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Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and its immediate region. Bulgarians derive their ethnonym from the Bulgars, their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak. Alternative etymologies include derivation from a compound of Proto-Turkic bel and gur, a proposed division within the Utigurs or Onogurs. According to the Art.25 of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable through naturalization. About 77% of Bulgaria's population identified themselves as ethnic Bulgarians in 2011 Bulgarian census; the population of Bulgaria descend from peoples with different numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the First Bulgarian Empire.

Two of the non-Slavic nations maintain a legacy among modern-day Bulgarians: the Thracians, from whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken. From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples, including Dacians, Goths, Ancient Greeks, Sarmatians and Illyrians settled into the Bulgarian land; the Thracian language has been described as a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the 6th century becoming extinct afterwards, but that in a period the Bulgarians replaced long-established Greek/Latin toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not been obliterated then; some pre-Slavic linguistic and cultural traces might have been preserved in modern Bulgarians. Scythia Minor and Moesia Inferior appear to have been Romanized, although the region became a focus of barbarian re-settlements during the 4th and early 5th centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the early 6th century.

According to archeological evidence from the late periods of Roman rule, the Romans did not decrease the number of Thracians in major cities. By the 4th century the major city of Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given names, but thereafter the names were replaced by Christian ones; the Early Slavs emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th century, spread to most of the eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches: the West Slavs in eastern Central Europe, the East Slavs in Eastern Europe, the South Slavs in Southeastern Europe. The latter inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians had not been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept that they began large-scale settling of the Balkans in the 580s based on the statement of the 6th century historian Menander speaking of 100,000 Slavs in Thrace and consecutive attacks of Greece in 582.

They continued coming to the Balkans in many waves, but leaving, most notably Justinian II settled as many as 30,000 Slavs from Thrace in Asia Minor. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic tribes into two groups: the Sklavenoi and Antes; some Bulgarian scholars suggest. The Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe. Scholars suggest that the ultimate origins of the Bulgar is Turkic and can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic confederations as part of loosely related Oghuric tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central Asia. However, any direct connection between the Bulgars and postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and "contorted etymologies"; some Bulgarian historians question the identification of the Bulgars as a Turkic tribe and suggest an Iranian origin. In the 670s, some Bulgar tribes, the Danube Bulgars led by Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by Kouber, crossed the Danube river and settled in the Balkans with a single migration wave, the former of which Michael the Syrian described as numbering 10,000.

The Bulgars are not thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas they controlled. However, according to Steven Runciman a tribe, able to defeat a Byzantine army, must have been of considerable dimensions. Asparukh's Bulgars made a tribal union with the Severians and the "Seven clans", who were re-settled to protect the flanks of the Bulgar settlements in Scythia Minor, as the capital Pliska was built on the site of a former Slavic settlement. During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor and Moesia Secunda were engaged in economic and social exchange with the'barbarians' north of the Danube; this might have facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of Constantinople or Asia Minor prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook; the large scale population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th century, additionally increased the number of the Slavs and Byzantine Christians within the state, making the Bulgars quite ob

William Flinn

William Flinn was a powerful political boss and construction magnate in Pittsburgh, United States. Along with Christopher Magee, his political partner, the two ran the Republican Party machine that controlled the city for the final twenty years of the 19th century, he was born in Manchester, England, on May 26, 1851, to John Flinn, an Irish immigrant, Mary Hamilton Flinn, an Englishwoman by birth. The family emigrated that year to the United States and settled in Pittsburgh's Sixth Ward, famous for its hard-scrabble politics, where his father established a small contracting business. Educated in the Pittsburgh Public Schools, Flinn dropped out at age 9 to deliver newspapers, shine shoes, apprentice in the gas and steam fitting trades. Flinn became politically active in the Republican Party as a ward boss collecting stray votes, he soon attained office in 1877 as a member of the Board of Fire Commissioners. Flinn partnered with Christopher Magee, the city's Republican Party political boss. In 1877, he was elected to the State House to represent the Pittsburgh area by holding one of Allegheny County's allotted at-large seats.

In 1882, Flinn was appointed chairman of the executive committee of the Pittsburgh Republican party, a position he held for the next 20 years, in 1890 he was elected to the Pennsylvania State Senate, where he sponsored the Good Roads Act, which became law in 1895. He remained there until his resignation in 1902. From 1884 until 1912 he served as a delegate to every Republican National Convention, he was elected chairman of the State Republican Party at its May 1912 convention. His election was seen as a victory for the progressive wing of the party, which took control of the party away from the more conservative Boies Penrose. Penrose, who had served as state committee chairman himself from 1903 through 1905, did not attend the convention, did not seek re-elected to the post of Republican National Committeeman. Flinn, resigned the chairmanship after less than two months in office. A longtime supporter of Theodore Roosevelt, he expressed disappointment that the Republican Party chose not to nominate Roosevelt for President in the 1912 election, instead nominated incumbent President William Howard Taft.

He therefore followed Roosevelt out of the Republican Party, would become active in the state's Progressive Party. Penrose, for his part, would go on to wrest control of the State Party from Henry Wasson, one of Flinn's lieutenants, left to lead the party following Flinn's departure. Flinn's chief business interest was large-scale contracting, his firm of Booth and Flinn was formed in 1876 in association with James J. Booth; as a result of politics and a "lowest responsible bidder" scheme, Booth & Flinn won most large construction and paving contracts in Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania, where they built streets, trolley lines, bridges amid charges by competitors of graft. The firm built the Liberty Tunnels, Wabash Tunnel, Armstrong Tunnels in Pittsburgh, in the years of the company's continuation, the Holland Tunnel between New York City and New Jersey.. In The Shame of the Cities, the landmark 1903 book by Lincoln Steffens on political corruption in American cities, Steffens wrote about the alleged Flinn-Magee collusion: "Magee wanted power, Flinn wealth...

Magee spent his wealth for more power, Flinn spent his power for more wealth.... Magee attracted Flinn employed them, he was useful to Magee, Magee was indispensable to him.... Molasses and vinegar and force, mind and will, they were well mated." Reformers reined in Flinn by passing legislation to curb corruption and kickbacks. Flinn was president of the Duquesne Lumber Company and the Pittsburgh Silver Peak Gold Mining Company, he sat on the board of directors of the Arkansas Fuel Oil Company, the Arkansas Natural Gas Company, the Gulf Oil Corporation, the Pittsburgh Coal Company. He married Nancy Galbraith in 1874 and the couple had seven children: five boys, two girls, his sons—William, Ralph, A. Rex—became prominent in business, three of them in their father's construction firm, his daughters and Edith, were important figures in local society. The family home, called Braemar, was in the city Highland Park district. Though raised Roman Catholic, Flinn was a member of Pittsburgh's Sixth United Presbyterian Church.

Flinn's political and business organization began to crumble in the late 1890s when a flap over the rigged bidding system came to a head with Edward Manning Bigelow, director of public works. By the 1902 elections reformers held. Magee himself had died in 1901 after a short illness. Flinn withdrew from local politics, as a result, retired to a country estate north of the city called Beechwood Farm, he became a gentleman farmer of Guernsey cattle, German police dogs, Belgian hares. During the winter months Flinn resided in Florida, where at St. Petersburg he died on February 19, 1924, at the age of 72, he is interred at Homewood Cemetery in Pittsburgh. According to the Register of Wills of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, J. N. Mackrell, Flinn's personal property and real estate at his death exceeded $11 million. Flinn is honored with several monuments throughout the city of Pittsburgh and the Allegheny County segment of Pennsylvania State Route 8 is named the William Flinn Highway, his country estate is now a nature reserve, Beechwood Farms Nature Reserve, operated by the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania.

Flinn's daughter Mary used some o

New Bilibid Prison

The New Bilibid Prison in Muntinlupa, Philippines, is the main insular penitentiary designed to house the prison population of the Philippines. It is maintained by the Bureau of Corrections under the Department of Justice; as of May 2018, the NBP housed 26,877 convicted criminals. The penitentiary had an initial land area of 551 hectares. One hundred and four hectares of the facility were transferred to a housing project of the Department of Justice; the Bureau of Corrections has its headquarters in the NBP Reservation. The government of the Philippines plans to create a regional prison in Nueva Ecija through a public-private partnership. During World War II, Bilibid was a prisoner of war and civilian internee camp where American soldiers and civilians were held by the Japanese. Twelve hundred internees and POWs were freed by the American army on February 4, 1945, during the Battle of Manila; the Old Bilibid Prison known as Carcel y Presidio Correccional occupied a rectangular piece of land, part of the Mayhalique Estate in the heart of Manila.

The old prison was established by the Spanish colonial government on 25 June 1865 via royal decree. It is divided into two sections: the Carcel. Due to increasing crime, the Philippine Government enacted Commonwealth Act No. 67 and a new prison was built in Muntinlupa on 551 hectares of land in an area considered at that time to be "remote". Muntinlupa sits quite a few miles southeast of the heart of Manila, on the shores of Laguna de Bay. Construction began on New Bilibid in 1936 with a budget of one million pesos. In 1940, the prisoners and facilities were transferred from Old Bilibid to the new prison; the remnants of the old facility was used by the City of Manila as its detention center, known today as Manila City Jail. In 1941, the new facility was named the "New Bilibid Prison". During World War II and the occupation of the Philippines by Japan, Old Bilibid and New Bilibid Prisons were used as Prisoner of War camps, hospitals for POWs, transit centers for POWs being transferred to other locations to Japan.

More than 13,000 POWs, the great majority of them American, were processed at these Manila area facilities during World War II. Included in that total are 500 civilian internees who were moved to Bilibid from the Camp Holmes Internment Camp near Baguio in December 1944. Thousands of POWs who transited Bilibid Prison en route to Japan were killed when the Hell ships on which they were being transported were sunk by American military aircraft or submarines, the Americans being unaware that POWs were on board the ships. Old Bilibid prison continued to be used by the Japanese Kempeitai for holding special prisoners throughout their occupation of Manila and Luzon; the Battle of Manila began on February 3, 1945 and that evening the civilians in Old Bilibid Prison heard the unmistakable sound of American voices outside the walls. The American soldiers outside, seemed unaware of the prisoners inside Bilibid, but had the objective of liberating the 4,000 civilian internees at Santo Tomas Internment Camp two kilometers distant.

The battle near the prison raged all that night, but the next morning the Japanese guards abandoned Bilibid leaving a message to the POWs and internees that they should avoid leaving Bilibid and posting a sign at the gate advising "Lawfully released Prisoners of War and internees are quartered here."The internees lofted an American flag over Bilibid, but after an explosion nearby the departing Japanese came back to warn them that the flag would draw fire from Japanese artillery. At 7 p.m. on that evening, February 4, 1945, American soldiers from the 37th Ohio National Guard broke through the wall into the compound. The liberated POWs and internees at Old Bilibid numbered 1,200, including 700 soldiers and 500 civilians; the civilian internees remained in Bilibid for another month until the Battle of Manila concluded with the Japanese defenders wiped out. The internees were flown to Leyte and from there they were repatriated to the United States. One of the civilian internees described the repatriation process as "being badgered by friends rather than the enemy."

The former internees were infuriated at having to promise to pay the U. S. government $275 per person for repatriation. Many of the civilian internees, long-term residents of the Philippines or related to Filipinos, were reluctant to leave, but were pressured to do so by the U. S. military. From the end of World War II, until 1953, Japanese war criminals were held within the prison, under Prison Superintendent Alfredo Bunye. On June 5, 2014, Department of Justice Undersecretary Francisco Baraan III, supervising official on the Bureau of Corrections and the NBP said that the National Penitentiary will be moved to Barangay San Isidro in Laur, Nueva Ecija; the death chamber for inmates scheduled to die by electrocution was in Building 14, within the Maximum Security Compound of New Bilibid. As of 2015 it was used to house maximum security prisoners; the former lethal injection chamber is now used as the Bureau of Corrections Museum. The prisoners pass the time in the basketball court in the penitentiary's gymnasium and are engaged in the production of handicrafts.

Various religious denominations are active in the prison, with masses said daily in the prison's Catholic chapel. These religious groups, such as the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Amazing Grace Christian ministries, Philippine Jesuit Prison Service and Caritas Manila extend medical services to prisoners. Research participants agree that the use of inmate l