Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
The Neo-Mudéjar is a type of Moorish Revival architecture. In Spain, this architectural movement emerged as a revival of the Mudéjar style, it appeared in the late 19th century in Madrid, soon spread to other regions of the country. Such architects as Emilio Rodríguez Ayuso perceived the Mudéjar art as characteristical and exclusive Spanish style, they started to construct buildings using some of the features of the ancient style, as horseshoe arches, arabesque tiling, the use of the abstract shaped brick ornamentations for the façades. The first examples of the Neo-Mudéjar style were Madrid's Plaza del Toros built in 1874 and the Aguirre School, designed by Rodríguez Ayuso, Casa Vicens by Gaudí; the style became a strong "compulsory" reference for the construction of bullfight rings all around Spain and beyond the borders, to Portugal and the Hispanoamerican countries. In Madrid it became one of its most representative styles, not only for public buildings, like Escuelas Aguirre or the Bullring of Las Ventas but for housing.
The use of cheap materials brick for exteriors, made it a popular style in the new neighborhoods. Neo-Mudéjar was combined with Neo-Gothic by architects as Francisco de Cubas, Antonio María Repullés y Vargas or Francisco Jareño. After the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 in Seville, another stream of Neo-Mudéjar features appeared: the Andalusian Architectural Regionalism; the Plaza de España or the ABC newspaper headquarters are examples of this new style that combined traditional Andalusian architecture with Mudéjar features. Arenas de Barcelona Gran Teatro Falla, Cádiz Las Ventas bullring, Madrid Church of Santa Cruz, Madrid Church of La Paloma, Madrid Water tower Torre de Canal Isabel II, in Madrid. Escuelas Aguirre, Madrid Toledo railway station Zaragoza Post-Office Campo Pequeno bullring in Lisbon, inspired in Madrid Bullring by Rodríguez Ayuso. Palacio de Orleans-Borbón Moorish Revival ARQUITECTURA DEL SIGLO XIX by Inmaculada Rodríguez Cunill
Pedro Romero Martínez was a legendary bullfighter from the Romero family in Ronda, Spain. His grandfather Francisco is credited with advancing the art of using the muleta; as a youth he participated in bullfights in Algeciras and in Seville in 1772. In the following year he killed 285 bulls, he fought 5,558 bulls without incurring serious injury before retiring in 1799. He was known as the first matador to present the bullfight as an art form as well as a display of courage. After retiring, Romero was appointed the head of a bullfighting school in Seville. Although the school lasted only from 1830 to 1832, it had an enormous influence where Romero offered his knowledge to matadors-in-training, he is credited with the invention of the classical style of bullfighting in the School of Ronda and Pedro Romero's name is inseparable from the Plaza de Toros. He killed numerous bulls in a bullring in Madrid at the age of eighty the last corrida he fought. Hemingway, in his novel The Sun Also Rises, portrays a young, "beautiful" and artful bullfighter whom he names Pedro Romero after Pedro Romero Martinez.
Romero dynasty List of bullfighters
Diamonds & Rust in the Bullring
Diamonds & Rust in the Bullring is a Joan Baez album, recorded live in the bullring of Bilbao, Spain. It featured twelve songs, six of which were performed in English, five in Spanish and one - "Txoria Txori" - in Basque. Most of the songs had been performed and recorded by Baez with the exception of Leonard Cohen's "Famous Blue Raincoat". "Gracias a la Vida" is a duet with singer Mercedes Sosa. "Diamonds & Rust" – 3:45 "Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Around" – 1:22 "No Woman, No Cry" – 3:45 "Famous Blue Raincoat" – 4:58 "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" – 3:41 "Let It Be" – 3:59 "El Preso Numero Nueve" – 3:14 "Llego Con Tres Heridas" – 2:38 "Txoria Txori" – 2:54 "Ellas Danzan Solas" – 5:35 "Gracias a la Vida" – 6:05 "No Nos Moveran" – 1:22 Alan V. Abrahams – producer, mixing John Acosta – cello Begnat Amorena – drums Laythan Armor – synthesizer, keyboards Joan Baez – arranger, liner notes, illustrations Marlene Bergman – design, cover design Cesar Cancino – piano, cello arrangement Jean Marie Ecay – guitar Jose Agustin Guereu – bass Charles Paakkari – mixing Costel Restea – cello Mercedes Sosa – vocals L. A.
Mass Choir - vocals on "Let It Be" Donald Taylor – director, choir director, choir master Wally Traugott – mastering
Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. There are many different varieties in various locations around the world; some forms involve dancing around or over a cow or bull, or attempting to grasp an object from the animal. The best-known form of bullfighting is Spanish-style bullfighting, a traditional spectacle in countries including Spain, parts of southern France, some Latin American countries. While some forms are sometimes considered to be a blood sport, in some countries, for example Spain, it is defined as an art form or cultural event and relevant regulatory frameworks liken it to other cultural events and heritage. In Spain, toreros are as popular as football stars supported by sponsors and appearing in press. A particular breed of cattle, the Spanish Fighting Bull, is used for this type of bullfighting; these bulls must be bred in large ranches, in conditions as similar as possible to the way they would live in the wild.
There are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America. The largest venue of its kind is the Plaza México in central Mexico City, which seats 48,000 people, the oldest are the Plazas of Béjar and Ronda, in the Spanish provinces of Salamanca and Málaga. All the bullrings have a complex pricing system, main factors being the sun and shadow, proximity to the action, experience levels of torero; the practice of bullfighting is controversial because of a range of concerns including animal welfare and religion. Bullfighting is illegal in most countries, but remains legal in most areas of Spain and Portugal, as well as in some Hispanic American countries and some parts of southern France. Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice in Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean region; the first recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu fought and killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, myths related to bulls throughout Greece.
The killing of the sacred bull is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the Celtiberian tombstone from Clunia and the cave painting El toro de hachos, both found in Spain. Bullfighting is linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held as competition and entertainment, the Venationes; these hunting games spread to Africa and Asia during Roman times. There are theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute for gladiators, when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial combat; the latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of breeding cattle and bullfighting to the American colonies, the Pacific and Asia. In the 19th century, areas of southern and southwestern France adopted bullfighting, developing their own distinctive form. Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the local plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor, the populace enjoyed the excitement.
In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback. In Spain, they began to fight bulls. In medieval Spain bullfighting was considered a noble sport and reserved to the rich, who could afford to supply and train their animals; the bull was released into a closed arena where a single fighter on horseback was armed with a lance. This spectacle was said to be enjoyed by Charlemagne, Alfonso X the Wise and the Almohad caliphs, among others; the greatest Spanish performer of this art is said to have been the knight El Cid. According to a chronicle of the time, in 1128 "... when Alfonso VII of León and Castile married Berengaria of Barcelona daughter of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona at Saldaña among other celebrations, there were bullfights."In the time of Emperor Charles V, Pedro Ponce de Leon was the most famous bullfighter in Spain and a renovator of the technique of killing the bull on a horse with blindfolded eyes. Juan de Quirós, the best Sevillian poet of that time, dedicated to him a poem in Latin, of which Benito Arias Montano transmits some verses.
Francisco Romero, from Ronda, Spain, is regarded as having been the first to introduce the practice of fighting bulls on foot around 1726, using the muleta in the last stage of the fight and an estoc to kill the bull. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds, thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were replaced by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings square, like the Plaza de Armas, round, to discourage the cornering of the action; the modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte considered the greatest matador of all time. Belmonte introduced a daring and revolutionary style, in which he stayed within a few centimetres of the bull throughout the fight. Although dangerous, his style is still seen by most matadors as the ideal to be emulated. At least five di
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον, meaning "place for viewing". Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, an "amphitheatre" may consist of theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round, stadia. Natural formations of similar shape are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan, with perimeter seating tiers, they were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire.
Their typical shape and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape. The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BCE, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period onwards. Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and statuary. After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair, their materials were recycled. Some were razed, others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places. A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. An amphitheatre can be occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose if no theatre has been constructed there.
Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Australia, the Red Rocks and Gorge amphitheatres in the western United States. Arena Stadium Thingplatz List of Roman amphitheatres List of contemporary amphitheatres List of indoor arenas List of ancient Greek theatres Roman theatre Bomgardner, David Lee; the Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16593-8
Miguel Ríos Campaña is a Spanish singer, actor. He is one of the pioneers of roll in Spain. Ríos was born in a neighborhood of Granada; the youngest of seven children, he went to work in a local bar at the age of fifteen after little formal education. His interest in rock and roll led him to participate in a song contest at Cenicienta 60 radio station, in which he and his friends won a prize for singing the Paul Anka song "You Are My Destiny". With his mother's permission, he moved to Madrid in 1961 at the age of sixteen, where he recorded his first four songs. In popular circles he became known as the King of Twist; as Mike Ríos he obtained some television popularity during the first half of the 1960s. In 1964 he resumed using his real name which cost him the support of Los Relámpagos, he made his first incursion into cinema with a movie titled Dos chicas locas, locas. An introspective search for his true identity resulted in some rocky times. In 1967 he recorded "Vuelvo a Granada", "El río", "Contra el cristal", "El cartel", "Mira hacia ti".
It was in 1970. His song "Himno de la alegría" was an extract of the last movement of the ninth symphony of Beethoven and appeared at the height of what was known as symphonic rock, it was released in both the United States and the United Kingdom as "A Song of Joy" in May 1970 on the A&M Records label, where combined sales in the U. S. and Canada reached the one million mark in July. It reached No. 16 in the UK singles charts in August 1970. It was awarded a gold record by the Recording Industry Association of America, he was number one on some foreign music charts. It reached Number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1970; the artistic career of Rios came to a sudden stop when he was arrested and jailed for possession of hashish shortly after his Rock y Amor concert. In the mid seventies he recorded three progressive rock albums, but they were not commercially successful. In 1982 Rios released Rock and Rios a live double album recorded during the 5 and 6 March in Madrid at the Pabellón del Real Madrid and published in June of the same year.
This album is considered by many music critics and fans as one of the most important works of modern Spanish rock and a turning point for the music industry in Spain. Rios sold over 450,000 copies in less than one a feat he never again came close to surpassing; this concert was a celebration of his 20 years in the music business, yet most of the audience members had not been born when he began his career. One of the unique aspects of this album was its release. While most live albums at the time were released after a tour was over, Rios released his at the same time as he started his tour; the success of both made him one of the wealthiest entertainers of the era. Rock and Rios is considered a cultural marker for the transformation of Spanish society as it begun to enjoy the freedoms of a democracy born only six years earlier, it is thought of as the precursor to Spain's "La Gran Movida", a term that loosely defines the street youth culture of the 1980s in Spain. Mira hacia ti 1969 Despierta 1970 Unidos 1971 Miguel Ríos en directo: Conciertos de Rock y amor.1972 Miguel Ríos: Éxitos 1973 Memorias de un ser humano 1974 La huerta atómica 1976 Al-Andalus 1977 Los viejos rokeros nunca mueren 1979 Rocanrol bumerang 1980 Extraños en el escaparate 1981 Rock and Rios 1982 El Rock de una noche de verano 1983 La encrucijada 1984 Lo más de rock en el ruedo 1985 El año del cometa 1986 Que noche la de aquel año 1987 Miguel Ríos 1989 Directo al corazón 1991 Así que pasen treinta años 1992 Por siempre 1995 Canciones de amor para tiempos difíciles 1995 Como si fuera la primera vez 1996 Miguel Ríos en concierto: Big Band Ríos 1998 Ana Belén, Miguel Ríos cantan a Kurt Weill 1999 Miguel Ríos y las estrellas del rock latino 2001 60mp3 2004 Solo o en compañía de otros 2008 Bye Bye Ríos 2010 Much of the content of this article comes from the equivalent Spanish-language Wikipedia article, accessed September 5, 2006