SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bulgars

The Bulgars were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, but some researchers say that their ethnic roots can be traced to Central Asia. During their westward migration across the Eurasian steppe, the Bulgar tribes absorbed other ethnic groups and cultural influences in a process of ethnogenesis, including Hunnic and Indo-European peoples. Modern genetic research on Central Asian Turkic people and ethnic groups related to the Bulgars points to an affiliation with Western Eurasian populations; the Bulgars spoke a Turkic language, i.e. Bulgar language of Oghuric branch, they preserved the military titles and customs of Eurasian steppes, as well as pagan shamanism and belief in the sky deity Tangra. The Bulgars became semi-sedentary during the 7th century in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, establishing the polity of Old Great Bulgaria c. 635, absorbed by the Khazar Empire in 668 AD.

In c. 679, Khan Asparukh conquered Scythia Minor, opening access to Moesia, established the First Bulgarian Empire, where the Bulgars became a political and military elite. They merged subsequently with established Byzantine populations, as well as with settled Slavic tribes, were Slavicized, thus forming the ancestors of modern Bulgarians; the remaining Pontic Bulgars migrated in the 7th century to the Volga River, where they founded the Volga Bulgaria. The Volga Tatars and Chuvash people claim to have originated from the Volga Bulgars; the etymology of the ethnonym Bulgar is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD. Since the work of Wilhelm Tomaschek, it is said to be derived from the Common Turkic bulğha, bulga- or bulya, which with the consonant suffix -r implies a noun meaning "mixed". Other scholars have added that bulğha might imply "stir", "disturb", "confuse" and Talat Tekin interpreted bulgar as the verb form "mixing". Both Gyula Németh and Peter Benjamin Golden advocated the "mixed race" theory, but like Paul Pelliot, considered that "to incite", "rebel", or "to produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers", was a more etymology for migrating nomads.

According to Osman Karatay, if the "mixed" etymology relied on the westward migration of the Oğurs and merging with the Huns, north of the Black Sea, it was a faulty theory, since the Oghurs were documented in Europe as early as 463, while the Bulgars were not mentioned until 482 – an overly short time period for any such ethnogenesis to occur. However, the "mixing" in question may have occurred before the Bulgars migrated from further east, scholars such as Sanping Chen have noted analogous groups in Inner Asia, with phonologically similar names, who were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Peter A. Boodberg noted that the Buluoji in the Chinese sources were recorded as remnants of the Xiongnu confederation, had strong Caucasian elements. Another theory linking the Bulgars to a Turkic people of Inner Asia has been put forward by Boris Simeonov, who identified them with the Pugu, a Tiele and/or Toquz Oguz tribe.

The Pugu were mentioned in Chinese sources from 103 BC up to the 8th century AD, were situated among the eastern Tiele tribes, as one of the highest-ranking tribes after the Uyghurs. According to the Chronicle by Michael the Syrian, which comprises several historical events of different age into one story, three mythical Scythian brothers set out on a journey from the mountain Imaon in Asia and reached the river Tanais, the country of the Alans called Barsalia, which would be inhabited by the Bulgars and the Pugurs; the names Onoğur and Bulgar were linked by Byzantine sources for reasons that are unclear. Karatay interpreted gur/gor as "country", noted the Tekin derivation of gur from the Altaic suffix -gir, related to the word yir, meaning "earth, place". Modern scholars consider the terms oğuz or oğur, as generic terms for Turkic tribal confederations, to be derived from Turkic *og/uq, meaning "kinship or being akin to"; the terms were not the same, as oq/ogsiz meant "arrow", while oğul meant "offspring, son", oğuš/uğuš was "tribe, clan", the verb oğša-/oqša meant "to be like, resemble".

There appears to be an etymological association between the Bulgars and the preceding Kutrigur and Utigur – as'Oğur tribes, with the ethnonym Bulgar as a "spreading" adjective. Golden considered the origin of the Kutrigurs and Utigurs to be obscure and their relationship to the Onogurs and Bulgars – who lived in similar areas at the same time – as unclear, he noted, however, an implication that the Kutrigurs and Utigurs were related to the Šarağur, that according to Procopius these were Hunnish tribal unions, of Cimmerian descent. Karatay considered the Kutrigurs and Utigurs to be two related, ancestral people, prominent tribes in the Bulgar union, but different from the Bulgars. Among many other theories regarding the etymology of Bulgar, the following have had limited support. An Eastern Germanic r

Dan Gediman

Dan Gediman is an American radio producer and performing songwriter. He is the executive producer of the public radio series This I Believe and co-editor, with Jay Allison, of the books This I Believe and This I Believe II: The Personal Philosophies of Remarkable Men and Women, he is the co-editor, with John Gregory and Mary Jo Gediman, of the books This I Believe: On Love, This I Believe: On Fatherhood, This I Believe: On Motherhood, This I Believe: Life Lessons, as well as Edward R. Murrow's This I Believe, This I Believe: Kentucky, This I Believe: Philadelphia, he has edited a new edition of Will Thomas's memoir The Seeking. Gediman's public radio work has been featured on programs such as This American Life, All Things Considered, Morning Edition, Jazz Profiles, his public radio specials include Little Secrets: Child Sexual Abuse in America, Breaking the Cycle: How Do We Stop Child Abuse with Jay Allison. Gediman co-produced the DuPont-Columbia Award-winning 50 Years After 14 August, a reflection on the end of World War II, with legendary radio playwright Norman Corwin and Mary Beth Kirchner.

In 2017, he produced for Audible Originals the documentary series The Home Front: Life in America During World War Two, narrated by Martin Sheen. Dan Gediman's website This I Believe, Inc; this I Believe reading guides

Atanas Dimitrov

Atanas Dimitrov is a Bulgarian football midfielder who plays for Vihren Sandanski. Dimitrov's father Nikolay Dimitrov is former football player, who spent 9 seasons of his career at Litex Lovech, before retiring at the age of 35 in 2005. Dimitrov began his football career with Litex Lovech. On 14 June 2011, he signed his first professional contract with Litex. One months Dimitrov signed for Botev Vratsa on a season-long loan deal. On 18 August 2016, following a short period out of football, Dimitrov joined Third League club Belasitsa Petrich where his father was appointed as manager. On 19 June 2017, he moved to Botev Vratsa. In June 2018, Dimitrov joined Bansko. Atanas Dimitrov at Soccerway