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Bulgarian Orthodox Church

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church the Patriarchate of Bulgaria, is an autocephalous Orthodox Church. It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas, New Zealand and Asia. It was recognized as autocephalous Church by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in AD 870, becoming Patriarchate in 918/919; the Bulgarian Orthodox Church has its origin in the flourishing Christian communities and churches, set up in the Balkans as early as the first centuries of the Christian era. Christianity was brought to the Bulgarian lands and the rest of the Balkans by the apostles Paul and Andrew in the 1st century AD, when the first organised Christian communities were formed. By the beginning of the 4th century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in the region. Towns such as Serdica, Odessus and Adrianople were significant centres of Christianity in the Roman Empire; the first Christian monastery in Europe was founded in Thrace in 344 by Saint Athanasius near modern-day Chirpan, following the Council of Serdica and the Edict of Serdica.

The barbarian raids and incursions in the 4th and the 5th and the settlement of Slavs and Bulgars in the 6th and the 7th centuries wrought considerable damage to the ecclesiastical organisation of the Christian Church in the Bulgarian lands, yet they were far from destroying it. Kubrat and Organa were both baptized together in Constantinople and Christianity started to pave its way from the surviving Christian communities to the surrounding Bulgar-Slavic mass. By the middle of the 9th century, the majority of the Bulgarian Slavs those living in Thrace and Macedonia, were Christianized; the process of conversion enjoyed some success among the Bulgar nobility. It was not until the official adoption of Christianity by Khan Boris I in 865 that an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical entity was established. Boris I believed that cultural advancement and the sovereignty and prestige of a Christian Bulgaria could be achieved through an enlightened clergy governed by an autocephalous church. To this end, he manoeuvred between the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Roman Pope for a period of five years until in 870 AD, the Fourth Council of Constantinople granted the Bulgarians an autonomous Bulgarian archbishopric.

The archbishopric had its seat in the Bulgarian capital of Pliska and its diocese covered the whole territory of the Bulgarian state. The tug-of-war between Rome and Constantinople was resolved by putting the Bulgarian archbishopric under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, from whom it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological books. Although the archbishopric enjoyed full internal autonomy, the goals of Boris I were scarcely fulfilled. A Greek liturgy offered by a Byzantine clergy furthered neither the cultural development of the Bulgarians, nor the consolidation of the Bulgarian Empire. Following the Byzantine theory of "Imperium sine Patriarcha non staret", which predominated that a close relation should exist between an Empire and Patriarchate, Boris I greeted the arrival of the disciples of the deceased Saints Cyril and Methodius in 886 as an opportunity. Boris I gave them the task to instruct the future Bulgarian clergy in the Glagolitic alphabet and the Slavonic liturgy prepared by Cyril.

The liturgy was based on the vernacular of the Bulgarian Slavs from the region of Thessaloniki. In 893, Boris I expelled the Greek clergy from the country and ordered the replacement of the Greek language with the Slav-Bulgarian vernacular. Following Bulgaria's two decisive victories over the Byzantines at Acheloos and Katasyrtai, the government declared the autonomous Bulgarian Archbishopric as autocephalous and elevated it to the rank of Patriarchate at an ecclesiastical and national council held in 919. After Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire signed a peace treaty in 927 that concluded the 20-year-long war between them, the Patriarchate of Constantinople recognised the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and acknowledged its patriarchal dignity; the Bulgarian Patriarchate was the first autocephalous Slavic Orthodox Church, preceding the autocephaly of the Serbian Orthodox Church by 300 years and of the Russian Orthodox Church by some 600 years. It was the sixth Patriarchate after the Pentarchy Patriarchates of Rome, Alexandria and Jerusalem.

The seat of the Patriarchate was the new Bulgarian capital of Preslav. The Patriarch was to have resided in the town of Drastar, an old Christian centre famous for its martyrs and Christian traditions. On April 5, 972, Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces conquered and burned down Preslav, captured Bulgarian Tsar Boris II. Patriarch Damyan managed to escape to Sredetz in western Bulgaria. In the coming years, the residence of the Bulgarian patriarchs remained connected to the developments in the war between the next Bulgarian royal dynasty, the Comitopuli, the Byzantine Empire. Patriarch German resided consecutively in the Medieval Bulgarian cities of Maglen and Voden, Prespa. Around 990, the next patriarch, moved to Ohrid (in present-day south-western Republic of

Ulmus × hollandica 'Belgica'

The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica'Belgica', one of a number of hybrids arising from the crossing of Wych Elm with a variety of Field Elm, was reputedly raised in the nurseries of the Abbey of the Dunes, Veurne, in 1694. Popular throughout Belgium and the Netherlands in the 19th century both as an ornamental and as a shelter-belt tree, it was the'Hollandse iep' in these countries, as distinct from the tree known as'Dutch Elm' in Great Britain and Ireland since the 17th century: Ulmus × hollandica'Major'. In Francophone Belgium it was known as orme gras de Malines.'Belgica' arose in the same hybridization zone that produced'Ypreau','Klemmer' and'Dumont', among other elm cultivars.'Belgica' has a broad crown supported by a straight, rough-barked stem. Unusually thriving on poor sandy soils, it proved one of the fastest-growing elms in Europe achieving heights of < 40 m. The obovate to elliptic leaves are < 12 cm long by 5 cm wide, terminate at the apex as a long, serrated point.'Belgica' was prized, among other reasons, for its "ease and grace of twigs and foliage".

Susceptible to Dutch elm disease, it was the loss of this particular elm more than any other to the earlier strain of the disease which initiated the Dutch elm breeding programme in 1928. In trials of Dutch clones and present, conducted at Wageningen in 2008 and 2009,'Belgica' exhibited 89% defoliation eight weeks after inoculation.'Belgica' is very vulnerable to verticillium wilt.'Belgica' was planted in great numbers along roads and canals in the Low Countries, in squares and gardens. Its popularity and its aesthetic qualities are evidenced in photographic records of the Netherlands from the late 19th century to c.1920. It is still present in there in smaller numbers.'Belgica's "rapid growth on poor soils and its good resistance to wind and atmospheric pollution" made it an ideal choice for shelter-belt planting. The Späth nursery of Berlin supplied an U. montana belgica to the Dominion Arboretum, Canada in 1896, one to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902. U. Belgica,'Belgian Elm', "of rapid growth and fine spreading shape", appears from the 1870s in the catalogues of the Mount Hope Nursery of Rochester, New York, in the catalogues of Kelsey's, New York.

The cultivar has been introduced to arboreta in North America. Young specimens were said to be "flourishing" in Arnold Arboretum in 1915. There is no record of its introduction to Australasia; the Oudemanhuispoort'Belgica' in Amsterdam, planted in 1895, is the largest elm in the Netherlands, with a height of 34.6 m and a girth of 4.4 m. The UK TROBI champion tree grows at Dyke Park Road in Brighton, measuring 17 m high by 92 cm d.b.h. in 2009, one of nine trees forming part of the NCCPG Collection. The columnar boles, high-arching branches and graceful foliage of'Belgica' elms beside canals and streets in the Netherlands are celebrated in many of the paintings and drawings of the Dutch artist Karel Klinkenberg. Ulmus batavina: Koch, Dendrologie. Ulmus belgica: Weston, The English flora 46. 1775. Ulmus campestris bataviana: Simon-Louis, France. Catalogue, 1869. Ulmus montana var. belgica: Späth list, 1902 Ulmus × hollandica var. belgica'Den Haag', raised in the Netherlands in 1936. An unnamed cultivar of the same parentage stood in The Hague, in the mid-20th century.

Augustine Henry considered the once planted elm cultivar U. × hollandica'Dumont' to be a variety of'Belgica', calling it Ulmus belgica var. Dumontii. North AmericaArnold Arboretum, US. Acc. no. 322–81 Longwood Gardens, US. Acc. no. 1967–0877 Morton Arboretum, US. Acc. no. 1457–24EuropeBrighton & Hove City Council, UK. NCCPG Elm Collection. Examples planted at Dyke Road Park and Donald Hall Road. Grange Farm Arboretum, Lincolnshire, UK. Acc. no. 1145. Wijdemeren city council, Netherlands. Elm collection, five trees planted 2018 ‘s-Gravelandsevaartweg, Loosdrecht Coles Nurseries, Leicester, UK. Noordplant, Netherlands. "Herbarium specimen - L.4223267". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet labelled Ulmus x hollandica'Belgica', Achterhoek, 1958 "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1847173". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Short samarae. Sheet labelled Ulmus x hollandica'Belgica', Wageningen Arboretum, 1962 "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1847177". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Sheet labelled Ulmus x hollandica'Belgica', Wageningen Arboretum, 1962 "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1847176". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet labelled Ulmus x hollandica'Belgica', Wageningen Arboretum, 1962 noordplant.nl, Ulmus × hollandica'Belgica'

Useful space principle

The Useful Space Principle, or USP, was first articulated in a series of six articles in The Bridge World, from November 1980 through April 1981. The USP is expressed succinctly in The Bridge World glossary as: "a partnership's assigning meanings to actions so that the remaining bidding space matches the needs of the auction." The articles on the USP were the genesis of used conventional methods such as Kickback and transfer advances of overcalls. The USP tells bidding theorists; the Blackwood convention, as formulated, violates the USP. Suppose that the agreed trump suit is spades. After the Blackwood "asker" bids 4NT, "teller" can convey four separate messages without bypassing the safety level of 5♠ – four aces or none with 5♣, one ace with 5♦, two aces with 5♥ and three aces with 5♠, but what if the agreed trump suit is clubs? Suppose that asker and teller each have one ace. After 4NT, teller bids 5♦ to show his ace, the partnership has to play 6♣ off two aces; the problem can occur when the agreed trump suit is diamonds, although it is less because there is more space available for responses than when the agreed trump suit is clubs.

But if the partnership is using Roman Key-Card Blackwood there can be similar problems. Suppose that hearts is agreed, asker has one ace and teller has one ace plus the king and queen of hearts. Asker bids 4NT and teller bids 5♠ to show two key cards plus the trump queen, the partnership is again too high; the problem is that Blackwood ignores the USP. The lower in rank the agreed trump suit, the more space, needed if the partnership is to stay at or below a safety level; the Kickback ace-asking convention deals with the problem by adjusting the asking bid according to which suit is agreed as trump. The ask is always one step above four of the trump suit. So, if clubs is agreed, the ask is 4♦; the responses to the ask might be similar to Blackwood, but instead of associating a specific suit with a specific number of aces, the responses are in terms of the number of steps above the ask. If spades will be trump, 4NT is the ask, 5♣, one step, might show zero or four aces, according to partnership agreement.

If diamonds will be trump, 4♥ is the ask, 4♠, one step above the ask, might show zero or four aces. The effect is to allocate bidding space. If clubs is agreed and each partner has one ace, asker bids 4 teller bids 4 ♠ to show one ace; the partnership can now sign off in 5♣. There is a cost, of course: the partnership that plays Kickback loses the ability to cue-bid the ace of the suit above trumps; that is, assuming that hearts will be trumps, asker can no longer bid 4♠ to show first round control of spades: that would be the Kickback asking bid. The solution is to use 4NT to show a first round control in the Kickback asking suit. With diamonds agreed, 4♥ is the Kickback ask, 4NT shows the ♥A or, if credible in the context of the prior bidding, a void; the agreement that 4NT is a cue-bid still entails a cost, but Kickback users argue that there is a net gain. For example, with clubs agreed, South would bid 4NT to show a first round control in diamonds; this bid not only bypasses the Kickback ask, but prevents North from cue-bidding 4♥ or 4♠.

Kickback users believe that the gain in space from adjusting the ace-ask outweighs getting in the way of partner's cue-bid. Notice that the Gerber convention, the use of 4♣ to ask for aces when NT is the final strain, is a special case of Kickback; the foregoing is meant only to illustrate the USP. It describes neither additional understandings that Kickback can accommodate, nor the special problems that can arise. Suppose that North opens a strong NT, North-South are playing Jacoby transfers, South holds ♠ KQ965 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ 854. South bids 2♥, hoping to pass North's 2♠, but South would bid 2♥ with ♠ KQ965 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ A54 and ♠ AKQ65 ♥ 6 ♦ 8752 ♣ A54. The transfer gives the partnership plenty of space for any continuation. In contrast, the traditional bid of 2♠ as a signoff over 1NT means that the partnership must give up bidding space in order to make forcing bids that start at the three level, it is when South wants to sign off by bidding 2♠ directly that the smallest amount of bidding space is needed, but that bid takes away three steps.

Transfers, whatever costs they entail, tend to conform to the USP. Now consider competitive bidding. Suppose that West opens 1 ♠, North overcalls 2 East passes. South holds ♠ 854 ♥ 6 ♦ KQ9653 ♣ 854. Now: If 3♦ is nonforcing all is well. South leaves the rest to North. If 3♦ is forcing South must pass and miss a good diamond contract; the 3♦ bid takes up so much space that, if it is forcing, South cannot show a weak hand with a good suit. Again after 1♠ – – P, South holds ♠ 854 ♥ 6 ♦ KQ9653 ♣ KJ4. Now: If 3♦ is nonforcing South must cue bid 2♠ to prepare a rebid in diamonds; the hand is too strong to bid a nonforcing 3♦. But North's rebid often 3♥, may well prevent South from showing the diamonds below 3NT. If 3♦ is forcing all is well on this hand, if South has a heart fit and a good hand he can cue bid 2♠. In this sequence the cue-bid takes up minimal space – but how is that space to be used when South has shown a heart fit in a str

Devante Davis

Devante Davis is a former American football wide receiver. He played college football at UNLV. Davis attended North Shore Senior High School in North Shore, where he graduated in 2011, he lettered three times as a tight end under coach David Aymond, averaging more than 20 yards per catch and helping the Mustangs go 11–2 and earn a district title as a senior. Davis was one of the state's top performers in track & field and was named All-district and All-state in the triple jump after leading the nation with a leap of 15.82 meters, set at the District 21-5A Meet in 2011. He played basketball. Davis played college football at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas from 2011 to 2014; the former state champion in the triple jump chose the Rebels over offers that included a track scholarship from Texas A&M. As a sophomore in 2012, Davis tallied a career-high 184 receiving yards against Louisiana Tech, he finished the season with 61 receptions for 854 yards. In 2013, Davis caught 87 passes for 1,290 yards, set a UNLV record with 14 touchdown receptions.

He helped lead the 2013 UNLV Rebels football team to its first bowl game in 13 seasons, he caught 10 passes in the Heart of Dallas Bowl on New Year's Day 2014. After considering declaring himself eligible for the NFL Draft after his junior season, Davis announced in January 2014 that he would return to UNLV for his senior season, he missed nearly half of the 2014 season due to injury, but tallied 163 receiving yards against Hawaii on November 22, 2014. With Davis hampered by injury, the 2014 UNLV Rebels football team compiled a 2–11 record. Davis finished, he was unable to play due to a hamstring injury. Prior to Davis, no other offensive player from UNLV had been invited to play in the Senior Bowl since running back Ickey Woods in 1987. Davis went undrafted in the 2015 NFL draft but he was invited to the NFL scouting combine. Davis signed with the Philadelphia Eagles as an undrafted free agent May 4, 2015, he was waived on August 4, 2015. UNLV profile Philadelphia Eagles profile

Ketaki Mategaonkar

Ketaki Mategaonkar is a playback singer and actress She started acting in the movie Shala. She has acted in Marathi movies Aarohi and Taani, in the movies Taani and Phuntroo she has played an important role, she studied at Kaveri Institute. She is completing her graduation in the faculty of arts- Specialisation in English Literature. Maharashtra State Marathi Film Festival Award Maharashtra cha Favorite Kon Award for Popular Face Naris Dutt Award Sahyadri Face of the Year Mirchi Music Awards for listeners choice Filmfare Awards for Best Playback Singer female Maharashtra cha Favorite Kon Award for Best Actress Maharashtra cha Favorite Kon Award for Favorite Singer MIFTA Award for Best Actress Sakal Premier Award for Best Playback Singer She is the daughter of Parag Mategaonkar and Suvarna Mategaonkar who are a musical family. Parag is music director and Suvarna is a singer. Ketaki Mategaonkar on IMDb

Costa Rica national football team

The Costa Rica national football team represents Costa Rica in international football. The national team is administered by the Costa Rican Football Federation, the governing body for football in Costa Rica, it has been a member of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association since 1927, the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football since 1961, a member of the Central American Football Union since 1990. Costa Rica is the most successful national football team in history from the region of Central America. Winning three CONCACAF Championships and leading the Copa Centroamericana tournament with three championships up until 2017, when it was absorbed into the CONCACAF Nations League. Costa Rica is the only national team in Central America to have played in five FIFA World Cup editions. Costa Rica's national football team has the all-time highest average Football Elo Ranking in Central America with 1597.1, the all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in Central America, with 1806 in 2014.

Since the late 1980s, the team has continuously been visible as a solidly competitive side, with a prominent performance in the 1990 FIFA World Cup in Italy, making it to the knockout stage in their debut after finishing second in their group during the first phase, below Brazil. They managed to qualify for the 2002 and 2006 FIFA World Cups. In 2014, Costa Rica achieved their best performance in history by finishing first in their group that consisted of three former World Cup champions: Uruguay and England. During the Round of 16 they defeated Greece 5–3 via a penalty shootout after a 1–1 draw. Moreover, during the match against a much better team, Navas saved more than 15 shots due to the Costa Rican weak defense; the match was characterized as "Navas vs Greece". They reached the quarterfinals for the first time as the Ticos were defeated by the Netherlands in a penalty shootout after a scoreless draw on 5 July, their 2018 World Cup campaign ended in a 4th place group stage exit with their only point coming from a 2-2 draw vs Switzerland.

Costa Rica has tradition. The national team made its debut in the Independence Centenary Games held in Guatemala City in September 1921, winning their first game 7–0 against El Salvador. In the final, Costa Rica defeated 6–0 Guatemala to claim the trophy; the soccer team of Costa Rica has been characterized above all by its regularity over the years. Well remembered is the selection of this country formed in the late 1940s acquiring the nickname of "The Gold Shorties". Throughout the'50s and'60s, they were much the second strongest team in the CONCACAF zone behind Mexico, finishing runners-up in World Cup qualifying in the 1958, 1962 and 1966 qualifiers. Stars of the side during this period were Ruben Jimenez, Errol Daniels, Leonel Hernandez and Edgar Marin. However, at the end of the'60s their fortunes would decline as other teams in the region such as Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Trinidad & Tobago and Canada came to the fore. Although the majority of these participants have been short on points in their World Cup performances.

During the 1970s and most of the 1980s, the Costa Rican team went unnoticed, was absent from World Cups. Costa Rica failed to make the final round of CONCACAF World Cup qualifying rounds until the 1986 qualifier, its historical topscorer is Rolando Fonseca with 47 goals. Costa Rica participated in 2 straight Summer Olympic Games, in Moscow 1980 and in Los Angeles 1984. In 1980, Costa Rica competed against Yugoslavia and Iraq, in Group D, losing all 3 games 2–3, 0–3 and 0–3 respectively. Los Angeles saw Costa Rica's first win in a worldwide international participation. Again in Group D, the Ticos played against The United States and Italy; the game against The US ended in a loss, 0–3. The second game did not see 1 -- 4 against Egypt, but in the last game, against an Italian squad that included Walter Zenga, Pietro Vierchowod, Franco Baresi and Aldo Serena, Costa Rica prevailed 1–0, when midfielder Enrique Rivers scored a goal. After a great campaign during the CONCACAF Championship in 1989, Costa Rica won its first ticket to the finals of a World Cup where they made an outstanding performance by beating Scotland and Sweden in the first round.

Before these two achievements came to happen, the team had to suffer a hard process to qualify. In order to advance to the qualifying group stage, two games against the Panama national football team had to be won. Costa Rica suffered against the Panamanians in the first game at the Alejandro Morera Soto Stadium in Alajuela, which ended up taking a local one to one tie; the second game took place at the Revolution Stadium, where Costa Rica won two to zero with goals by midfielder Juan Arnoldo Cayasso and forward Hernán Medford. Costa Rica started the group stage with a defeat in Guatemala by 1 to 0. Costa Rica won against Guatemala two to zero as locals in the game back home, Róger Flores and Evaristo Coronado scored for the team. In the next game, Costa Rica managed to defeat the U. S. as local one to zero. But Costa Rica found defeat in the next game against the U. S. one to zero at St. LouisMissouri; the following game took placed at Trinidad and Tobago against their national football team which ended in a tie 1 to 1, with a goal scored by was forward Evaristo Coronado.

Costa Rica won the game back home against Trinidad and Tobago with a goal by Juan Arnoldo Cayasso. A substantial away win was next for the Ticos in El Salvador at th