Spanish-style bullfighting, known as a corrida de toros, tauromaquia or fiesta, is practiced in Spain, where it originates, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, as well as in parts of Southern France and Portugal. In a traditional corrida, three toreros called matadores or, in French, toréadors, each fight two out of a total of six fighting bulls, each of, at least four years old and weighs up to about 600 kg. Bullfighting season in Spain runs from March to October, it is said that fighting the bull was important in ancient times when sacrificing bulls for the gods. According to Frommer's Travel Guide, bullfighting in Spain traces its origins to 711 A. D. with the first official bullfight, or "corrida de toros," being held in honor of the coronation of King Alfonso VIII. Most historians trace bull-involving festivities to prehistorical times, as a trend that once extended through the entire Mediterranean coast and has just survived in Iberia and part of France; some experts, like Alejandro Recio, considers that the Neolithic city of Konya, in Turkey, discovered by in James Mellaart in 1958, offers evidence of sacrificial tauromaquia associated with sacred rituals.
This claim is based on the abundance of representations of bulls, as well as on the preservation of horns and bullheads attached to walls. Since various archeological findings had proven the uninterrupted importance of the bull as a symbol of the sun for the Iberian cults, like the presence of berracos, or the importance of the bull in the surviving Celtiberian and Celtic rituals that survive to this day. Considering the nature of this pre-roman religions the ritual sacrifice through direct of symbolic combat of sacred animals was a part of the use of bulls in them; as for the bullring itself, it has speculated that, once part of the Roman Empire, Spain owes its bullfighting tradition in part to gladiator games. It is true that during Roman Hispania gladiators were forced to fight by sword bulls, bears and other native beasts, but it is questionable if those spectacles were seen as equivalent by the population; the shape of the bullfighting ring may be prior to Rome and derived from its mystic association to the sun and solar religions.
In fact, the Romans tried to abolish the "puere" practice of bullfighting, considering it was too risky for the youth and not a proper way of worshiping the deities, but their efforts led them nowhere. During the Arab rule of Iberia, the Arab ruling class tried to exterminate and ban the practice of bullfighting, considering it a pagan celebration that had nothing to do with the three books, a heresy. Bullfighting was illegal in all Arab territory, but still, the practice didn't come close to dying, but became a mark of identity and resistance for Christian Iberians for the nobility that started using it as a way to gain prestige. At first, bullfighting was reserved for Spanish aristocracy. In the 16th century Pope Saint Pius V banned bullfighting for being a pagan thing and for being dangerous for the participants. Anyone who would sponsor, watch or participate in a bullfight was to be excommunicated; this did nothing to deter Spanish and Portuguese from keeping the tradition alive, the following pope did what he could to backtrack such a pointless penalty.
The softer version at least suggested that bullfighting should not be used as a way to honor Christ or the saints, as it was being used in Spain and Portugal. That petition was ignored. King Felipe V, the first Bourbon, ended this trend because he believed it was in poor taste for nobles to practice such a bloody sport. Commoners took the sport and gave it the shape it has today; the revolution in bullfighting forms was parallel to the discontent of the foreign ruler of the Bourbons, their lack of interest in understanding the politics, economics or culture of their new kingdom that culminated in the Esquilache Riots. New forms of bullfighting continued to develop as anti-French and anti-nobility grew in the population and came to an end when Carlos III managed to reduce the social tension and, among other gestures of goodwill, built two of the eldest and largest bullfighting rings in Madrid, as part of his attempts to fix the hostility and alienation that the Spanish felt towards the French rulers.
Son and grandson of bullfighters, he is credited with crystallizing the tradition of modern bullfighting. He established the cuadrillas, he organized the spectacle in tercios de lidia borrowed from the theatre. Invented the Veronica and other basic cape movements. Invented the current traje de luces, "suit of light". Created a spectacle based on cape maneuvers and agility over physical confrontation. Bullfighters today still cling to a traditionally strict code of conduct; the oldest bullring in Spain is located in the southern town of Ronda, but cities like Madrid and Pamplona have a rich bullfighting legacy and some of the largest rings in the world. Each matador has six assistants—two picadores mounted on horseback, three banderilleros, a mozo de espada. Collectively they compose a team of bullfighters; the crew includes an ayuda and subalternos including at least two peones. The modern corrida is ritualized, with three distinct parts or tercios, the start of each of, announced by a trumpet sound.
The participants first enter the arena
Aire-sur-l'Adour is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It lies on the river Adour in the wine area of southwest France, it is an episcopal see of the Diocese of Dax. The nearest large towns are Mont-de-Marsan to Pau to the south. Aire was the residence of the kings of the Visigoths. In 506, Alaric II drew up the Breviarium Alaricianum. Famed bullfighter Iván Fandiño died in Aire-sur-l'Adour after being gored by a bull on 17 June 2017. Aire Cathedral, built in the 11th century but renovated in the 14th and 17th centuries; the Gothic church of Sainte-Quitterie is dedicated to Saint Quiteria, according to Christian tradition, was beheaded here in the fifth century. This church was on the pilgrimage route called the Way of St. James. Florian Cazalot, rugby union player, born 1985 in Aire-sur-l'Adour Castro-Urdiales, Spain INSEE statistics History of CNES base devoted to launch stratospheric balloons Image of city's cathedral
The plaza de toros de Las Ventas is a famous bullring located in Madrid, Spain. Situated in the Guindalera quarter of the district of Salamanca, it was inaugurated on June 17, 1931, it has a seating capacity of 23,798. This bullring was designed by the architect José Espeliú in the Neo-Mudéjar style with ceramic incrustations; the seats are situated in ten "tendidos". The price of the seats depends upon how close they are to the arena and whether they are in the sun or the shade; the bullfighting season ends in October. Bullfights start last for two to three hours. "Las Ventas" is located in the east of Madrid. From 1913 to 1920, bullfighting gained such a momentum that Madrid's former main bullring at the Carretera de Aragón was not big enough, it was José Gómez Ortega "Joselito" who complained about the necessity of a new "monumental" bullring, to open this part of Spain's heritage and culture to the whole city of Madrid. Architect José Espeliú began to work on the project. A family called Jardón donated the land to the Madrid Provincial Council, provided that they could run the arena for fifty years.
The deputation accepted the proposal on November 12, 1920. On March 19, 1922, in the exact center of the prospective arena, the first stone was placed; the construction of the bullring would cost 12 million pesetas, it would replace the old bullring, dating from 1874. "Las Ventas" was finished in 1929 and two years June 17, 1931, a charity bullfight was held with a full-capacity crowd to inaugurate it. Bullfighting stopped during the Spanish Civil War and did not resume until May 1939. There is a Pasodoble called'Plaza de las Ventas' and the composer Maestro Manuel Lillo dedicated to this arena. "Las Ventas" is not divided into a ring or arena, a group of zones called "patios". Its architecture is Neo-Mudéjar, with ceramic representations of the heraldic crests of the different Spanish provinces; the arena has a diameter of 60 meters. The seating capacity is divided into 10 "tendidos", some of them in the shade and the rest in the sun; the president of the'corrida' sits in the 10th Tendido. The Royal Box is of outstanding design, with its Mudéjar architecture, a complete bathroom and a lift.
Opposite to the Royal Box, in the covered grandstand roof, is the clock. The bullring has three more called "toriles", from where the bulls enter the arena; the gate of the "cuadrillas", between "tendidos" 3 and 4, has access to the horse yard. Inside this door, the "paseillo" starts and the "picadores" come out from here to the arena; the dragging gate, that leads to the skinning room, is between "tendidos" 1 and 2. The famous "Puerta Grande" called the Gate of Madrid, is between "tendidos" 7 and 8. Going out through this door during the Fiesta of San Isidro, is every bullfighter's ambition. There are a chapel and a small infirmary with two operating rooms. Las Ventas bullring is open during all year for cultural visits under the name of Las Ventas Tour. Tour includes an audioguide translated into 10 languages and the visit of the bullring and its bullfighting museum; the Beatles performed here on July 2, 1965. In 1991, Diana Ross performed at Las Ventas for her Here and Now World Tour 1991-92, in 1996, Australian rock band AC/DC performed at the bullring for their Ballbreaker World Tour, recording the performance for their concert video, No Bull.
In the summer of 2003, Radiohead played a concert at their only stop in Spain that year. In 2009, Kylie Minogue performed there as part of her KylieX2008 tour, on October 28, 2011, Coldplay performed at Las Ventas during the American Express Unstaged music series; the venue has hosted the Red Bull X Fighters FMX since 2002. In 2008, the arena was converted into a tennis clay court and the Spanish Davis Cup Team, led by Rafael Nadal, played their semifinal against the United States, won it in front of their home crowd. Since 2014, the venue can be set up as a theatre, under the name Gran Teatro Ruedo Las Ventas, with a capacity of 858 seats. Spain Davis Cup team List of tennis stadiums by capacity Las Ventas homepage Official tickets information Bullfight Madrid Tickets Las Ventas Bullring - Information and photos Davis Cup semifinal: Spain vs USA
Death in the Afternoon
Death in the Afternoon is a non-fiction book written by Ernest Hemingway about the ceremony and traditions of Spanish bullfighting, published in 1932. The book provides a look at the history and what Hemingway considers the magnificence of bullfighting, it contains a deeper contemplation on the nature of fear and courage. While a guide book, there are three main sections: Hemingway's work, a glossary of terms. Any discussion concerning bullfighting would be incomplete without some mention of the controversy surrounding it. Toward that end Hemingway commented, "anything capable of arousing passion in its favor will raise as much passion against it." The chances are. Hemingway became a bullfighting aficionado after seeing the Pamplona fiesta in the 1920s, which he wrote about in The Sun Also Rises. In Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway explores the metaphysics of bullfighting—the ritualized religious practice—that he considered analogous to the writer's search for meaning and the essence of life.
In bullfighting, he found the elemental nature of death. Marianne Wiggins has written of Death in the Afternoon: "Read it for the writing, for the way it's told... He'll make you like it... You read enough and long enough, he'll make you love it, he's relentless". In his writings on Spain, Hemingway was influenced by the Spanish master Pío Baroja; when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, he traveled to see Baroja on his death bed to tell him he thought Baroja deserved the prize more than he. Baroja agreed, something of the usual Hemingway tiff with another writer ensued, despite Hemingway's original good intentions. Death in the Afternoon was published by Scribner's on 23 September 1932 to a first edition print run of 10,000 copies. "Death in the Afternoon – A Literary Cocktail" Retrieved July 4, 2010. Death in the Afternoon at Faded Page Hemingway Archives, John F. Kennedy Library
University of San Diego
The University of San Diego is a private Roman Catholic research university in San Diego, California. Founded in July 1949 as the San Diego College for Women and San Diego University, the academic institutions merged from the California school system into University of San Diego in 1972. Since the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, to include the Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering, Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies, School of Law. USD 79 undergraduate and graduate programs, enrolls 9,073 undergraduate, paralegal and law students. Charters were granted in 1949 for the San Diego College for Women and San Diego University, which included the College for Men and School of Law; the College for Women opened its doors to its first class of students in 1952. Reverend Charles F. Buddy, D. D. bishop of the Diocese of San Diego and Reverend Mother Rosalie Hill, RSCJ, a Superior Vicaress of the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, chartered the institution from resources drawn from their respective organizations on a stretch of land known as "Alcalá Park," named for San Diego de Alcalá.
In 1954, the College for Men and the School of Law opened. These two schools occupied Bogue Hall on the same site of University High School, which would become the home of the University of San Diego High School. Starting in 1954, Alcalá Park served as the diocesan chancery office and housed the episcopal offices, until the diocese moved to a vacated Benedictine convent, converted to a pastoral center. In 1957, Immaculate Heart Major Seminary and St. Francis Minor Seminary were moved into their newly completed facility, now known as Maher Hall; the Immaculata Chapel, now no longer affiliated with USD opened that year as part of the seminary facilities. For nearly two decades, these schools co-existed on Alcalá Park. Immaculate Heart closed at the end of 1968. Since the university has grown and has been able to increase its assets and academic programs; the student body, the local community, patrons and many organizations have been integral to the university's development. Significant periods of expansion of the university, since the 1972 merger, occurred in the mid-1980s, as well as in 1998, when Joan B.
Kroc and wife of McDonald's financier Ray Kroc, endowed USD with a gift of $25 million for the construction of the Institute for Peace & Justice. Other significant donations to the college came in the form of multimillion-dollar gifts from weight-loss tycoon Jenny Craig, inventor Donald Shiley, investment banker and alumnus Bert Degheri, an additional gift of $50 million Mrs. Kroc left the School of Peace Studies upon her death; these gifts helped make possible the Jenny Craig Pavilion, the Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology, the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies, the Degheri Alumni Center; as a result, USD has been able to host the West Coast Conference basketball tournament in 2002, 2003 and 2008, hosted international functions such as the Kyoto Laureate Symposium at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace & Justice and at USD's Shiley Theatre. Shiley's gift has provided the university with some additional, more advanced, teaching laboratories than it had previously. In 2005, the university expanded the Colachis Plaza from the Immaculata along Marian Way to the east end of Hall, which closed the east end of the campus to vehicular traffic.
That same year, the student body approved plans for a renovation and expansion of the Hahn University Center which began at the end of 2007. The new Student Life Pavilion opened in 2009 and hosts the university's new student dining area, offices for student organizations and event spaces; the Hahn University Center is now home to administrative offices and event spaces, a restaurant and wine bar, La Gran Terazza. In the fall of 2018, USD's total enrollment was 8,905 undergraduate and law students. Alcalá Park sits atop the edge of a mesa overlooking other parts of San Diego; the philosophy of USD's founder and her fellow religious relied on the belief that studying in beautiful surroundings could improve the educational experience of students. Thus, the university's buildings are designed in a 16th-century Spanish Renaissance architectural style, paying homage to both San Diego's Catholic heritage and the Universidad de Alcalá in Spain. In September 2011, Travel+Leisure named it as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.
The campus is located two miles north of downtown San Diego, on the north crest of Mission Valley in the community of Linda Vista. From the westernmost edges of Alcalá Park the communities of Mission Hills, Old Town, Point Loma, Ocean Beach, Bay Park, Mission Beach and Pacific Beach can be seen; the Pacific Ocean, San Diego Harbor, the Coronado Islands and La Jolla are visible from the campus. Though a Catholic university, the school is no longer governed directly by the Diocese of San Diego. Today, a lay board of trustees governs the university's operations. However, the Bishop of San Diego, Robert W. McElroy, retains a seat as a permanent member and retains control of the school's designation of "Catholic." USD offers more than 79 degrees at the bachelor's, master's, doctoral levels. USD is divided into colleges; the College of Arts and Sciences and the School of Law are the oldest academic divisions at USD. Kroc School of Peace S
The Dangerous Summer
The Dangerous Summer is a nonfiction book by Ernest Hemingway published posthumously in 1985 and written in 1959 and 1960. The book describes the rivalry between bullfighters Luis Miguel Dominguín and his brother-in-law, Antonio Ordóñez, during the "dangerous summer" of 1959, it has been cited as Hemingway's last book. The Dangerous Summer is an edited version of a 75,000-word manuscript Hemingway wrote between October 1959 and May 1960 as an assignment from LIFE Magazine. Hemingway summoned his close friend Will Lang Jr. to come to Spain to deliver the story to LIFE Magazine. The book was edited from the original manuscript by his American publisher Charles Scribner's Sons. A 30,000-word extract from the script was published in three consecutive installments in LIFE during September 1960. Popular author James Mitchener wrote the 33-page introduction which includes Michener's personal knowledge of bullfights and famous matadors, a comprehensive glossary of terms related to each stage of a bullfight, unvarnished personal anecdotes of Hemingway.
The book charts the rise of Antonio Ordóñez during a season of bullfights during 1959. During a fight on May 13, 1959, in Aranjuez, Ordóñez is badly gored but remains in the ring and kills the bull, a performance rewarded by trophies of both the bull's ears, its tail, a hoof. By contrast, Luis Miguel Dominguín is famous as a bullfighter and returns to the ring after several years of retirement. Less gifted than Ordóñez, his pride and self-confidence draw him into an intense rivalry with the newcomer, the two meet in the ring several times during the season. Starting the season supremely confident, Dominguín is humbled by this competition. While Ordóñez displays breathtaking skill and artistry in his fights, performing dangerous, classical passés, Dominguín resorts to what Hemingway describes as "tricks", moves that look impressive to the crowd but that are much safer. Dominguín is gored badly at a fight in Valencia, Ordóñez is gored shortly afterwards. Less than a month the two bullfighters meet in the ring again for what Hemingway described as "one of the greatest bullfights I have seen", "an perfect bullfight unmarred by any tricks."
From the six bulls which they fight, the pair win ten ears, four tails and two hooves as trophies, an extraordinary feat. Their final meeting takes place in Bilbao, with Dominguín receiving a near-fatal goring and Ordóñez demonstrating absolute mastery by performing the recibiendo kill, one of the oldest and most dangerous moves. Ordóñez's recibiendo requires three attempts, displaying the fighter's artistry and bravery that Hemingway likens to that of legendary bullfighter Pedro Romero. Review in The New York Times by William Kennedy