The Premier League referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL outside England, is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the competition was founded as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal. The deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with Sky and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively; the league is a corporation in which the member clubs act as shareholders, generates €2.2 billion per year in domestic and international television rights. Clubs were apportioned central payment revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17, with a further £343 million in solidarity payments to English Football League clubs.
The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people. For the 2018–19 season average Premier League match attendance was at 38,181, second to the Bundesliga's 43,500, while aggregated attendance across all matches is the highest of any league at 14,508,981. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons as of 2019, only behind Spain's La Liga. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992: forty-seven English and two Welsh clubs. Six of them have won the title: Manchester United, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football.
Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. The Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad. By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse. At the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals; the Taylor Report on stadium safety standards, which proposed expensive upgrades to create all-seater stadiums in the aftermath of the Hillsborough disaster, was published in January 1990. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation.
The commercial imperative led to the top clubs seeking to increase their revenue. They demanded that television companies should pay more for their coverage of football matches, revenue from television grew in importance; the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988; the 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion's share of the deal. The negotiations convinced the bigger clubs that in order to receive enough votes, they needed to take the whole of First Division with them instead of a smaller "super league".
By the beginning of the 1990s, the big clubs again considered breaking away now that they had to fund the cost of stadium upgrade as proposed by the Taylor Report. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's positio
The House on Mango Street is a 1983 bildungsroman novel by famed Mexican-American author Sandra Cisneros. Presented in a series of vignettes, it tells the story of Esperanza Cordero, a 12-year-old Chicana girl growing up in the Hispanic quarter of Chicago; the novel follows Esperanza over the span of one year in her life, as she enters adolescence and begins to face the difficult realities of life as a young woman in a poor and patriarchal community. Elements of Mexican American culture and themes of social class, sexuality and gender are interwoven throughout the novel; the House on Mango Street is considered to be a modern classic of Chicano literature and has been the subject of numerous academic publications in several areas, such as Chicano Studies and feminist theory. Since the book was first published in 1983, it has sold more than 6 million copies, has been translated into over 20 languages and is required reading in middle schools, high schools, universities across the United States.1 Sandra cisneros beliefs are shaped off of the experiences that she had when she was esperanza's age.
She made this story of the the experiences she had so her beliefs are going to be the same as esperancas and this book goes into detail about what happened to her. “But watch us drive into a neighborhood of another color and our knees go shakity-shake and our car windows get rolled up tight and our eyes look straight”. This shows. 2. These three themes all interact with each other in the same way, they all have something to do with esperanza learning about how the world works for woman, how she is growing up and what she will become and her learning about her culture and family. “He never hits me hard”. She sees. “Nenney who thinks she is smart and talks to andy old man, asls lots of questions. Me, I never said nothing to him except once when I bought the Statue of Liberty for a dime It was on New York Times Best Seller and is the recipient of several major literary awards, including the American Book Award from the Before Columbus Foundation, it was adapted into a stage play by Tanya Saracho in 2009.
Because the novel deals with a sensitive subject matter, such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, racism, it has faced challenges and threats of censorship from school boards and parents alike. However, despite these challenges, it remains an important and influential coming-of-age novel, is a staple piece of literature for many young adults. Cisneros has stated that she drew inspiration from her personal experiences when writing The House on Mango Street. Like her protagonist, Cisneros is Mexican-American and was born and raised in a Hispanic neighborhood in Chicago, she was the only daughter in a family of seven children. Cisneros has stated that as the only girl in a family of boys, she was felt marginalized and isolated. Similar to Esperanza, Cisneros's family moved between Chicago and Mexico City. Cisneros attributes her impulse to create stories to the loneliness of those early formative years. After graduating from college, Cisneros completed an MFA in Creative Writing at the Iowa Writers Workshop.
It was during this time that Cisneros discovered first, a sense of her own ethnic "otherness." She felt marginalized as a person of color, a woman, an individual of lower socioeconomic status. In an interview, Cisneros stated that during her graduate studies, when she began writing The House on Mango Street, she found the academic atmosphere discouraging, she remembered finding her classmates' backgrounds different than her own and realized she had little in common with them. She explained, "I was so intimidated by my classmates that I wanted to quit. But... I found a way to write… in reaction to being there I started to have some Mango Street as a way of claiming this is who I am, it became my flag." Cisneros created Esperanza from these personal feelings of displacement. The House on Mango Street covers a year in the life of Esperanza Cordero, a young Chicana girl living in an impoverished Chicago neighborhood with her parents and three siblings; the book opens with Esperanza, the narrator, explaining how her family first arrived on Mango Street.
Before the family settled in their new home, a small and run down building with crumbling red bricks, they moved frequently. The family has been wandering from place to place, always dreaming of the promised land of a house of their own; when they arrive at the house on Mango Street, at last their own house, it is not the promised land of their dreams. The parents overcome their dejection by saying that this is not the end of their moving, that it is only a temporary stop before going on to the promised house. While the house on Mango Street was a significant improvement from her family's previous dwellings, Esperanza expresses disdain towards her new home because it is not a "real" house, like the ones she has seen on TV. Esperanza daydreams of a white, wooden house, with a big yard and lots of trees, she finds her life on Mango Street suffocating, expresses her desire to escape. She begins to write poetry to express these feelings. Esperanza's perceptive nature shines through as she begins the novel with detailed descriptions of the minute behaviors and characteristics of her family members and unusual neighbors.
Her descriptions provide a picture of the neighborhood and offer examples of the many influential people surrounding her. She describes time spent with her younger sister, such as when they paraded around the neighborhood in high heels one day with their friends Rachel and Lucy, she befriends two older girls in
Cape Baba, is the westernmost point of the Turkish mainland, making it the westernmost point of Asia. It is located at the village of Ayvacık, Çanakkale, in the historical area of the Troad. There was a lighthouse at Cape Baba, called Lekton in classical times, anglicised as Cape Lecture; the Acts of the Apostles records a journey around the Cape from Troas to Assos undertaken by Luke the Evangelist and his companions, while Paul the Apostle took the journey over land. The Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary explains: In sailing southward from Troas to Assos, one has to round Cape Lecture, keeping due east to run along the northern shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium, on which it lies; this is a sail of nearly forty miles. The one way Paul wished his companions to take, while he himself, longing to enjoy a period of solitude, took the other, joining the ship, by appointment, at Assos. Babakale