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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Promotion and relegation

In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.

The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.

The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.

Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.

This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe

Royal Naval College of Canada

The Royal Naval College of Canada was established by the Department of the Naval Service after the formation of the Royal Canadian Navy in 1910. The college was placed under the auspices of the Minister of Naval Service and controlled by the Director of the Naval Service, Rear-Admiral Charles Kingsmill; the initial goal was to train a new generation of Canadian naval officers for the RCN. The college existed from 1911 to 1922 and educated about 150 students until it was closed due to declining numbers and budget cuts by the government of Canada; as the RCN did not have large ships of its own other than HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, the cadets followed a course of study that would qualify them for eventual service on British warships. The graduated midshipmen were required to serve one year of "big ship duty" as part of their training; the college was housed in a refurbished three storey brick building, the former naval hospital, at the north end of HMC Dockyard. The structure was built in 1863 to replace the original hospital destroyed in an 1815 fire.

However, the building was damaged in the 1917 Halifax Explosion. In the Spring of 1918, the college was temporarily moved to facilities at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario. In September, the college was relocated to the naval dockyard at Esquimalt, British Columbia; the college was closed in 1922 after a parliamentary decision. The King’s permission was obtained to add the prefix'Royal' to the title of the Naval College of Canada in October 1910, with the abbreviation being'R. N. C. C.' The naval college was established at Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1911. RNCC was co-commanded by Lieutenant Commander Edward Atcherley Eckersall Nixon, RN and Officer-In-Charge, Commander Edward Harrington Martin, with the assistance of the Director of Studies. Martin was the Senior Captain-In-Charge of HMC Dockyard and spent little time at the college. For all intents, Nixon or "Nix", as he was affectionately referred to by the students and staff, was the ever-present person of authority and inspiration throughout the college's history.

In 1915, the staff included a commander, an instructor commander, an engineer commander, two instructor lieutenant commanders, a paymaster lieutenant commander, a lieutenant, an engineer lieutenant, 3 civilian masters, a chief boatswain, a boatswain and a warrant writer. The college facilities at Halifax consisted of workshops, drawing office, sick quarters, boathouse and a playing field. After the 1917 Halifax Explosion, the students were sent home for Christmas until arrangements could be made to move the college. Classes were held on HMCS Niobe, a ship used to train the cadets; this ship was damaged in the explosion. What could be salvaged was moved to HMCS Stone Frigate at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston. Classes reconvened in the Spring of 1918. In September 1918 the RNCC was moved to a building in the Royal Canadian Navy dockyard at Esquimalt. Classes were held on the Dominion Government Ship Naden, commissioned as a tender for training in sail; the College was closed in 1922.

In the years between 1922 and 1940, Canadian naval cadets went to the Royal Navy's Royal Naval College in Portsmouth. The Royal Naval College of Canada was established to impart a complete education in Naval Science. Candidates were British subjects between 16 years of age; the terms and curriculum approximated those of Naval Colleges in Britain save for the initial two year rather than three-year program, followed by a training year in a H. M. cruiser. A Naval career was compulsory. Once the obligation for cadets to follow a naval career was removed, the program was lengthened to three years beginning with the August term of 1914. Arrangements were made with the Admiralty to receive cadets; the course provided a grounding in Applied Science, Mathematics, Navigation and Modern Languages and was accepted as qualifying for entry as second-year students in Canadian universities. The program aimed to develop physical and mental abilities, including discipline, the ability to obey and take charge, honour.

Candidates had to be between their fourteenth and sixteenth birthdays on 1 July following the examination. Graduates were qualified to enter the Canadian Service as midshipmen. Notable alumni of the college are shown below. 59005-033 A brass plaque at St. Paul's Anglican Church in Esquimalt, BC, is dedicated to the four ex-cadets of the Royal Naval College of Canada and men of Her Majesty's Ship Good Hope who were killed in action in 1914 as well as Lieutenant W. M. Maitland-Dougall killed in 1918. Four cadets of the first class of the Royal Navy College of Canada, were the First Canadian Navy casualties in the First World War. Midshipman Malcolm Cann, Midshipman John V. W. Hatheway, Midshipman William Archibald Palmer, Midshipman Arthur Wiltshire Silver, died when the British warship HMS Good Hope went down with no survivors, sunk by the German navy on 1 November 1914. Another cadet was killed on active service with his company of 29 officers and crew while in Command of HMS D3 off Le Havre on 12 March 1918 at 23 years of age.

An inquiry found that Lieutenant William McKinstry Heriot-Maitland-Dougall had acted in the only manner possible to him. HMS D3 was sunk in error by French dirigible AT-9, which could not see D3's insignia because of the sub’s reflection off the waves, took her to be a U-boat firing upon it; the French hadn't been informed that D3 was assigned to their waters in the English Channel and were not aware that British submarines were identifying themselves w

2000 US Open – Women's Doubles

The 2000 US Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts at the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City in New York in the United States of America. It was the 120th edition of the US Open and was held from 28 August through 10 September 2000. Serena Williams and Venus Williams were the defending champions, but withdrew from their semifinal match against Cara Black and Elena Likhovtseva. Julie Halard-Decugis and Ai Sugiyama won the title, defeating Cara Black and Elena Likhovtseva 6–0, 1–6, 6–1 in the final, it was the first and only Grand Slam doubles title for Halard-Decugis, the first Grand Slam doubles title for Sugiyama, in their respective careers. Official Results Archive Official Results Archive

Privet as an invasive plant

Privet refers to any of a number of shrubs or trees in the genus Ligustrum. The genus contains about 50 species native to Australasia. Many members of the genus are grown as ornamental plants in parts of the world. Several species of privet have become a nuisance in regions outside its range. In these conditions it is most found wherever there is disturbed soil, soil, physically perturbed from its natural state through fire or mechanical machinery, such as along fencerows, old fields and forest margins. Privet grows well in riparian forests, which are found throughout the southeastern United States. Although tolerant of varying soil and light conditions, including a tolerance for shade, privet survives best in mesic soil with abundant sunlight. Privet is considered the east coast of Australia, it is banned from sale or cultivation in New Zealand because its pollen is known to cause asthma and eczema in sufferers. Privet can be removed by contacting local government agencies to report its presence.

But in Auckland it is only a surveillance pest plant in the 2012 Regional Pest Management Strategy. The NZ Weedbusters site provides guidance on; when privet is invasive species, the cost of controlling and removing privet is economically detrimental, something, problematic for conservation efforts. The annual cost of removing Chinese privet in the United States is estimated to be $737 per acre when a mulching machine and two-person herbicide application crew are employed; the cost for foliar glyphosate applications on privet is $130 per acre for chemical and surfactant treatments. Privet is a successful invasive species because of its ability to outcompete and therefore displace native vegetation; this competitive superiority to native vegetation is connected with the plant's ability to adapt to different light conditions. For example, in low light environments, privet is able to produce fewer and larger ramets than its competitors; these larger ramets make privet more tree-like, making privet better able to compete for light than its more shrub-like native counterparts.

Privet is an ideal invasive species. Through sexual reproduction, privet produces seeds that are dispersed by wind and animals; these seeds can colonize disturbed soil such as that perturbed by fires, forest clearings, erosion, or abandoned agricultural land. Privet matures which allows for a short generation cycle and greater dispersal; the roots of privet can reproduce asexually through root suckers. This vegetative reproduction makes privet difficult and costly to control because root fragments left in the soil can sprout and grow new plants. One reason why privet is so invasive in the United States is because it has few native shrub competitors. In a sense, privet is invading and exploiting an open niche within the southern U. S. floodplain ecosystem. Prior to privet invasion much of the native land was open. Thus, privet is believed to be phylogenetically distinct compared to its native cousins. All nine species of privet in the southeast U. S. are invasive. The first species of privet was introduced into the United States in the 1700s as an ornamental plant used as a hedge or foliage for gardens.

Glossy privet arrived in the U. S. in 1794, Chinese privet in 1825, Japanese privet in 1845, California privet in 1847, Amur privet in 1860. Privets escaped cultivation in the early 1900s, but became naturalized during the 1950s-1970s or later. Privet is designated as a foreign invasive plant in Alabama and Georgia and considered a severe threat in North Carolina and Florida, it is estimated that Chinese privet alone occupies over one million hectares of land across 12 states ranging from Virginia to Florida and west to Texas. The full ecological effect of privet is still being studied. However, data suggest that forests containing large amounts of privet tend to have fewer trees, less shrub diversity, decreased density of herbaceous plants; when introduced to an ecosystem, privet grows and, given time, will produce a thick layer under the forest canopy preventing sunlight from reaching the native plants below. In some cases, this can drive native populations to extinction. If left unchecked, privet may result in large-scale ecosystem modification and an overall loss of native species diversity and richness.

The Sierra Chicas of Cordoba have experienced just such a widespread landscape change since 1970. In a study by Greene and Blossey using field observations and a transplant experiment, a significant negative correlation was found between percent Chinese privet cover and herbaceous cover, species richness, plant height. In a comparison of two experimental gardens, each with four native plant species, the plot with Chinese privet contained entirely nonnative plants after 64 weeks. Out of twenty plants per species, only single individuals of Acer negundo, Chamaenerion latifolium and C. tribuloides survived the entire study when in the presence of Chinese privet. Surviving plants had lower leaf counts and stunted height relative to their counterparts in privet-absent plots. None of the Boehmeria cylindrica survived. Insects are affected by the proliferation of invasive species such as privet. For example, one study found the abundance and diversity of butterflies increased following privet removal to the same abundance as that of a similar forest community, with no history of privet invasion.

In a study conducted in Georgia, privet was found to decreases the diversity of nati

Happy Jacks Creek

The Happy Jacks Creek, a perennial river, part of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. The Happy Jacks Creek rises near The Dip within the Kosciuszko National Park, sourced by runoff from the Australian Alps, part of the Great Dividing Range; the creek flows south by southwest and north by northwest, joined by two minor tributaries, before reaching its confluence with the Tumut River, in remote mountainous country at the Happy Jacks Pondage, formed by the Happy Jacks Dam. The creek descends 428 metres over its 19-kilometre course, contained within the Kosciuszko National Park; the catchment area is part of the territory traditionally occupied by the Aboriginal Walgalu people, who were joined in the summer months by the Ngarigo and Ngunawal for the Bogong feasts. List of rivers of New South Wales Rivers of New South Wales Snowy Mountains Scheme Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority website "Murrumbidgee and Lake George catchments".

Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales

2005 British and Irish Lions tour to New Zealand

In 2005, the British and Irish Lions rugby union team toured New Zealand for the first time since 1993, playing seven matches against first and second division teams from the National Provincial Championship, one match against the New Zealand Maori team, three test matches against New Zealand. The Lions lost the test series 3-0, the first time in 22 years that they lost every test match on tour; the team was managed by former England and Lions player Bill Beaumont, coached by former England coach Sir Clive Woodward, captained by Ireland captain Brian O'Driscoll. O'Driscoll suffered a controversial tour-ending injury two minutes into the first test, Wales captain Gareth Thomas took over as captain for the final four games of the tour; the poor test results of the 2005 Lions, despite having one of the most experienced playing squads and the largest management team of any Lions tour, led to criticism of Woodward his selection policy, prompted commentators to question the future of the Lions. This tour preceded the 2009 tour to South Africa.

The Lions' campaign involved a warm-up match against Argentina before the departure for New Zealand, three Tests against the All Blacks, several tour matches, where the quality of the opposition was expected to be high. This proved to be the case against New Zealand Māori and Auckland, most of the other tour matches were close for at least the first half, but the match against Manawatu was a one-sided affair, the Lions winning by a score of 109–6. The 44-man tour squad was announced on 11 April 2005, with 20 Englishmen, 11 Irishmen, 10 Welshmen and three Scots selected. Three further Englishmen were selected subject to them proving their fitness; the squad included English players who had retired from international rugby, were returning from injury, or had no international experience. The original 44-man squad was named as: Injured England players Jonny Wilkinson, Phil Vickery and Mike Tindall were pencilled in, to be added to the squad subject to them regaining fitness. Only Wilkinson subsequently was called up on 8 May.

Iain Balshaw was replaced in the squad by Mark Cueto on 17 May. Additional players were called up; the full list of call ups is: Jonny Wilkinson – Added 8 May Mark Cueto – Added 17 May for Iain Balshaw Simon Shaw – Added 2 June for Malcolm O'Kelly Simon Easterby – Added 4 June for Lawrence Dallaglio Ryan Jones – Added 10 June for Simon Taylor Brent Cockbain – Added 26 June for Danny Grewcock, banned for 2 months after biting Keven Mealamu during the first test. Jason White – Added 27 June for Richard HillThree players did not travel to New Zealand with the bulk of the touring party. Jason Robinson was excused to spend time with his pregnant wife. Stephen Jones and Gareth Thomas were forced to delay their departures due to commitments to their French clubs. Jones arrived in New Zealand on 31 May, before the Lions played their first tour match, while Robinson arrived on 7 June. For a time, it was doubtful whether Thomas would be able to contend for a spot in the first Test, as he had not been released by his club, Toulouse.

However, Toulouse lost in the Top 14 semi-finals. Thomas arrived in New Zealand on 7 June. Thomas replaced Brian O'Driscoll as tour captain after O'Driscoll suffered a dislocated shoulder. There were 26 back room staff. After problems with the midweek team feeling disillusioned in 2001, the midweek team got their own coaches; the Lions drew with the Pumas of Argentina at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff on 23 May in a warm-up Test match. The Pumas were without 25 players who may have made their first-choice team due to club commitments and the Lions rested many of their top players to field a second-string combination. Tour captain Brian O'Driscoll was rested, so Wales vice-captain Michael Owen took his place; the Lions looked disjointed. Their pack was outplayed; the Lions conceded five penalties for holding on to the ball while grounded because their support failed to arrive in time. In the meantime, the Pumas played a match, universally called "inspired" by rugby media worldwide; the Pumas led 19–16 at half-time, could have been ahead by more.

The main plus for the Lions was the performance of Jonny Wilkinson, making his first appearance against international opposition since the 2003 World Cup, who set up their first try, converted it, kicked six penalties. His last penalty saved the Lions from defeat, salvaging a 25–25 draw in the eighth minute of stoppage time; the match was granted full test status by the IRB in 2006. The first tour match was against the Bay of Plenty Steamers on 4 June in Rotorua; the Lions started the match with Josh Lewsey scoring a try after two minutes and a second four minutes later. The Lions were up 17–0 after 11 minutes but the Steamers recovered for a 17–17 half-time score; the Lions controlled the second half and won 34–20. A significant injury was the fractured ankle suffered by experienced back-rower Lawrence Dallagli