State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Diageo plc is a British multinational alcoholic beverages company, with its headquarters in London and offices on six continents. It was the world's largest distiller until being overtaken by China's Kweichow Moutai on 9 April 2017. Diageo's brands include Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker and Guinness, it owns 37% of Moët Hennessy, which owns brands including Moët & Chandon, Veuve Clicquot and Hennessy. It has offices in around 80 countries. Diageo has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Diageo is an invented name, created by the branding consultancy Wolff Olins in 1997; the name is composed of the Latin word diēs, meaning "day", the Greek root geo-, meaning "world". Diageo was formed in 1997 from the merger of Grand Metropolitan, its creation was driven by Guinness executives Anthony Greener and Philip Yea along with George Bull and John McGrath of Grand Metropolitan. Anthony Greener was the first executive chairman.
Shares in Diageo began trading on the London Stock Exchange on 17 December 1997. Diageo owned Pillsbury until 2000. In 2002, Diageo sold the Burger King fast food restaurant chain to a consortium led by US firm Texas Pacific for $1.5 billion. In February 2011, Diageo agreed to acquire the Turkish liquor company Mey Icki for $2.1 billion. In May 2012, Diageo agreed to acquire Ypioca, the largest-selling brand of premium cachaça in Brazil, for £300 million. In June 2012, Diageo announced a £1 billion investment in Scotch whisky production over the following five years, with at least one new distillery to be constructed, several existing facilities to be expanded, overall production capacity to be increased by 30 to 40 percent; this did not, involve retaining the original Johnnie Walker plant in Kilmarnock, which had closed its doors in March the same year. In November 2012, Diageo agreed to acquire a 53.4% stake in the Indian spirits company United Spirits for £1.28 billion. In 2013, Diageo joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
In November 2014, Diageo agreed to sell Bushmills Irish whiskey in exchange for $408 million and full ownership of tequila brand Don Julio. In October 2015, Diageo announced the sale of most of its wine business to Treasury Wine Estates. Other brands, such as Navarro Correas and Chalone Vineyard, were sold separately. In December 2015, Diageo announced a $10 million investment in Danish whisky brand Stauning, to facilitate expansion of production. In March 2016, the company sold Grand Marnier, a cognac and bitter orange-based liqueur, to the Italian beverage company Campari Group. In February 2017, Diageo announced plans to open a Guinness brewery and tourist attraction in Baltimore County, Maryland; the brewery could create 70 new jobs and host as many as 300,000 visitors per year. In June 2017, Diageo agreed to buy George Clooney's high-end tequila brand, for up to $1 billion. In February 2018, Diageo announced plans for limited edition bottles of its 12-year-old Black Label blended whisky named Jane Walker, as opposed to Johnnie Walker, to be sold.
The label will feature a striding woman on the label rather than the top-hatted man associated with the brand. In November 2018, Diageo agreed to sell Seagram's VO, Seagram's 83, Myers's Rum, Popov vodka, Booth's Gin, Goldschläger, Yukon Jack, 11 other brands to the Sazerac Company for $550 million. In 2016, Diageo was ranked 11th out of 4,255 companies worldwide for diversity and inclusiveness in the Thomson Reuters Diversity and Inclusion Index. Diageo's beverage brands include: Beer: Guinness, Smithwick's, Harp Lager, Meta Scotch whisky: Johnnie Walker, Buchanan's, Justerini & Brooks, Bell's, Black & White, White Horse, Caol Ila, Vat 69, Talisker, Black Dog, Glen Ord, Dalwhinnie, Clynelish, Haig, Royal Lochnagar, Glen Elgin, The Dimple Pinch, King George IV, Inchgower Vodka: Smirnoff, Cîroc, Silent Sam, Ketel One Gin: Gordon's, Nolet's Rum: Captain Morgan, Pampero, Zacapa Bourbon: Bulleit, I. W. Harper, Orphan Barrel American whiskey: Seagram's Seven Crown Canadian whisky: Crown Royal Tennessee whiskey: George Dickel Irish whiskey: Roe & Co Tequila: Don Julio, DeLeón, Casamigos Schnapps:Rumple Minze Baijiu: Shui Jing Fang, Nếp Mới Mixed drinks: Archers, Pimm's, Jeremiah Weed, Smirnoff Cocktails Liqueur: Baileys, Godiva Rakı: Yeni Rakı, Tekirdağ Rakısı, Kulüp Rakı, AltınbaşDiageo distributes Unicum, its lighter-bodied variant Zwack.
Diageo is the world's biggest whisky producer with malt distilleries in Blair Athol, Dalwhinnie, Royal Lochnagar, Cardhu, Glen Ord, Talisker, Caol Ila and Lagavulin. Other distilleries include Linkwood, Auchroisk, Cameron Bridge, Dufftown, Cascade Hollow, Glen Elgin, Teaninich, Mortlach and Glenlossie, it has the large Roseisle distillery in Speyside. Diageo owns a 34% stake in the Moet Hennessy drinks division of French luxury goods company LVMH. In 2017, the company was awarded top place in the Institute of Directors' and Chartered Quality Institute's Good Governance Index. Diageo's head office is in Park Royal, London Borough of Brent, on a former Guinness brewery property; the brewery was closed in 2004. In 1996, Diageo moved to a head office
The polar bear is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is a large bear the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear. A boar weighs around 350 -- 700 kg. Although it is the sister species of the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrower ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow and open water, for hunting seals, which make up most of its diet. Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time on the sea ice, their scientific name derives from this fact. Polar bears hunt their preferred food of seals from the edge of sea ice living off fat reserves when no sea ice is present; because of their dependence on the sea ice, polar bears are classified as marine mammals. Because of expected habitat loss caused by climate change, the polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species. For decades, large-scale hunting raised international concern for the future of the species, but populations rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect.
For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material and cultural life of circumpolar peoples, polar bears remain important in their cultures. The polar bear has been known as the white bear. Constantine John Phipps was the first to describe the polar bear as a distinct species in 1774, he chose the scientific name Ursus maritimus, the Latin for'maritime bear', due to the animal's native habitat. The Inuit refer to the animal as nanook; the Yupik refer to the bear as nanuuk in Siberian Yupik. The bear is umka in the Chukchi language. In Russian, it is called бе́лый медве́дь, though an older word still in use is ошку́й. In Quebec, the polar bear is referred to as ours polaire. In the Norwegian-administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn; the polar bear was considered to be in its own genus, Thalarctos. However, evidence of hybrids between polar bears and brown bears, of the recent evolutionary divergence of the two species, does not support the establishment of this separate genus, the accepted scientific name is now therefore Ursus maritimus, as Phipps proposed.
The bear family, Ursidae, is thought to have split from other carnivorans about 38 million years ago. The subfamily Ursinae originated 4.2 million years ago. The oldest known polar bear fossil is a 130,000 to 110,000-year-old jaw bone, found on Prince Charles Foreland in 2004. Fossils show that between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, the polar bear's molar teeth changed from those of the brown bear. Polar bears are thought to have diverged from a population of brown bears that became isolated during a period of glaciation in the Pleistocene from the eastern part of Siberia; the evidence from DNA analysis is more complex. The mitochondrial DNA of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos 150,000 years ago. Further, some clades of brown bear, as assessed by their mtDNA, are more related to polar bears than to other brown bears, meaning that the polar bear might not be considered a species under some species concepts; the mtDNA of extinct Irish brown bears is close to polar bears. A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged 603,000 years ago, although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes of polar and brown bears, establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago.
However, the two species have mated intermittently for all that time, most coming into contact with each other during warming periods, when polar bears were driven onto land and brown bears migrated northward. Most brown bears have about 2 percent genetic material from polar bears, but one population, the ABC Islands bears has between 5 percent and 10 percent polar bear genes, indicating more frequent and recent mating. Polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids. However, because neither species can survive long in the other's ecological niche, because they have different morphology, metabolism and feeding behaviours, other phenotypic characteristics, the two bears are classified as separate species; when the polar bear was documented, two subspecies were identified: the American polar bear by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, the Siberian polar bear by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776; this distinction has since been invalidated. One alleged fossil subspecies has been identified: Ursus maritimus tyrannus, which became extinct during the Pleistocene.
U.m. tyrannus was larger than the living subspecies. However, recent reanalysis of the fossil suggests that it was a brown bear; the polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and adjacent land masses as far south as Newfoundland. Due to the absence of human development in i
Anna Maria Bligh is a former Australian politician who served as the 37th Premier of Queensland, in office from 2007 to 2012 as leader of the Labor Party. She was the first woman to hold either position. Bligh was born in Warwick and studied at the University of Queensland. Before entering politics she worked for various community organisations. Bligh entered the Queensland Legislative Assembly at the 1995 state election, winning the seat of South Brisbane, she was promoted to the ministry in 1998, under Peter Beattie, became deputy premier in 2005 and state treasurer in 2006. Bligh succeeded Beattie as premier in 2007 – Queensland's first female premier and Australia's third, she led Labor to victory at the 2009 state election, but at the 2012 election suffered a landslide defeat and announced her retirement from politics. From 2010 to 2011, Bligh was National President of the Australian Labor Party. In 2017, she was appointed CEO of the Australian Banking Association. Bligh was born in Queensland.
She is a descendant of William Bligh, famous for the Mutiny on the Bounty and being the 4th Governor of New South Wales. Bligh grew up on the Gold Coast, her parents separated when she was 13. She considered becoming a nun. One of her aunts became another had entered a convent. However, the church's attitude towards divorced people estranged her and her mother from the church. Studying at the University of Queensland from 1978, Bligh gained a Bachelor of Arts. Bligh traces her politicisation to her first year at University, observing a right-to-march rally in King George Square where people were being hit over the head by the police. Bligh's first involvement in activism was student protests against the Vice-Chancellor Brian Wilson's controversial administrative restructuring within the university, she went on to be involved in the Women's Rights Collective which campaigned for legalised abortion against the anti-abortion policies of the Bjelke-Petersen government. Bligh's next role was as Women's Vice-President of the Student Union.
She ran an election ticket called EAT in an unsuccessful bid to oust the faction in charge, headed by the future Goss government identity David Barbagallo. Law student Paul Lucas, Bligh's future deputy premier, was a part of Barbagallo's team, her 1982 team included the former Minister for Education and the Arts Rod Welford. Anne Warner, a future Minister in the Goss Government, was an office holder at the time in the Union. Warner soon become one of Bligh's key political mentors, she subsequently worked in a number of community organisations, including child care services, neighbourhood centres, women's refuges and trade unions as well as in the Queensland Public Service. Bligh was the secretary of the Labor Party's Fairfield branch in 1987. Bligh was first elected to parliament at the 1995 election to the safe Labor seat of South Brisbane, succeeding Anne Warner. A member of the Socialist Left faction of the Labor Party, she was promoted to the ministry following the election of the Beattie government in 1998 as Minister for Families and Community Care and Disability Services.
In 2001, Bligh became Queensland's first female Education Minister. She assumed additional responsibility for the Arts portfolio in 2004. In July 2005, the retirement of the Deputy Premier and Treasurer Terry Mackenroth forced a cabinet reshuffle, which saw Bligh promoted to the office of Deputy Premier and Minister for Finance, State Development and Innovation. Bligh's appointment as Deputy Premier coincided with her election to parliament ten years earlier. In early February 2006, Bligh gained the Treasury portfolio after Beattie relinquished the responsibility to focus on attempting to fix the state's troubled health system. Bligh had long been touted as a successor to the long-running Premier Peter Beattie, he publicly endorsed her as his replacement when he announced his retirement from politics on 10 September 2007, she was subsequently nominated unopposed by the Labor caucus in a deal that saw Paul Lucas from the Right faction succeed her as Deputy Premier. She became the leader of the Labor Party on 12 September.
After Beattie formally resigned on 13 September 2007, Bligh was sworn in by the Governor Quentin Bryce. Bligh led Labor to victory in the 2009 state election. Bligh lost eight seats from the large majority she'd inherited from Beattie, suffered an eight-percent swing on the two-party vote. Nonetheless, due to taking 34 out of 40 seats in Brisbane, Labor still won 51 seats out of 89, enough for a comfortable majority; the election marked. In winning the election, Bligh became Australia's first popularly elected female premier; the two previous female premiers, Carmen Lawrence and Joan Kirner, became premiers following the resignation of male premiers, but both were defeated at the following respective state elections. However, Bligh is not Australia's first popularly elected female head of government. Rosemary Follett and Kate Carnell were both popularly elected as Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, Clare Martin was elected as Chief Minister of the Northern Territory. In 2009, Bligh was elected to the three person presidential team of the Australian Labor Party, to serve until July 2012.
She served as National President of the Australian Labor Party for the 2010–11 financial year. Bligh announced the privatisation of five government owned corporations: Queensland Motorways Limited (Operating the Ga
Huntingwood, New South Wales
Huntingwood is a predominantly industrial suburb in the City of Blacktown, in Western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The composite name was chosen because the first English-style hunting is said to have taken place here and the'Woods Estate', owned by the Woods family for nearly a century, is located within the suburb; the M4 and Westlink M7 motorways run through the adjacent suburbs. Given this easy access to main Sydney's main arterial road network, companies such as Coles Myer and Woolworths Limited have transport and logistics complexes situated off Great Western Highway the between the Wallgrove Road and Reservoir Road exists from the M4; the suburb is managed as a part of the Eastern Creek Area, along with Arndell Park. With this in mind most statistics and demographic information is not available for this suburb by itself. In 2014, a decision by Diageo to relocate the bottling operations of Queensland's Bundaberg Rum, to the western Sydney suburb of Huntingwood resulted in local job losses in the city that bears its name.
A Diageo spokeswoman clarified by saying "Some premium products, such as the Master Distillers Collection, would continue to be bottled in Bundaberg. This was not a decision we have taken however it is a necessary one to ensure the longer term sustainability of the distillery. We remain committed to Bundaberg and the distillery and will continue to invest and focus on our core business of distilling and blending great quality rum in Bundaberg as we have done for the last 125 years." The 2001 City of Blacktown Social Plan