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Bullfighting

Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. There are many different varieties in various locations around the world; some forms involve dancing around or over a cow or bull, or attempting to grasp an object from the animal. The best-known form of bullfighting is Spanish-style bullfighting, a traditional spectacle in countries including Spain, parts of southern France, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. While some forms are sometimes considered to be a blood sport, in some countries, for example Spain, it is defined as an art form or cultural event and relevant regulatory frameworks liken it to other cultural events and heritage. In Spain, toreros are as popular as football stars supported by sponsors and appearing in press. A particular breed of cattle, the Spanish Fighting Bull, is used for this type of bullfighting. There are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America.

The largest venue of its kind is the Plaza México in central Mexico City, which seats 48,000 people, the oldest are the Plazas of Béjar and Ronda, in the Spanish provinces of Salamanca and Málaga. The practice of bullfighting is controversial because of a range of concerns including animal welfare and religion. Bullfighting is illegal in most countries, but remains legal in most areas of Spain and Portugal, as well as in some Hispanic American countries and some parts of southern France.. Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice in Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean region; the first recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu fought and killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, myths related to bulls throughout Greece. Bullfighting and the killing of the sacred bull was practised among Männerbund in ancient Iran and connected to the pre-Zoroastrian god Mithra; the cosmic connotations of the ancient Iranian practice is reflected in Zoroaster's Gathas and the Avesta.

The killing of the sacred bull is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the Celtiberian tombstone from Clunia and the cave painting El toro de hachos, both found in Spain. Bullfighting is linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held as competition and entertainment, the Venationes; these hunting games spread to Africa and Asia during Roman times. There are theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute for gladiators, when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial combat; the latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of breeding cattle and bullfighting to the American colonies, the Pacific and Asia. In the 19th century, areas of southern and southwestern France adopted bullfighting, developing their own distinctive form. Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the local plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor, the populace enjoyed the excitement.

In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback. In Spain, they began to fight bulls. In medieval Spain bullfighting was considered a noble sport and reserved to the rich, who could afford to supply and train their animals; the bull was released into a closed arena where a single fighter on horseback was armed with a lance. This spectacle was said to be enjoyed by Charlemagne, Alfonso X the Wise and the Almohad caliphs, among others; the greatest Spanish performer of this art is said to have been the knight El Cid. According to a chronicle of the time, in 1128 "... when Alfonso VII of León and Castile married Berengaria of Barcelona daughter of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona at Saldaña among other celebrations, there were bullfights."In the time of Emperor Charles V, Pedro Ponce de Leon was the most famous bullfighter in Spain and a renovator of the technique of killing the bull on a horse with blindfolded eyes. Juan de Quirós, the best Sevillian poet of that time, dedicated to him a poem in Latin, of which Benito Arias Montano transmits some verses.

Francisco Romero, from Ronda, Spain, is regarded as having been the first to introduce the practice of fighting bulls on foot around 1726, using the muleta in the last stage of the fight and an estoc to kill the bull. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds, thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were replaced by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings square, like the Plaza de Armas, round, to discourage the cornering of the action; the modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte considered the greatest matador of all time. Belmonte introduced a daring and revolutionary style, in which he stayed within a few centimetres of the bull throughout the fight. Although dangerous, his style is still seen by most matadors

1999 Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak

The Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak began on 25 February 1999 in Bovenkarspel, the Netherlands, was one of the largest outbreaks of legionellosis in history. With at least 32 dead and 206 severe infections, it was the deadliest legionellosis outbreak since the original 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia, USA. Between 19 and 28 February 1999, the Westfriese Flora took place in Bovenkarspel, one of the largest indoor flower exhibitions in the world. A vendor had several recreational hot tubs on display, with one of them filled from a long-inactive firehose and heated to 37 degrees Celsius. In the water that had stagnated inside the hose, a aggressive type of legionella pneumophila bacterium had developed; the vendor did not add chlorine to the tubs. From 7 March, 13 patients were admitted to the Westfries Gasthuis in Hoorn. Unable to diagnose the patients, hospital staff called the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam; the AMC diagnosed six patients with legionellosis and a link with the Westfriese Flora was soon made.

On 12 March, the Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment issued an epidemic warning to all doctors and hospitals, alerting them to Flora visitors and people with pneumonia-like symptoms. In the following weeks, 318 cases throughout the Netherlands were reported to the RIVM. All patients had visited the Westfriese Flora after 22 February and had become ill between 25 February and 16 March, it is known that 32 people died of one of them in 2001 after prolonged illness. A further 206 people became ill and many developed permanent health problems after visiting the Flora; the 318 cases exceeds the 221 in the 1976 Philadelphia outbreak. While the Philadelphia outbreak had two more fatalities, there is a possibility that others died in the 1999 Bovenkarspel outbreak, but were interred before the infection was recognized. A Large Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease at a Flower Show, the Netherlands, 1999, Jeroen W. Den Boer, Ed P. F. Yzerman, Joop Schellekens et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 8, Number 1—January 2002 The Westfriese Flora flower exhibition and fair, Legionnaires` Disease website 25 februari 1999: Legionellabesmetting Westfriese Flora, Zwaailichten disaster website

Hari Shankar Roy

Hari Shankar Roy is an Indian track and field athlete from West Bengal who specialises in the high jump. He held the previous national record of 2.25 metres set on 28 September 2004 in Singapore during the Asian All-Stars Athletic Championship. Which was broken by Tejaswin Shankar on 10 November 2016 in Coimbatore at the National Jr athletics championships, as a 17 year old. Harishankar was born 4 April 1986 in a village in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. In 2003, Harishankar participated in the 3rd IAAF World Youth Championships in Athletics in Sherbrooke, Canada, he was eliminated in the qualifying round after failing to clear 1.95 m. In July 2004 during the 44th inter-state national athletics meet in Chennai, he broke the 11-year-old national record in men’s high jump by clearing a height of 2.18 m. The previous mark of 2.17 m, set in 1993 in Bangalore, stood in the name of Chander Pal Singh of Haryana. In the same meet, Benedict Starly of Tamil Nadu managed to clear 2.18 m, gold was awarded to Shankar Roy on the account of fewer number of attempts.

On 28 September 2004, during the Asian All-Stars Athletic Championship in Singapore, India's best high jumper broke his own National record with a height of 2.25 m to take the silver behind Hu Tong of China. In 2007, both Hari Shanakar and Benedict Starly sailed past a height of 2.14 m during the 33rd National Games, held in Guwahati. Yet again it was Roy, he won the gold medal in the high jump at the 2010 South Asian Games. On 10 Nov 2016, Roy's long standing record of 12 years was broken by 17-year-old boy Tejaswin Shankar at the National Jr athletics championships in Coimbatore. Hari Shankar Roy at World Athletics