American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Industrial Workers of the World
The Industrial Workers of the World, members of which are termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union, founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. The union combines general unionism with industrial unionism, as it is a general union whose members are further organized within the industry of their employment; the philosophy and tactics of the IWW are described as "revolutionary industrial unionism", with ties to both socialist and anarchist labor movements. In the 1910s and early 1920s, the IWW achieved many of their short-term goals in the American West, cut across traditional guild and union lines to organize workers in a variety of trades and industries. At their peak in August 1917, IWW membership was more than 150,000, with active wings in the U. S. Canada and Australia; the high rate of IWW membership turnover during this era makes it difficult for historians to state membership totals with any certainty, as workers tended to join the IWW in large numbers for short periods.
Due to several factors, membership declined in the late 1910s and 1920s. There were conflicts with other labor groups the American Federation of Labor, which regarded the IWW as too radical, while the IWW regarded the AFL as too conservative and dividing workers by craft. Membership declined due to government crackdowns on radical and socialist groups during the First Red Scare after World War I. In Canada the IWW was outlawed by the federal government; the most decisive factor in the decline in IWW membership and influence, was a 1924 schism in the organization, from which the IWW never recovered. The IWW promotes the concept of "One Big Union", contends that all workers should be united as a social class to supplant capitalism and wage labor with industrial democracy, they are known for the Wobbly Shop model of workplace democracy, in which workers elect their managers and other forms of grassroots democracy are implemented. IWW membership does not require that one work in a represented workplace, nor does it exclude membership in another labor union.
In 2012, the IWW moved its General Headquarters offices to Chicago. The origin of the nickname "Wobblies" is uncertain; the IWW was founded in Chicago, Illinois in the United States in June 1905. A convention was held of 200 socialists, Marxists radical trade unionists from all over the United States who opposed the policies of the American Federation of Labor; the IWW opposed the American Federation of Labor's acceptance of capitalism and its refusal to include unskilled workers in craft unions. The convention had taken place on June 24, 1905, was referred to as the "Industrial Congress" or the "Industrial Union Convention", it would be known as the First Annual Convention of the IWW. It became considered one of the most important events in the history of industrial unionism; the IWW's founders included William D. Haywood, James Connolly, Daniel De Leon, Eugene V. Debs, Thomas Hagerty, Lucy Parsons, Mary Harris "Mother" Jones, Frank Bohn, William Trautmann, Vincent Saint John, Ralph Chaplin, many others.
Regardless of gender roles and women came together to create IWW. Post-industrial theorists concentrated on hierarchies of class, rather than those of gender and, like their predecessors, the new theorists of technology fail to consider whether this technological revolution might have a different impact on women and men; the IWW aimed to promote worker solidarity in the revolutionary struggle to overthrow the employing class. In particular, the IWW was organized because of the belief among many unionists, anarchists and radicals that the AFL not only had failed to organize the U. S. working class, but it was causing separation rather than unity within groups of workers by organizing according to narrow craft principles. The Wobblies believed that all workers should organize as a class, a philosophy, still reflected in the Preamble to the current IWW Constitution: The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life.
Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system, live in harmony with the Earth. We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the growing power of the employing class; the trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have interests in common with their employers; these conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all.
Instead of the conser
Colorado Labor Wars
The Colorado labor wars were a series of labor strikes in 1903 and 1904 in the US state of Colorado, by gold and silver miners and mill workers represented by the Western Federation of Miners. Opposing the WFM were associations of mine owners and businessmen at each location, supported by the Colorado state government; the strikes were notable and controversial for the accompanying violence, the imposition of martial law by the Colorado National Guard in order to put down the strikes. A nearly simultaneous strike in Colorado's northern and southern coal fields was met with a military response by the Colorado National Guard. Colorado's most significant battles between labor and capital occurred between miners and mine operators. In these battles the state government, with one exception, sided with the mine operators. Additional participants have included the National Guard informally called the militia; the WFM strikes considered part of the Colorado labor wars include: Colorado City, March to April 1903, July 1903 to June 1904 Cripple Creek mining district, March to April 1903, August 1903 to June 1904 Idaho Springs, May to September 1903 Telluride, September to December 1903 Denver, July to November 1903 Durango, August to September 1903Two scholars of American labor violence concluded, "There is no episode in American labor history in which violence was as systematically used by employers as in the Colorado labor war of 1903 and 1904."
The WFM as well embraced more violent strike tactics, "entered into the one of the most insurgent and violent stages that American labor history had seen."Page 93 In late 1902, the Western Federation of Miners boasted seventeen thousand members in one hundred locals.p.58p.15 In January 1894, mine owners tried to lengthen the workday for Cripple Creek miners from eight to ten hours without raising pay. This action provoked a strike by the miners. In response, mine owners brought in strike breakers; the miners intimidated the strike breakers, so the mine owners raised a private army of an estimated 1,200 armed men. The gunmen were deputized by El Paso County Sheriff F. M. Bowers.p.19 The miners were armed, were prepared for a confrontation. Colorado Governor Davis Waite convinced the mine owners to go back to the shorter workday in what was called the "Waite agreement."p.19 Governor Waite called out the state militia to disarm the 1,200 gunmen who were no longer taking orders from the sheriff.
The Waite agreement on miners' hours and wages subsequently went into effect, lasted nearly a decade.p.19-20 Downtown Cripple Creek was destroyed by fires in 1896. Carpenters and other construction workers rushed to the area to rebuild the city, unions arose to organize them; the carpenter's union and other unions owed their leverage to the Western Federation of Miners.p.62 The strike victory in 1894 enabled the WFM to build labor organizations at the district and regional levels. Mining companies acted on a concern about miners stealing high grade ore by hiring Pinkerton guards. In one case three hundred miners walked out to protest the policy, the company negotiated, the Pinkerton guards were replaced by guards nominated by the union; the new agreement stipulated that miners suspected of theft would be searched by a fellow miner in the presence of a watchman. To insure a cooperative work force, mine managers and superintendents found it useful to urge all miners to join the union.p.71-74El Paso County included both working class Cripple Creek and more conservative Colorado Springs, home to many of the mine owners.
Backed by the pro-union Victor and Cripple Creek Daily Press, the unions elected union members to public office, split the mining district from El Paso County, by creating Teller County.p.69 Teller County was a union county where the eight-hour workday was enforced, workers were paid union scale. Unions used social pressure and strikes to ensure that union goals were enforced; the unions were powerful enough to announce wages and hours, any businesses that failed to comply were boycotted. Non-union products were eliminated from saloons and grocery stores.p.70 Outside the Cripple Creek District, things were not going well for the WFM. The union had lost a strike in Leadville in 1896, in 1899 there was another confrontation at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho which ended with hundreds of union miners locked up by the militia in temporary prisons. WFM Secretary-Treasurer Bill Haywood concluded that the companies and their supporters in government were conducting class warfare against the working class.p.55At their 1901 convention the WFM delegates proclaimed that a "complete revolution of social and economic conditions" was "the only salvation of the working classes."p.179 WFM leaders called for the abolition of the wage system.
By the spring of 1903 the WFM was the most militant labor organization in the country.p.15 This was a considerable change from the WFM's founding Preamble, which envisioned a future of arbitration and conciliation with employers, an eventual end to the need for strikes.p.23 Bill Haywood, the WFM's powerful secretary treasurer and second in command, had adopted the industrial unionism philosophy of his mentor, former WFM leader Ed Boyce. Boyce disagreed with Samuel Gompers, head of the AFL, over union organization.p.23 Haywood thought that unions should cover whole industries, that the WFM should extend to workers at ore processing mills as well, that all workers in an industrial union should stand up for the rights of other workers. Haywood believed he had the necessary weapon to
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
Tampa Bay Rays
The Tampa Bay Rays are an American professional baseball team based in St. Petersburg, Florida; the Rays compete in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League East division. Since its inception, the team's home venue has been Tropicana Field. Following nearly three decades of unsuccessfully trying to gain an expansion franchise or enticing existing teams to relocate to the Tampa Bay Area, an ownership group led by Vince Naimoli was approved on March 9, 1995; the Tampa Bay Devil Rays began play in the 1998 Major League Baseball season. Their first decade of play, was marked by futility. Following the 2007 season, Stuart Sternberg, who had purchased controlling interest in the team from Vince Naimoli two years earlier, changed the team's name from "Devil Rays" to "Rays", now meant to refer to a burst of sunshine rather than a manta ray, though a manta ray logo remains on the uniform sleeves; the 2008 season saw the Tampa Bay Rays post their first winning season, their first AL East championship, their first pennant, though they lost to the Philadelphia Phillies in that year's World Series.
Since the Rays have played in the postseason in 2010, 2011, 2013. The Tampa Bay Rays' chief rivals are the New York Yankees. Regarding the former, there have been several notable on-field incidents; the Rays have an intrastate interleague rivalry with the National League's Miami Marlins, whom they play in the Citrus Series. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg and Bradenton. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa or St. Petersburg. Former civic leader and St. Petersburg Times publisher, Jack Lake, first suggested St. Petersburg pursue a Major League baseball team in the 1960s; the notable influences Lake held in the sport are what led to the serious discussions that changed St. Petersburg from a spring training location to a major league city.
He spoke to anyone who would listen about his desire to see the city of St. Petersburg have a Major league baseball team, his colorful direction dominated the mindset in both sports and business circles dating back to 1966. He was said to have the prominence to make it happen. Local leaders made many unsuccessful attempts to acquire a major league baseball team in the 1980s and 1990s; the Minnesota Twins, San Francisco Giants, Chicago White Sox, Texas Rangers, Seattle Mariners all considered moving to either Tampa or St. Petersburg before deciding to remain in their current locations; the Florida Suncoast Dome was built in St. Petersburg in 1990 with the purpose of luring a major league team; that same year two separate groups, one in Tampa and another in Sarasota, were seeking to get an expansion team. The Tampa one registered the name "Florida Panthers", after a local feline - a trademark which ended up being purchased by entrepreneur Wayne Huizenga one year and used by him to name an NHL ice hockey team.
When Major League Baseball announced that it would add two expansion teams for the 1993 season, it was assumed that one of the teams would be placed in the Dome. However, in addition to the application from St. Petersburg, a competing group applied to field a team in Tampa, prompting much conflict over the bid; the two National League teams were awarded to Miami instead. In 1992, San Francisco Giants owner Bob Lurie agreed in principle to sell his team to a Tampa Bay-based group of investors led by Vince Naimoli, who would move the team to St. Petersburg. However, at the 11th hour, MLB owners nixed the move under pressure from San Francisco officials and the Giants were sold to a group that kept them in San Francisco. On March 9, 1995, new expansion franchises were awarded to Naimoli's Tampa Bay group and a group from Phoenix; the new franchises were scheduled to begin play in 1998. The Tampa Bay area had a team, but the stadium in St. Petersburg was in need of an upgrade. In 1993, the stadium was renamed the Thunderdome and became the home of the Tampa Bay Lightning hockey team and the Tampa Bay Storm Arena Football League team.
After the birth of the Rays, the naming rights were sold to Tropicana Products and $70 million was spent on renovations. The records of the Rays' last five seasons in Major League Baseball; these statistics are current through the 2018 Major League Baseball season. Tampa Bay's primary rivals are the New York Yankees; the Red Sox/Rays rivalry dates back to the 2000 season, when Devil Ray Gerald Williams took exception to being hit by a pitch thrown by Boston pitcher Pedro Martínez and charged the mound, resulting in a game full of retaliations and ejections on both sides. There have been several other incidents between the teams during the ensuing years, including one in 2005 which resulted in two bench-clearing fights during the game and a war of words between then-Devil Rays manager Lou Piniella and then-Boston pitcher Curt Schilling through the media in the following days; the rivalry reached its highest level to date during the 2008 season, which included a brawl during a June meeting in Fenway Park and a 7-game American League Championship Series between the teams t
Oracle Park is a baseball park located in the South Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, California. Since 2000, it has served as the home of the San Francisco Giants, the city's Major League Baseball franchise. Named Pacific Bell Park SBC Park in 2003 after SBC Communications acquired Pacific Bell, the stadium was christened AT&T Park in 2006, after SBC acquired AT&T and took on the name; the current name was adopted in 2019. The park stands along the San Francisco Bay, a segment of, named McCovey Cove in honor of former Giants player Willie McCovey. Oracle Park has played host to both professional and collegiate American football games; the stadium was the home of the annual college postseason bowl game now known as the Redbox Bowl from its inaugural playing in 2002 until 2013, served as the temporary home for the University of California's football team in 2011. Professionally, it was the home of the San Francisco Demons of the XFL and the California Redwoods of the United Football League.
Public transit access to the stadium is provided within San Francisco by Muni Metro or Muni Bus, from the Peninsula and Santa Clara Valley via Caltrain, from parts of the Bay Area across the water via various ferries of San Francisco Bay. The Muni 2nd and King Station is directly outside the ballpark, the 4th & King Caltrain station is 1.5 blocks from the stadium, the Oracle Park Ferry Terminal is outside the east edge of the ballpark beyond the center field bleachers. Designed to be a 42,000-seat stadium, there were slight modifications before the final design was complete; when the ballpark was brought to the ballot box in the fall of 1996 for voter approval, the stadium was 15° clockwise from its current position. The center-field scoreboard was atop the right-field wall and the Giants Pavilion Building were two separate buildings. Groundbreaking on the ballpark began on December 11, 1997, in the industrial waterfront area of San Francisco known as China Basin in the up-and-coming neighborhoods of South Beach and Mission Bay.
The stadium cost $357 million to build and supplanted the Giants' former home, Candlestick Park, a multi-use stadium in southeastern San Francisco, home to the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers until 2014, when they relocated to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara. A team of engineers from UC Davis was consulted in the design process of the park, resulting in wind levels that are half those at Candlestick. Fans had shivered through 40 seasons at "The'Stick" and looked forward to warmer temperatures at the new ballpark, but because Oracle Park, like its predecessor, is built right on San Francisco Bay, cold summer fog and winter jackets in July are still not unusual at Giants games, despite the higher average temperature. When it opened on March 31, 2000, the ballpark was the first Major League Baseball ballpark built without public funds since the completion of Dodger Stadium in 1962. However, the Giants did receive a $10 million tax abatement from the city and $80 million for upgrades to the local infrastructure.
The Giants have a 66-year lease on the 12.5-acre ballpark site, paying $1.2 million in rent annually to the San Francisco Port Commission. The park opened with a seating capacity of 40,800, but this has increased over time as seats have been added. In April 2010, the stadium became the first MLB ballpark to receive LEED Silver Certification for Existing Buildings and Maintenance. On April 3, 1996, Pacific Bell, a telephone company serving California based in San Francisco, purchased the naming rights for the planned ballpark for $50 million for 24 years; the stadium was named Pac Bell Park for short. Just days before the sponsorship was announced, SBC Communications had announced their intention to acquire Pacific Bell's parent company, Pacific Telesis, a deal which closed in April 1997. SBC stopped using the Pacific Bell name for marketing, reached an agreement with the Giants to change the stadium's name to SBC Park on January 1, 2004. After SBC bought AT&T Corporation on November 18, 2005, the name of the merged company became AT&T Inc.
As a result, in 2006 the stadium was given its third name in six years: AT&T Park. On January 9, 2019, it was reported that AT&T had given the Giants the option of ending the naming deal a year early, if the team could find a new partner; the Giants and Oracle Corporation came to a rapid agreement, with the old AT&T Park signs being replaced with temporary Oracle Park banners on January 10. Some fans still refer to the stadium as Pac Bell Park, as it was the first name given to the stadium. Others have nicknamed the stadium "The Phone Booth" or "Telephone Park", in response to its multiple name changes, while some referred to the stadium as "Some Big Corporation Park" during the SBC years. Others yet refer to it as "Mays Field" in honor of Giants great Willie Mays or "The Bell". Many refer to the stadium as "China Basin" or "McCovey Cove" after its location, which would be immune to changes in sponsorship naming; the stadium contains 68 luxury suites, 5,200 club seats on the club level, an additional 1,500 club seats at the field level behind home plate.
On the facing of the upper deck along the left-field line are the retired numbers of Bill Terry, Mel Ott, Carl Hubbell, Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, Barry Bonds, Juan Marichal, Orlando Cepeda, Jackie Robinson, Willie McCovey, Gaylord Perry, as well as the retired uniforms, denoted "NY", of Christy Mathewson and John McGraw who played or managed in the pre-number era. These two pre-number–era retired uniforms are among only six such retired uniforms in all of the Major Leagues. Oracle Park has a reputation of being a pitcher's park and the most pitc