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Bundesliga

The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 56 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 28 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked third in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2019–20 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.

The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.

Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game—more than twice the average of the 2.

Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation, until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.

Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system was used, in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks. In recent years, games have be

One leu (Romanian coin)

The one leu coin was a coin of the Romanian leu. Introduced in 1870, it last circulated between 1992 and de facto 1996, when it was the lowest-denomination coin in the country, it was considered as circulating coin for accounting reasons and was still minted in proof sets until the 2005 denomination of the currency. In addition to Romania, the coin was minted in Belgium, Austria and Hungary. Although the first Romanian coins were minted in the United Kingdom in 1867, a one leu coin was not introduced until 1870; the first one leu coin was 16.5 % copper, with a diameter of 23 mm and mass of 5g. The obverse bore the portrait of Carol I of Romania facing left with the inscription CAROL I DOMNUL ROMANIEI; the reverse, similar to other Romanian coins of the time, featured the denomination and year of minting within a wreath of laurel and oak. Below the wreath, where the British mintmarks had been on previous coins, was the initial'C', for C. J. Cândescu, the director of the Bucharest mint. There were coins bearing the'B' mintmark of the mint itself.

Production of the one leu coin began on 24 February 1870 and throughout the year a total of 400,000 were minted, some in coin orientation and some in medallic orientation. A second one leu coin was introduced in 1873, retaining the composition and dimensions of the 1870 issue. On the obverse, the portrait was replaced with the full coat of arms of the Principality of Romania with the year below; the name of the engraver, STERN, the mintmark of Saint Michael of Brussels were either side of the date. On the reverse, the wreath was shortened to include the name of the country at the top of the coin. There were coins struck in 1873; the coin was minted in Brussels, Belgium, in 1873, 1874 and 1876 with the following mintages: 1873: 4,443,393 1874: 4,511,607 1876: 225,000In 1881 a new coin was minted with the same dimensions and composition. On the obverse, the portrait of Carol I returned with the same inscription as in 1870, with the engraver's name KULLRICH beneath; the full coat of arms moved to the reverse, with the country name on top and the denomination split either side.

The year of minting was placed beneath the coat of arms, with the'V' mintmark for Vienna, Austria on the left and the wheat ear for the Bucharest mint in Romania on the right. There was a total mintage of 1.8 million coins, with some bearing a'B' mintmark for Bucharest in place of the'V'. In 1884, due to the creation of the Kingdom of Romania in 1881, the script around Carol I read CAROL I REGE AL ROMANIEI; the name of the country was removed from the top of the reverse, all coins bore the'B' mintmark of Bucharest. The specifications remained the same; the initial year of production, 1884, saw a mintage of one million coins, with 400,000 in the next year. Production of one leu coins resumed in 1894 with 1.5 million minted in Brussels. On the obverse, the portrait of Carol I was changed to a new version, with the engraver's name A. SCHARFF underneath; the country name returned to the top of the reverse. After 1894 the coin was not minted until 1900, in Hamburg, with 798,800 in 1900 and 369,614 in 1901.

In 1906, 2.5 million one leu coins were struck to mark the 40th Anniversary of the reign of Carol I. The obverse bore a portrait of him in 1906, with the inscription CAROL I REGE AL ROMANIEI and'1866-1906' circling him. Beneath the portrait were the initials'A. M.' for Alphonse Michaux, the chief engraver of the Brussels mint. The reverse featured a portrait of Carol I in 1866 with the inscription CAROL I DOMNUL ROMANIEI and underneath, the engraver mark A. MICHAUX and the denomination; the one leu coin design changed in 1910. On the obverse, the title was split either side of Carol I with the engraver's name, TASSET underneath. On the obverse was a woman walking, with the country name in the top left corner, the denomination in the top right, the year in the bottom right and the engraver's name BASSARAB in the bottom left; the reverse design was similar to that of the French one franc coin, as both countries were in the Latin Monetary Union. The coins were minted in Brussels and Hamburg, with the Brussels coins having 106 reeds on the edge compared to 102 from Hamburg.

Mintage continued up to 1914 with none minted for 1913. The next one leu coins were minted in 1924, the specifications changed; the diameter was reduced to 21mm, the composition to 75% copper and 25% nickel, which reduced the mass to 3.5g. The obverse bore the coat of arms with the country name above and year below, with three stars to each side; the reverse had a wreath of wheat with the denomination as BUN PENTRU 1 leu. One million coins were minted in 1,007,255 in Poissy, France; the Brussels coins had no distinguishing mark but the coins from Poissy bore a lightning mark under the denomination. In 1938 the design was altered again to an 18mm diameter and mass of 2.75g, with a composition of 80% copper, 19% zinc and 1% nickel. On the obverse, the crown of Romania was in the centre with the country name above. Below was a wreath of laurel and oak; the reverse had the denomination split either side of a corn cob, with the engraver's name I. Jalea underneath. A total of 36 million were issued in 1938 and production continued every year until 1941.

The leu coin was re-introduced in 1947 by the People's Republic of Romania, proclaimed that year. It had the same diameter as the last one leu coin in the Kingdom, but due to a new composition of 63% copper and 37% zinc, its weight fell to 2.5g. The obverse featured the new state arms with country name above and year below, the reverse had the denomination between sheafs of wheat. A total of around 90 million of these coins were minted, between the Romanian

Telford and Wrekin

Telford and Wrekin is a unitary district with borough status in the West Midlands region of England. The district was created in 1974 as The Wrekin a non-metropolitan district of Shropshire. In 1998 the district was renamed Telford and Wrekin, it remains part of the Shropshire ceremonial county and shares institutions such as the Fire and Rescue Service and Community Health with the rest of Shropshire. The borough's major settlement is Telford, a new town designated in the 1960s incorporating the existing towns of Dawley, Madeley and Wellington. After the Telford conurbation, which includes the aforementioned towns, the next-largest settlement is Newport, a market town separate to the Telford built-up area, located in the northeast of the borough; the borough borders Staffordshire, but is surrounded by the non-metropolitan county of Shropshire, whose unitary authority is Shropshire Council. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of four authority areas that comprise the "Shropshire and Staffordshire" NUTS 2 region.

Before the creation of The Wrekin district, Telford was a new town run by the Telford Development Corporation from the 1960s to the changes in 1974. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, covered Dawley, Newport and Wellington urban districts, Wellington Rural District and part of Shifnal parish in the Shifnal Rural District. On 1 April 1998, as a result of the Local Government Commission for England's review, the district became a unitary authority, independent from Shropshire County Council. All of the council houses owned by Wrekin District Council and the subsequent Telford and Wrekin Council were transferred to a newly created housing association, the Wrekin Housing Trust, in 1999 which now owns the majority of social housing in Telford. Telford and Wrekin applied unsuccessfully for city status in 2000; the district was granted borough status in 2002. Settlements in Telford and Wrekin - Coalbrookdale Crudgington Edgmond High Ercall Ironbridge Jackfield Newport Church Aston Longford Roden Telford Dawley Donnington Donnington Wood Hadley Ketley Lawley Madeley Muxton Oakengates Shawbirch Priorslee Stirchley St George's Trench Wellington Tibberton Wrockwardine The borough is divided into 29 civil parishes.

List of parishes For the borough council itself there is a system of 30 wards to elect councillors. List of wards at Telford and Wrekin website Current ward councillors at Telford and Wrekin website Borough elections are held every 4 years. Previous Election Results Telford and Wrekin operates a cabinet-style council, it has 54 elected councillors who appoint the seven cabinet members, including the leader, each year. The cabinet members meet every two weeks. Telford and Wrekin is a Labour controlled council. Telford and Wrekin is part of the West Mercia Police police area; the force is based in Worcester and the borough's area is a Territorial Policing Unit in the force's organisation. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Telford and Wrekin at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling. Telford and Wrekin local elections The Wrekin - prominent hill to the west of Telford 1990s UK local government reform Shropshire Council - the other unitary authority in Shropshire Healthcare in Shropshire Telford & Wrekin Council