United States Secretary of Labor
Formerly, there was a U. S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor, who led this department along with the U. S. Department of Commerce as one department. Since the two split in 1913, the Department of Commerce is now headed by a separate U. S. Secretary of Commerce. The most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 10,2016, United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Hall of the Secretaries of Labor and Biographies
The Federal Register, abbreviated FR or sometimes Fed. Reg. is the journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules. It is published daily, except on federal holidays, the Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no restrictions on the Federal Register, as a work of the U. S. government. In essence, the Federal Register is a way for the government to announce changes to government requirements, the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, the Federal Register is the main source for the U. S. Both proposed and final rules are published in the Federal Register, a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking typically requests public comment on a proposed rule, and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed.
The public comments are considered by the government agency. The United States Government Manual is published as an edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on programs and activities, to purchase current or back print copies of the Federal Register, one may contact the U. S. Government Publishing Office. In each issue of the Federal Register, there is a subscription page, currently, a years subscription rate within the U. S. is US$929. Each individual issue may be priced from $11 to $33 depending on its pages, virtually every law library associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries. The Federal Register has been online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the side of regulations. gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present.
GovPulse. us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundations Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity, on July 25,2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse. us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives, on August 1,2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content
Data. gov is a U. S. government website launched in late May 2009 by the Federal Chief Information Officer of the United States, Vivek Kundra. Data. gov aims to improve access to high value. The site is a repository for government information, made available to the public. On March 5,2009, shortly after his appointment as the first Federal Chief Information Officer, the website is managed and hosted by the U. S. General Services Administration, Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies, there are several apps that use data from data. gov, a list can be seen at data. gov/applications
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure, workforce productivity, often referred to as labor productivity, is a measure for an organization or company, a process, an industry, or a country. The OECD defines it as the ratio of a measure of output to a volume measure of input. Volume measures of output are normally gross domestic product or gross value added, expressed at constant prices i. e. adjusted for inflation, the three most commonly used measures of input are, hours worked, workforce jobs, and number of people in employment. Workforce productivity can be measured in 2 ways, in terms or in price terms. The intensity of labour-effort, and the quality of labour effort generally, the creative activity involved in producing technical innovations. The relative efficiency gains resulting from different systems of management, organization, co-ordination or engineering, the productive effects of some forms of labour on other forms of labour.
These aspects of productivity refer to the dimensions of labour input. If an organization is using labour much more intensely, one can assume its due to labour productivity. This insight becomes particularly important when a part of what is produced in an economy consists of services. Management may be very preoccupied with the productivity of employees, the validity of international comparisons of labour productivity can be limited by a number of measurement issues. Labor input can be biased by different methods used to estimate average hours or different methodologies used to estimate employed persons, in addition, for level comparisons of labor productivity, output needs to be converted into a common currency. They include, physical-organic and technological factors, cultural belief-value and individual attitudinal and behavioural factors, international influences – e. g. g. J. Although computers have existed for most of the 20th century, some researchers have noted a lag in productivity growth caused by computers that didnt come until the late 1990s
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
United States Department of Labor
The department is headed by the U. S. Secretary of Labor. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and these mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The U. S. Congress first established a Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1884 with the Bureau of Labor Act, to information about labor. This bureau was under the Department of the Interior, the Bureau started collecting economic data in 1884, and published their first report in 1886. Later, the Bureau of Labor became an independent Department of Labor and it became a bureau again within the Department of Commerce and Labor, which was established February 15,1903. President William Howard Taft signed the March 4,1913, bill establishing the Department of Labor as a Cabinet-level Department, William B. Wilson was appointed as the first Secretary of Labor on March 5,1913 by President Wilson. Secretary Wilson chaired the first meeting of the International Labour Organization in October 1919, the Federal Employees Compensation Act, signed Sept.7,1916, provided benefits to workers who are injured or contract illnesses in the workplace.
Frances Perkins, the first female member, was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by President Roosevelt on March 4,1933. Perkins served for 12 years, making her the longest serving Secretary of Labor, during the John F. Kennedy Administration, planning was undertaken to consolidate most of the departments offices, scattered around more than 20 locations. Construction on the New Labor Building began in the mid‑1960s and finished in 1975 and it was named in honor of Perkins in 1980. President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress to consider the idea of reuniting Commerce and he argued that the two departments had similar goals and that they would have more efficient channels of communication in a single department. However, Congress never acted on it, in the 1970s, following the civil rights movement, the Labor Department under Secretary George P. Shultz made a concerted effort to promote racial diversity in unions. In 1978, the Department of Labor created the Philip Arnow Award, Department officials said the program was modern and fair and that it was part of ongoing contract negotiations with the local.
In August 2010, the Partnership for Public Service ranked the Department of Labor 23rd out of 31 large agencies in its annual Best Places to Work in the Federal Government list. In December 2010, then-Department of Labor Secretary Hilda Solis was named the Chair of the U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, in July 2011, the Department was rocked by the resignation of Ray Jefferson, Assistant Secretary for VETS, in a contracting scandal. On March 4,2013, the Department began commemorating its centennial, tom Perez was appointed as Secretary of Labor on July 23,2013. According to remarks by Perez at his swearing-in ceremony, Boiled down to its essence, did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Title 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations Equal Employment Opportunity Commission National Labor Relations Board Occupational Information Network Ticket to Work Lombardi, labors Voice in the Cabinet, A History of the Department of Labor from Its Origins to 1921
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Postal Square Building
The Postal Square Building served as the main post office for the city of Washington, D. C. from the buildings completion in 1914 to 1986. It now houses the National Postal Museum, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, architect Daniel Burnham designed the building in the Beaux-Arts style — the same style Burnham used for the neighboring Union Station. Construction for the Postal Square Building began in 1911 on a lot near the Capitol, planning began with a 1901 proposal by the Senate Parks Commission. The commission called for three buildings to mark the end of the Capitol complex. A major renovation from 1929 to 1935 expanded the building for increased mail processing, by the 1950s, renovations had removed many of the Beaux-Arts features of the building. The main hall and lobby area only showed traces of their former grandiose design with modernist elements replacing the Beaux-Arts style, the building received another major renovation in the early 1990s, during which the original appearance of the lobby and main hall area was restored.
The National Postal Museum moved into the building in 1993 following the renovations, the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Capitol City Brewing Company moved into the building during the 1990s. List of United States Post Offices
BLS is part of the U. S. Department of Labor. For information on her activities at BLS, see the BLS Commissioners Corner blog, Groshen was nominated for the BLS post in February,2012, and confirmed unanimously by the U. S. Senate in January,2013. Her term ended on January 27,2017, Groshen served as a vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. She co-authored the book How New is the “New Employment Contract”, upjohn Institute Press and co-edited Structural Changes in U. S. Labor Markets and Consequences, from M. E. Sharpe, Inc. She has published papers in academic and Federal Reserve journals. She was an editor of the New York Fed’s Liberty Street Economics Blog and an editor of the Current Issues in Economic and Finance. She helped lead initiatives to mitigate the impact of mortgage foreclosures on the region, on behalf of the New York Fed, she initiated the effort to form the consortium of thirteen research institutions that created the New York Census Research Data Center at Baruch College in 2006.
In 1999-2000, Dr. Groshen visited the Bank for International Settlements in Basel Switzerland, prior to that, she served as head of domestic research and of international research in the Research Group at the New York Fed. Before joining the New York Fed in 1994, Dr. Groshen received a degree in economics and mathematics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House.
The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the design