, the Army has played a major role in defending the country's sovereignty. Only several years after its liberation, Bulgaria became a regional military power and was involved in several major wars – Serbo-Bulgarian War, First Balkan War, Second Balkan War, First World War and Second World War, during which the Army gained significant combat experience. During the Cold War the People's Republic of Bulgaria maintained one of the largest militaries in the Warsaw Pact, numbering an estimated 152,000 troops in 1988. Since the Fall of Communism, the political leadership decided to pursue a pro-NATO policy, thus reducing military personnel and weaponry.

Bulgaria joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on 29 March 2004 and maintains a total 776 deployed troops in three countries. The patron saint of the Bulgarian Army is St. George; the Armed Forces Day or St. George's Day is an official holiday in Bulgaria; the modern Bulgarian military dates back to 1878. On 22 July 1878 a total of 12 battalions of opalchentsi who participated in the Liberation war, formed the Bulgarian armed forces. According to the Tarnovo Constitution, all men between 21 and 40 years of age were eligible for military service. In 1883 the military was reorganized in one cavalry brigade; the Serbo-Bulgarian War was the first armed conflict after Bulgaria's liberation. It was a result of the unification with Eastern Rumelia, which happened on 6 September 1885; the unification was not recognized and one of the countries that refused to recognize the act was the Kingdom of Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian Empire had been expanding its influence in the Balkans and was opposed. Serbia feared this would diminish its dominance in the region.

In addition, Serbian ruler Milan Obrenović IV was annoyed that Serbian opposition leaders like Nikola Pašić, who had escaped persecution after the Timok Rebellion, had found asylum in Bulgaria. Lured by Austria-Hungary's promises of territorial gains from Bulgaria, Milan IV declared war on Bulgaria on 14 November 1885. Military strategy relied on surprise, as Bulgaria had moved most of its troops near the border with the Ottoman Empire, in the southeast; as it happened, the Ottomans did not intervene and the Serbian army's advance was stopped after the Battle of Slivnitsa. The main body of the Bulgarian army traveled from the Ottoman border in the southeast to the Serbian border in the northwest to defend the capital, Sofia. After the defensive battles at Slivnitsa and Vidin, Bulgaria began an offensive that took the city of Pirot. At this point the Austro-Hungarian Empire stepped in, threatening to join the war on Serbia's side if Bulgarian troops did not retreat. Fighting lasted from 14 -- 28 November.

A peace treaty was signed in Bucharest on 19 February 1886. No territorial changes were made to either country, but Bulgarian unification was recognized by the Great Powers. Instability in the Balkan region in the early 1900s became a precondition for a new war. Serbia's aspirations towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Austrian annexation of the province in October 1908, so the Serbs focused their attention onto their historic cradle, to the south for expansion. Greek officers, revolting in August 1909, had secured the appointment of a progressive government under Eleftherios Venizelos, which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greece's favor and reverse their defeat of 1897 by the Ottomans. Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of its independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and Macedonia for expansion. In March 1910 an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo. In August Montenegro followed Bulgaria's precedent by becoming a kingdom.

In 1911 Italy launched an invasion of Tripolitania, followed by the occupation of the Dodecanese Islands. The Italians' decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire influenced the Balkan states to prepare for war against Turkey. Thus, in the spring of 1912 consultations among the various Christian Balkan nations resulted in a network of military alliances that became known as the Balkan League; the Great Powers, most notably France and Austria-Hungary, reacted to this diplomatic sensation by trying to dissuade the League from going to war, but failed. In late September both the League and the Ottoman Empire mobilized their armies. Montenegro was the first to declare war, on 25 September / 8 October; the other three states, after issuing an impossible ultimatum to the Porte on 13 October, declared war on Turkey on 17 October. The Balkan League relied on 700,000 troops. Bulgaria dubbed "the Prussia of the Balkans", was militarily the most powerful of the four states, with a large, well-trained and well-equipped army.

The peacetime army of 60,000 troops was expanded during the war to 370,000, with 600,000 men mobilized in total out of a population of 4,300,000. The Bulgarian field army consisted of nine infantry divisions, o

Mac Powell

Mac Powell from Clanton, Alabama, is an American singer, songwriter and musician who formed the Christian rock band Third Day with guitarist Mark Lee. Powell won the 2001 Gospel Music Association award for "Male Vocalist of the Year". After his family moved from Alabama to Georgia, Powell attended McEachern High School in Powder Springs, where he met Lee and became involved in a band known as "Nuclear Hoedown." This experience resulted in further collaboration when he began writing songs about his faith, formed a Christian band called Third Day, landed a record deal with Gray Dot Records. Powell lives in Atlanta, with his wife and five children: Scout, Camie Love and Birdie Clare. Powell has collaborated with other artists on numerous occasions, most notably in the City On A Hill series, more in the Glory Revealed series. Credits include: 1999, "Seize the Day" and "I Can Hear You" on Carolyn Arends' Seize the Day and Other Stories 2000, "God of Wonders" and "I Remember You" on City on a Hill: Songs of Worship and Praise 2000, "Sheltering Tree" Additional personnel/vocals on NewSong's Sheltering Tree 2002, "Sing Alleluia" "Our Great God" on City on a Hill: Sing Alleluia 2002, "It's Christmas Time" on City on a Hill: It's Christmas Time 2002, "Mountain of God" on Max Lucado's album Traveling Light: Songs From the 23rd Psalm 2003, "We Come To Your Throne With Weeping" on Light 2003, "Love Lifted Me" on Worship and Faith 2003, "Friends 2003" a special tribute to and featuring Michael W. Smith 2004, "Believe Me Now" on Steven Curtis Chapman's All Things New 2004, "I See Love" on The Passion of the Christ: Songs 2007, "By His Wounds" on Glory Revealed 2008, "Fly Away" with GRITS on Reiterate 2008, "Over the Next Hill" on Billy: The Early Years 2010, "Carry Me" from Jenny & Tyler's Faint Not 2012, Mac Powell Country album - August 1, 2012 and August 21, 2012 general release date 2014, Southpaw Country album - October 14, 2014 2015, "Make Me a Believer" from Andy Mineo's "Uncomfortable" album 2018, Mac Powell and the Family Reunion - 2004, Co-producer on Fusebox's Once Again album 2009, Co-producer on Revive's Chorus of the Saints album Official Third Day site Mac Powell discography at MusicBrainz

Dreams Come True (Andrew Hill & Chico Hamilton album)

Dreams Come True is an album of duets by American jazz pianist Andrew Hill and drummer Chico Hamilton recorded in 1993 but not released on the Joyous Shout! Label until 2008; the album features two by Hamilton and two covers. The Time Out New York review by Hank Shteamer stated "It’s a major work befitting its fairy-tale title... No pianist achieved a more seamless blend of weirdness and warmth, few recordings illustrate that as potently as this one". On All About Jazz Lyn Horton said: "The two instrumentalists nearly partition themselves from one another and the correspondence that occurs between them is engaging and challenging... The duo's intention is not to establish synchrony but to discover the groove that surges out of placing musical elements against each other.