United States Department of Labor

The United States Department of Labor is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government responsible for occupational safety and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, some economic statistics. S. states have such departments. The department is headed by the U. S. Secretary of Labor; the purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster and develop the wellbeing of the wage earners, job seekers, retirees of the United States. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations; these mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The department's headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building, named in honor of Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945. In 1884, the U. S. Congress first established a Bureau of Labor Statistics with the Bureau of Labor Act, to collect information about labor and employment.

This bureau was under the Department of the Interior. The Bureau started collecting economic data in 1884, published their first report in 1886. In 1888, the Bureau of Labor became an independent Department of Labor, but lacked executive rank. In February 1903, it became a bureau again when the Department of Commerce and Labor was established. United States President William Howard Taft signed the March 4, 1913, establishing the Department of Labor as a Cabinet-level department. William B. Wilson was appointed as the first Secretary of Labor on March 5, 1913, by President Wilson. In October 1919, Secretary Wilson chaired the first meeting of the International Labour Organization though the U. S. was not yet a member. In September 1916, the Federal Employees' Compensation Act introduced benefits to workers who are injured or contract illnesses in the workplace; the act established an agency responsible for federal workers’ compensation, transferred to the Labor Department in the 1940s and has become known as the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.

Frances Perkins, the first female cabinet member, was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by President Roosevelt on March 4, 1933. Perkins served for 12 years, became the longest-serving Secretary of Labor. During the John F. Kennedy Administration, planning was undertaken to consolidate most of the department's offices scattered around more than 20 locations. In the mid‑1960s, construction on the "New Labor Building" began and construction was finished in 1975. In 1980, it was named in honor of Frances Perkins. President Lyndon B. Johnson asked Congress to consider the idea of reuniting Labor, he argued that the two departments had similar goals and that they would have more efficient channels of communication in a single department. However, Congress never acted on it. In the 1970s, following the civil rights movement, the Labor Department under Secretary George P. Shultz made a concerted effort to promote racial diversity in unions. In 1978, the Department of Labor created the Philip Arnow Award, intended to recognize outstanding career employees such as the eponymous Philip Arnow.

In the same year, Carin Clauss became the department's first female Solicitor of the Department. In 2010, a local of the American Federation of Government Employees stated their unhappiness that a longstanding flextime program reduced under the George W. Bush administration had not been restored under the Obama administration. Department officials said the program was modern and fair and that it was part of ongoing contract negotiations with the local. In August 2010, the Partnership for Public Service ranked the Department of Labor 23rd out of 31 large agencies in its annual "Best Places to Work in the Federal Government" list. In December 2010, then–Department of Labor Secretary Hilda Solis was named the Chair of the U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, of which Labor has been a member since its beginnings in 1987. In July 2011, Ray Jefferson, Assistant Secretary for VETS resigned due to his involvement in a contracting scandal. In March 2013, the department began commemorating its centennial.

In July 2013, Tom Perez was confirmed as Secretary of Labor. According to remarks by Perez at his swearing-in ceremony, "Boiled down to its essence, the Department of Labor is the department of opportunity."In April 2017, Alexander Acosta was confirmed as the new Secretary of Labor. In July 2019, Acosta resigned due to a scandal involving his role in the plea deal with Jeffrey Epstein, he was succeeded on September 2019, by Eugene Scalia. In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act requests, published in 2015, the Labor Department earned a D by scoring 63 out of a possible 100 points, i.e. did not earn a satisfactory overall grade. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission National Labor Relations Board Occupational Information Network Ticket to Work Title 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations USAFacts Lombardi, John. Labor's Voice in the Cabinet: A History of the Department of Labor from Its Origins to 1921.

New York: Columbia University Press. Official website Department of Labor on U. S. Department of Labor in the Federal Register


Świerklaniec is a village in Tarnowskie Góry County, in the Silesian Voivodeship of southwestern Poland. From 1975—1998, Świerklaniec was a part of the Katowice Voivodeship. Świerklaniec lies 7 kilometres east of Tarnowskie Góry and 21 km north of the regional capital Katowice, in the historic Upper Silesia region. In the east of the municipal area, the Brynica River, a tributary of the Black Przemsza, marks the border of Silesia with Lesser Poland. 43% of the Świerklaniec gmina in which the village is located is covered with forests. Świerklaniec was famous for its palace, a former residence of the Henckel von Donnersmarck noble family, when the vast and brilliantly designed castle complex was known as Upper Silesian Versailles. Both the Old and the New Castle of Świerklaniec were set ablaze by the Red Army in 1945 and demolished in 1961; the extended castle grounds, the Cavalier Palace guest house, the Donnersmarck funerary chapel and several auxiliary buildings are preserved. A first fortress near the strategically important Brynica River on the road from Bytom to Częstochowa was erected in the 11th century at the behest of the Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry.

In 1179 High Duke Casimir II the Just gave it to the Racibórz duke Mieszko IV Tanglefoot. After the Racibórz line of the Silesian Piasts had become extinct in 1336, Świerklaniec passed to the Dukes of Teschen and the castle was rebuilt under the rule of Duke Konrad II the Gray of Oels. In 1477 the Swiklenczy border fortress was mentioned as part of the Silesian Duchy of Bytom, it was acquired by Duke Jan II the Good of Opole in 1498, who again rebuilt it in a Brick Gothic style. In 1526 however he had to give it in pawn, upon his death in 1532, the premises fell to Margrave George of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the House of Hohenzollern; when the Hohenzollern estates in Silesia were seized by the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II after the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, he gave Świerklaniec in pawn to his money lender Lazarus I Henckel von Donnersmarck. The Donnersmarcks acquired Neudeck in 1629 and held it for more than 300 years until the end of World War II. Elevated to Reichsgrafen in 1651, the Protestant Tarnowitz-Neudeck branch of the House of Donnersmarck had the Old Castle rebuilt in a Renaissance style with extended gardens and again redesigned during the Baroque era.

Carl Lazarus Henckel von Donnersmarck increased the family possessions around Neudeck and had the Old Castle rebuilt in a Tudor Revival style. His son, the industrial magnate Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck had the New Castle erected from 1868 onwards, modelled on his Château de Pontchartrain near Paris; the construction was finished under the management of Hector Lefuel, chief architect of the Louvre Palace, until 1876 The historic Neudeck landscape park contained the impressive palatial complex and the extensive English landscape garden with the Cavalier Palace erected in 1906. Emperor Wilhelm II stayed several times at Schloss Neudeck, both for hunting and applying for credit, he elevated Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck to the noble rank of a prince in 1901. After World War I and the Upper Silesia plebiscite, Świerklaniec joined the Second Polish Republic; the Donnersmarcks retained their possessions and from 1922 to 1937, the former Swiss president Felix Calonder, as chairman of the mixed German-Polish commission, resided at the Cavalier Palace to supervise the execution of the Upper Silesian Convention.

Again occupied by Nazi German troops in the course of the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the area was re-conquered by Red Army forces during the Vistula–Oder Offensive in early 1945. The Donnersmarck family fled and the castles were devastated; the Baroque Garden à la française and landscape park, with significant statues by 19th-century artist Emmanuel Frémiet and fountains that survived, is within the former Palace's extensive forested landscape grounds. Two pairs of lion statues survived, now decorating parks in Zabrze and Gliwice, as well as a wrought iron gate at the Silesian Zoological Garden in the Katowice and Chorzów districts of Silesia; the forests of the present-day public Świerklaniec Park stretch over 154 hectares and include oak and many other species of trees. Some of the landmark heritage trees are over 120 years old. Dawid Jarka, soccer player official Gmina Świerklaniec website - in PolishGoogle Translate version - Gmina Świerklaniec website - in English.

Lancashire Constabulary

Lancashire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the ceremonial county of Lancashire in North West England. The force's headquarters are near the city of Preston; as of October 2018 the force had just under 3,000 officers as well as 2,000 Police Staff - of which 272 are police community support officers. After many complaints over a number of years over the crime ridden state of Lancashire it was decided in 1839 that a combined county police force was required to police the county. In the same year the force was founded and Captain John Woodford was made chief constable with two assistant chief constables, 14 superintendents and 660 constables. Over the next 50 years the police force saw many changes including the introduction of the police helmet and, during the 1860s, the force lost its first officer, PC Jump, who died after being shot by a group of men that he and a colleague were searching. By the end of the century the force had developed a detective department who were allowed to wear plain clothes.

The first detective appointed was John Wallbank. In 1917 the force first allowed female officers although it was only in the 1950s that they were allowed uniforms, not until the 1970s were they paid at the same rate as their male counterparts. In 1948 the force's dog section was established with many differing breeds being used, but by the 1950s it was established that the German shepherd was the most suitable. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 3,784 officers and an actual strength of 3,454, making it the second largest police force and the largest county force in Great Britain; the force went through major changes in the 1970s when the force was reduced to cover the new re-bordered Lancashire with the other areas coming under the jurisdiction of Greater Manchester Police and Merseyside Police. On 10 October 2007 the Home Office announced that Lancashire Constabulary had ranked joint first, with Surrey, out of 43 forces by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabularies. All 43 police forces were assessed on seven areas - tackling crime, serious crime, protecting vulnerable people, neighbourhood policing, local priorities and resources and efficiency.

The Radio Branch or Wireless Workshops pioneered many techniques in the use of radio by the police. In 1925 they had radio communications between constabulary headquarters in Preston and six divisional headquarters. A year a van was equipped with a transmitter. Tests were done with radio communication to cars in the 1930s. In 1939 four fixed stations provided coverage over much of the county. At the start of World War II divisional headquarters were equipped with transmitter-receivers as a back-up to the telephone system; this was used in 1941 when the telephone system in Liverpool was put out of action by bombing, Lancashire Constabulary's radio system was sole means of communications with the city for a time. After the war they were involved in the move to VHF FM by the UK police. In 1961 a personal radio scheme was installed in Chorley with Motorola VHF personal radios imported from the USA after a demonstration in Stretford in 1959; this led in 1963 to the design of the Lancon VHF personal radio manufactured by GEC.

Under proposals made by the home secretary on 6 February 2006, it was to be merged with Cumbria Constabulary. These were accepted by both forces on 26 February, the merger would have taken place on 1 April 2007. However, in July 2006, both Cumbria and Lancashire constabularies decided not to proceed with the merger because the government failed to remedy issues with the council tax precept which left both forces unable to proceed. Over recent years, Lancashire Constabulary has developed a reputation for leading the way in intelligence analysis and holds an annual intelligence analysis conference in Blackpool attended by a large number of analysts from other UK police forces and law enforcement agencies. Other forces are now looking to Lancashire as a pioneering force in IT support. In particular in 2007 Cumbria police secured their own version of Lancashire's intelligence, police investigation and work management system SLEUTH. At the end of 2017 Lancashire Constabulary formed the Tactical Operations Team, composed of the Roads Policing Unit, Dog Unit, Mounted Branch, Armed Response Unit and Operational Support Unit.

The force is split into three geographical and two based at the force HQ at Hutton. The split is approximate, divisions are deliberately vague, giving a seamless approach to policing in the Lancashire area; the geographical divisions and their headquarters are as follows: Western The headquarters are in Blackpool from where this division is responsible for the Fylde area stretching from Bispham down to Kirkham. Lancaster is assigned with the policing of Morecambe and the Wyre area. A new divisional HQ was opened in 2018. Southern The headquarters are in Lancaster Road, with a secondary base at Chorley Magistrates' Court: it polices the Preston, South Ribble and West Lancashire areas. Eastern Based at Greenbank, this division is assigned to police the Blackburn with Darwen, Ribble Valley and Accrington, Burnley and Rossendale areas. G Division Headquarters. H Division Operations Support and Operations Planning, which encompasses Motorway, Armed Response, Air Support and various other functions.

Lancashire Constabulary partners with the North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit and the North West Motorway Police Group. The const