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Bullying

Bullying is the use of force, coercion, or threat, to abuse, aggressively dominate or intimidate. The behavior is repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception of an imbalance of social power; this imbalance distinguishes bullying from conflict. Bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: hostile intent, imbalance of power, repetition over a period of time. Bullying is the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another individual, mentally, or emotionally. Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying, called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who are willing to assist the primary bully in their bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is referred to as "peer abuse". Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism; the Swedish-Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons", that negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways".

Individual bullying is characterized by a person behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. A bullying culture can develop in any context; this may include school, the workplace, the home, neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying in contemporary culture is on social media websites. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, "the strongest predictor was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player's life would approve of the bullying behavior."Bullying may be defined in many different ways. In the United Kingdom, there is no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – psychological, verbal and cyber. Behaviors used to assert such domination may include physical assault or coercion, verbal harassment, or threat, such acts may be directed toward particular targets. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, religion, sexual orientation, behavior, body language, reputation, strength, size, or ability.

If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing. The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning "sweetheart", applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother" diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother", of uncertain origin; the meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow", "blusterer", to "harasser of the weak". This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute", one sense of "bully"; the verb "to bully" is first attested in 1710. In the past, in American culture, the term has been used differently, as an exclamation/exhortation, in particular famously associated with Theodore Roosevelt and continuing to the present in the bully pulpit, Roosevelt's coining and as faint/deprecating praise. Bullying has been classified by the body of literature into different types; these can be in the form of verbal, or physical behavior. Another classification is based on perpetrators or the participants involved, so that the types include individual and collective bullying.

Other interpretation cite emotional and relational bullying in addition to physical harm inflicted towards another person or property. There is the case of the more recent phenomenon called cyberbullying. Physical and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could begin much earlier while continuing into stages in individuals lives. Individual bullying tactics are perpetrated by a single person against targets. Individual bullying can be classified into four types outlined below: Physical bullying is any bullying that hurts someone's body or damages their possessions. Stealing, hitting and intentionally destroying someone's property are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is the first form of bullying that a target will experience. Bullying will begin in a different form and progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is his/her body, or some part thereof, when attacking his/her target. Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice.

This can lead to a situation where they are being taunted, "beaten up" by their classmates. Physical bullying will escalate over time, can lead to a detrimental ending, therefore many try to stop it to prevent any further escalation. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying; this is any bullying, conducted by speaking or other use of the voice and does not involve any physical contact. Verbal bullying includes any of the following: Derogatory name-calling Spreading rumors or lying about someone Threatening someone Yelling at or talking to someone in a rude or unkind tone of voice without justifiable cause Mocking someone's voice or style of speaking Laughing at someone Making insults or otherwise making fun of someoneIn verbal bullying, the main weapon the bully uses is voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is common in both genders, but girls are more to perform it. Gi

Spider-Man: Back in Black

"Back in Black" is a five-part 2007 Marvel Comics storyline written by J. Michael Straczynski and illustrated by Ron Garney, Bill Reinhold, Matt Milla and VC's Cory Petit. All parts were published in the comic book series The Amazing Spider-Man #539–543; the story takes place after Marvel's Civil War event and depicts what happened to Spider-Man, Mary Jane Watson, Aunt May during and after the event. The story is about Spider-Man's determination to find Aunt May's shooter. Hence, he wears the black suit, modeled after the Venom symbiote, to emphasize his humorless aggression, he is seen in action without his mask on, as well, showing his rage and thirst for vengeance. Peter Parker, Mary Jane, Aunt May are outside when an assassin shoots May. Mary Jane attempts to contact 911, but they have no time, so Peter transports May to the hospital via web-slinging. Peter still hears that May has lost a lot of blood. Meanwhile, in prison, The Kingpin is given a message by Charlie, he quotes Euripides, who wrote "Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad.".

MJ meets Peter in Times Square, Peter tells her to do anything she can to keep Aunt May alive while Peter will find evidence of the assassin. He visits the shooter's perch – restraining a police officer with a thick coat of webbing. Inside, he finds a sniper scope there, he leaves without freeing the police officer. He breaks up an illegal weapons sale and interrogates the criminals about the unusual sniper scope; when a gun-runner hesitates to answer Peter Peter breaks the man's hand in his grip. MJ visits Aunt May in the hospital and a doctor tells her that May's not going to make it. Peter swears that he won't stop until he finds, responsible, puts on his black suit. Peter begins hunting down more sniper scope sellers. While beating up the last one, Peter throws the seller out of the window, but catches him with a line of webbing to his foot; the dealer tells Peter that the assassin who purchased the scope was named Jake Martino. Peter finds his address, he goes to Martino's apartment but Martino has left.

The apartment owner talks to him, tells him two men were looking for Martino as well, tells him that Martino has left for the subways. Spider-Man confronts Martino, beats him brutally, breaks his arm, unmasks again questions him about who hired him. Just when Martino is about to tell the name, he is shot through the chest. Peter attaches one of his spider-tracers to the second assassin; the Police arrive to help Martino and Spider-Man goes along with Martino's ambulance, which takes them to the same hospital where Aunt May is staying. MJ tells him that May's not going to make it. Martino succumbs to his injuries. Spider-Man finds the second shooter. Peter webs up the mouth of the assassin and hears, on the phone, he realizes the caller is the Kingpin. Peter figures out, he asks the assassin about. The man replies that he knew something Fisk didn't know, and, the only information he knows. Charlie visits Fisk again and Fisk asks if Charlie could do something for him. Charlie agrees, as long; the Kingpin replies that it's beyond the rules, destroys his table, stacked with millions of dollars in cash – a king's ransom.

He tells the police officer to share it with his fellow policemen, Charlie releases Fisk. Fisk asks Charlie to bring his traditional clothes. Peter ties Jim, in a sewer where he is attacked by rats. Peter threatens the shooter by talking about the food chain. Jim tells he'll do anything and Peter tells him that he could let no one get close to his family. Peter transfuses some of his blood to May to cure her, he goes to the prison to confront the Kingpin. The Kingpin and Spider-Man face off and Fisk calls Peter a "chump" for believing in the greater good. Fisk's taunts enrage Spider-Man to the point of nearly killing Fisk. Spider-Man tells him that he is not going to kill him, he continually tortures Fisk. Spider-Man says that he will not kill Fisk yet, he leaves the prison, Fisk and all the inmates return to their cells. Peter visits May, MJ tells him that they have to let May get transferred to a less expensive hospital. Peter says his reason for placing May in that hospital is that it is the best, but agrees that they can no longer afford it.

Peter chats with an unconscious May. Peter suspects that May might have built a resistance in her body to counter his earlier blood transfusion; the hospital reverend arrives, asks if they have any plans for a funeral. After the nurses complete a blood test for May, Peter steals the report and sees that it did not work. A second report is given to a police officer named Delint, they have a short conversation, at the same time the head nurse talks with Delint about the missing first report, radiation in May's blood, them paying in cash. She tells her opinion of the story tells Delint that MJ is still upstairs. Delint goes up to May's room and Peter, sensing him, hides. MJ opens the door for Delint and the lights go out. Peter appears and knocks the o

Gertrude of Saxony

Gertrude of Saxony known as Gertrude Billung, was a countess of Holland by marriage to Floris I, Count of Holland, countess of Flanders by marriage to Robert I, Count of Flanders. She was regent of Holland in 1061-1067 during the minority of her son Dirk V, regent of Flanders during the absence of her spouse in 1086-1093, she was Duke of Saxony and Eilika of Schweinfurt. In c. 1050, she married Floris I, Count of Holland. Upon the death of her spouse in 1061, her son Dirk V became Count of Holland. Since he was a minor, she became regent; when Dirk V came into power, William I, Bishop of Utrecht, took advantage of the situation, occupying territory that he had claimed in Holland. Gertrude and her son withdrew to the islands of Frisia, leaving William to occupy the disputed lands. In 1063 Gertrude married Robert of the second son of Baldwin V of Flanders; this act gave Dirk the Imperial Flanders as an appanage – including the islands of Frisia west of the Frisian Scheldt. She and her husband acted as co-regents of Holland for her son during his minority.

When her spouse left for a journey to Jerusalem in 1086-1093, Gertrude served as regent of Flanders during his absence. She had a total of seven children with Count of Holland: Albert, a canon in Liege. Dirk V. Peter, a canon in Liége. Bertha, who married Philip I of France in 1072. Floris, a canon in Liége. Matilda Adela, who married Count Baudouin I of Guînes. From her second marriage to Robert of Flanders she had five children: Robert II of Flanders. Adela, who first married king Canute IV of Denmark, was the mother of Charles the Good count of Flanders, she married Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia. Gertrude, who married Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine, was the mother of Thierry of Alsace later count of Flanders. Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was a claimant to the county of Flanders. Ogiva, abbess of Messines. Nicholas, Karen S.. "Countess as Rulers in Flanders". In Evergates, Theodore. Aristocratic Women in Medieval France. University of Pennsylvania Press. Rider, Jeff. "Vice, Tyranny and the Usurpation of Flanders in Flemish Historiography from 1093 to 1294".

In Guynn, Noah D.. Violence and the Writing of History in the Medieval Francophone World. Boydell & Brewer. Genealogy A-Z Medieval Lands Project on Gertrude of Saxony