Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elected government officials and an administrative policy-making group. A bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or owned; the public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm. Various commentators have noted the necessity of bureaucracies in modern society; the German sociologist Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which human activity can be organized and that systematic processes and organized hierarchies are necessary to maintain order, maximize efficiency, eliminate favoritism. On the other hand, Weber saw unfettered bureaucracy as a threat to individual freedom, with the potential of trapping individuals in an impersonal "iron cage" of rule-based, rational control.
The term "bureaucracy" originated in the French language: it combines the French word bureau – desk or office – with the Greek word κράτος – rule or political power. The French economist Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay coined the word in the mid-18th century. Gournay never wrote the term down but a letter from a contemporary quoted him: The late M. de Gournay... sometimes used to say: "We have an illness in France which bids fair to play havoc with us. Sometimes he used to invent a fourth or fifth form of government under the heading of "bureaucracy." The first known English-language use dates to 1818 with Irish novelist Lady Morgan referring to the apparatus used by the British to subjugate their Irish colony as "the Bureaucratie, or office tyranny, by which Ireland has so long been governed." By the mid-19th century the word appeared in a more neutral sense, referring to a system of public administration in which offices were held by unelected career officials. In this context "bureaucracy" was seen as a distinct form of management subservient to a monarchy.
In the 1920s the German sociologist Max Weber expanded the definition to include any system of administration conducted by trained professionals according to fixed rules. Weber saw bureaucracy as a positive development; the word "bureaucracy" is used in politics and government with a disapproving tone to disparage official rules that make it difficult to do things. In workplaces, the word is used often to blame complicated rules and written work that make it hard to get something done. Socio-bureaucracy would refer to certain social influences that may affect the function of a society. Although the term "bureaucracy" first originated in the mid-18th century and consistent administrative systems existed much earlier; the development of writing and the use of documents was critical to the administration of this system, the first definitive emergence of bureaucracy occurred in ancient Sumer, where an emergent class of scribes used clay tablets to administer the harvest and to allocate its spoils.
Ancient Egypt had a hereditary class of scribes that administered the civil-service bureaucracy. A hierarchy of regional proconsuls and their deputies administered the Roman Empire; the reforms of Diocletian doubled the number of administrative districts and led to a large-scale expansion of Roman bureaucracy. The early Christian author Lactantius claimed that Diocletian's reforms led to widespread economic stagnation, since "the provinces were divided into minute portions, many presidents and a multitude of inferior officers lay heavy on each territory." After the Empire split, the Byzantine Empire developed a notoriously complicated administrative hierarchy, in the 20th century the term "Byzantine" came to refer to any complex bureaucratic structure. In China, when the Qin dynasty unified China under the Legalist system, the emperor assigned administration to dedicated officials rather than nobility, ending feudalism in China, replacing it with a centralized, bureaucratic government; the form of government created by the first emperor and his advisors was used by dynasties to structure their own government.
Under this system, the government thrived, as talented individuals could be more identified in the transformed society. The Han dynasty established a complicated bureaucracy based on the teachings of Confucius, who emphasized the importance of ritual in a family, in relationships, in politics. With each subsequent dynasty, the bureaucracy evolved. In 165 BC, Emperor Wen introduced the first method of recruitment to civil service through examinations, while Emperor Wu, cemented the ideology of Confucius into mainstream governance installed a system of recommendation and nomination in government service known as xiaolian, a national academy whereby officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics, from which Emperor Wu would select officials. In the Sui dynasty and the subsequent Tang dynasty the shi class would begin to present itself by means of the standardized civil service examination system, of partial recruitment of those who passed standard exams and earned an official degree.
Yet recruitment by recommendations to
New York State Dept. of Social Servs. v. Dublino, 413 U. S. 405, was a Supreme Court of the United States case that dealt with the issue of post-enactment legislative history. The case involved the interaction of a New York state law and a provision of the federal Social Security Act. In 1967 an amendment to the Social Security Act was passed that mandated that states had to incorporate a new program, the Work Incentive Program, into their existing state Aid to Families with Dependent Children plans; the New York law in question was the New York Work Rules which were enacted in 1971 that mandated various conditions for unemployed New Yorkers to continue receiving public assistance. Recipients of public assistance in New York sued claiming that the Work Rules were preempted by the federal WIN provision of the Social Security Act. In overturning the New York District Court’s ruling that the New York statute was preempted by the federal statute the Supreme Court relied on legislative history; the Court found persuasive the legislative debates that occurred after the District Court’s ruling in which senators and representatives stated that they did not believe that Congress had intended for the federal statute to preempt the state statute.
The legislators felt that as long as state courts did not contravene federal law states were free to operate their programs as supplementary to WIN. The Court reasoned that if Congress had intended for the federal statute to preempt any future state plans for employment they would have expressed that intention expressly and in “direct and unambiguous language.” The Court found no manifestation of congressional intent for the federal statute to preempt state statutes. The majority opinion found persuasive that the Department of Health and Welfare is the government agency that administers the Social Security Act and that agency never considered the WIN statute to preempt state laws. HEW, as the legislators suggested in the floor debates approved state laws such as New York’s Work Rules as long as the requirements were not arbitrary or unreasonable. Quoting Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 395 U. S. 367 at 381, the Court stated that “the construction of a statute by those charged with its execution should be followed unless there are compelling indications that it is wrong...”
The Court found no indication. This case is important for its use of post-enactment statutory interpretation; this type of legislative history is most used by courts to determine what the congress who enacted the statute intended to include or not include in the statutory language. The Court's analysis centered on Congressional debates about WIN that occurred after the statute had been passed; the WIN program was repealed by Congress on October 13, 1988. Text of New York State Department of Social Services v. Dublino, 413 U. S. 405 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez
Eva Elisabeth "Liza" Marklund is a Swedish journalist and crime writer. Her novels, of which most feature the fictional character Annika Bengtzon, a newspaper journalist, have been published in thirty languages. Marklund is the co-owner of Sweden's third largest publishing house, Piratförlaget and a columnist in the Swedish tabloid Expressen, she is a Unicef ambassador. She was born in Pålmark near Norrbotten. Marklund lives in Spain with her husband Mikael. Since her debut in 1995, Liza Marklund has written eight crime novels and co-authored two documentary novels with Maria Eriksson and one non-fiction book about female leadership with Lotta Snickare. Marklund's crime novels featuring crime reporter Annika Bengtzon have become international bestsellers, she won the "Poloni Prize" 1998 for "Best Swedish Crime Novel by a Female Writer" and "The Debutant Prize", 1998 for "Best First Novel of the Year" with the crime novel Sprängaren, published in 1998. Marklund was named Author of the Year in Sweden 1999 by the Swedish trade union SKTF, won the radio network RixFM's Swedish Literary Prize in 2007, was selected the fifteenth most popular woman in Sweden of 2003 and the fourth most popular woman in Sweden of 2004 in a yearly survey with 1,000 participants, conducted by ICA-kuriren, a publication published by a Swedish supermarket chain.
Her books have been number one bestsellers in all five Nordic countries. In 2002 and 2003, two of Liza Marklund's crime novels were listed on the international bestseller lists by the online magazine Publishing Trends, Prime Time ranking #13 and The Red Wolf ranking #12. In Scandinavia and Germany, her non-fiction novels have become the center of a heated controversy; the Postcard Killers, a crime thriller written in collaboration with American bestselling author James Patterson, is Marklund's twelfth book. It was published on January 27, 2010, in Sweden, became number one on the Swedish bestseller list in February 2010, it was published on 16 August 2010 in the United States. At the end of August, it reached number one in the New York Times best-seller list, making Liza Marklund the second Swedish author to reach the number one spot. Gömda is the 1995 literary debut of Swedish author Liza Marklund, it is the first novel in the Maria Eriksson series. The novel is based on a true story and deals with a woman, abused by her boyfriend and forced into hiding.
Swedish journalist Monica Antonsson released a book in 2008 criticising the factual background of Buried Alive leading to a public debate about the book and the public libraries of Sweden reclassifying all editions from non-fiction to fiction. Gömda – en sann historia Asyl – den sanna fortsättningen på Gömda The Annika Bengtzon series consists of eleven books; the framework of the Annika Bengtzon series is crime reporter Annika's hectic life, at a bustling tabloid called Kvällspressen in Stockholm, Sweden. Her conflict lies in combining motherhood with her career ambitions. Prior to The Bomber, there were few female commercially successful crime writers in Sweden. Marklund placed 22nd on the list of the most influential media personality of 2008 in Sweden, a list established yearly by the trade magazine for the advertising industry, Resumé. Sprängaren Studio sex Paradiset Prime Time Den Röda Vargen Nobels testamente Livstid En plats i solen Du gamla, du fria Lyckliga gatan "Järnblod" Two films based on Annika Bengtzon novels, The Bomber and Paradise, have been filmed in Swedish by the English director Colin Nutley.
The actress Helena Bergström starred in the role as Annika Bengtzon in both movies. They premiered in 2001 and 2003. In 2009, the film and TV production company Yellow Bird bought the rights to adapt an additional six Annika Bengtzon novels for the screen: Studio 69, Prime Time, The Red Wolf, Nobel's Last Will, A Place in the Sun. In these six films Annika Bengtzon is played by Swedish actress Malin Crépin; the films were released as follows: Nobel's Last Will — Directed by Peter Flinth, DVD released 20 June 2012 Prime Time — Directed by Agneta Fagerström-Olsson, DVD released 4 July 2012 Studio 69 — Directed by Agneta Fagerström-Olsson, DVD released 18 July 2012 The Red Wolf — Directed by Agneta Fagerström-Olsson, DVD released 1 August 2012 Lifetime — Directed by Ulf Kvensler, DVD released 15 August 2012 A Place in the Sun — Directed by Peter Flinth, DVD released 29 August 2012 Härifrån till jämställdheten Det finns en särskild plats i helvetet för kvinnor som inte hjälper varandra The Postcard Killers In 2004 Liza Marklund was appointed ambassador for the United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF.
The reason was her long interest in issues related to