Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, the south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower. The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne, beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the bridge across the Thames in the built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier. It was made toll free, the Fleet can be seen discharging into the Thames at its north side. This created the junction at St Georges Circus between Westminster Bridge Road, Borough Road and the named Blackfriars Road which crossed the largely open parish of Christchurch Surrey, the continuation to the south at the major junction at Elephant and Castle is therefore named London Road.
Although it was built of Portland stone the workmanship was very faulty and this is the present bridge which in 1869 was opened by Queen Victoria. The present bridge is 923 feet long, consisting of five wrought iron arches built to a design by Joseph Cubitt, Cubitt designed the adjacent rail bridge and it was a condition that the spans and piers of the two bridges be aligned. It was built by P. A. Thom & Co, like its predecessor it is owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Like London Bridge the full length and its end is within the Citys borders. Due to the volume of traffic over the bridge, it was widened between 1907–10, from 70 feet to its present 105 feet. In 2005, five suspected members of the Mafia were tried in a Rome court for Calvis murder, on the piers of the bridge are stone carvings of water birds by sculptor John Birnie Philip. On the East side, the carvings show marine life and seabirds, on the north side of the bridge is a statue of Queen Victoria, to whom the bridge was dedicated.
The ends of the bridge are shaped like a pulpit in a reference to Black Friars, Blackfriars Bridge station continued as a goods stop until 1964 when it was completely demolished, and much of it redeveloped into offices. The River Fleet empties into the Thames under the end of Blackfriars Bridge. The structure was given Grade II listed status in 1972, in 1774 the new bridge was mentioned in a popular song in Charles Dibdins opera The Waterman, referring to the boatmen who used to carry fashionable folks to Vauxhall Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. And did you not hear of the jolly young waterman, Who at Blackfriars Bridge used for to ply, and he feathered his oars with such skill and dexterity, Winning each heart and delighting each eye. The name was given to one of the Bailey Bridges over the Rhine River in 1945, in Neil Gaimans Neverwhere, Blackfriars Bridge was named as the home of an unknown order of monks who held the key to an angelic prison
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London. It was originally a private Palladian mansion, and was expanded in the century after being purchased by the British government. The house was one of the earliest of a number of large private residences built on the north side of Piccadilly, previously a country lane. The first version was begun by Sir John Denham about 1664 and it was a red-brick double-pile hip-roofed mansion with a recessed centre, typical of the style of the time, or perhaps even a little old fashioned. In 1704 the house passed to the ten-year-old Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, who was to become the patron of the Palladian movement in England. The colonnade separated the house from increasingly urbanized Piccadilly with a cour dhonneur, Baroque decorative paintings in the entrance hall and staircase by Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini resulted in some of the richest interiors in London. In between his two Grand Tours of Italy young Lord Burlingtons taste was transformed by the publication of Giacomo Leonis Palladio.
In 1717 or 1718, Colen Campbell was appointed to replace Gibbs, the ground floor became a rusticated basement, which supported a monumental piano nobile of nine bays. This had no centrepiece, but was highlighted by venetian windows in the end bays. Other alterations included a monumental screening gateway to Piccadilly and the reconstruction of most of the principal interiors, with typical Palladian features such as rich coved ceilings. The Saloon, constructed immediately after William Kents return from Rome in December 1719, has survived in the most intact condition and its plaster putti above the pedimented doorcases were probably by Giovanni Battista Guelfi. Lord Burlington transferred his energies to Chiswick House after 1722. On Burlingtons death in 1753, Burlington House passed to the Dukes of Devonshire, the 4th Dukes younger son Lord George Cavendish and a Devonshire in-law, the 3rd Duke of Portland, each used the house for at least two separate spells. Portland had some of the interiors altered by John Carr in the 1770s.
Eventually Lord George, who was a man in his own right due to a marriage to an heiress. Like Carrs work Wares was sympathetic with the Palladian style of the house, providing an example of the Kent Revival. In 1819 the Burlington Arcade was built along the part of the grounds. In 1854, Burlington House was sold to the British government for £140,000 and this plan, was abandoned in the face of strong opposition and in 1857 Burlington House was occupied by the Royal Society, the Linnean Society and the Chemical Society
As of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the uniform of certain British institutions, such as Eton College. They are usually worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, the top hat was frequently associated with the upper class, and was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business. The top hat forms part of the dress of Uncle Sam. The top hat is associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and especially the use of hat tricks. According to fashion historians, the top hat may have descended directly from the sugarloaf hat, otherwise it is difficult to establish provenance for its creation. Gentlemen began to replace the tricorne with the top hat at the end of the 18th century, the first silk top hat in England is credited to George Dunnage, a hatter from Middlesex, in 1793.
The invention of the top hat is often credited to a haberdasher named John Hetherington. Within 20 years top hats had become popular with all social classes, at that time those worn by members of the upper classes were usually made of felted beaver fur, the generic name stuff hat was applied to hats made from various non-fur felts. The hats became part of the worn by policemen and postmen, since these people spent most of their time outdoors. The 1840s and the 1850s saw it reach its most extreme form, with ever-higher crowns, the stovepipe hat was a variety with mostly straight sides, while one with slightly convex sides was called the chimney pot. It is said that Lincoln would keep important letters inside the hat, one of Lincolns top hats is kept on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. Whether it directly affected or was coincidental to the decline of the trade is debatable. James Laver once observed that an assemblage of toppers resembled factory chimneys, in England, post-Brummel dandies went in for flared crowns and swooping brims.
On May 5,1812, a London hatter called Thomas Francis Dollman patented a design for a round hat supported by ribs. His patent was described as, An elastic round hat, which may be made of beaver, silk, or other materials. The top of the crown and about half an inch from the top as well as the brim and about an inch, wide sewed on each side of the crown in the inside in an upright position. Then packed up for travelling, the double ribbon fastened under the band is to be pulled over the top of the crown to keep it in a small compass
Jaguar Mark X
The Jaguar Mark X was the top-of-the-range saloon car built by the British manufacturer Jaguar, primarily aimed at the United States market. The Mark X succeeded the Mark IX as the companys largest saloon model, the unitary construction body-shell was codenamed Zenith during development and this floor pan continued in production long after Mark X production ended, as the DS420 Limousine. From its introduction in mid-October 1961 until the arrival in 1992 of the low-slung XJ220, the substantial doors required helical torsion springs inside the door pillars to enable them to be opened from the inside with an acceptably low level of effort. The Mark X was the first Jaguar saloon to feature independent rear suspension and it differed from earlier large Jaguar saloons in having 14 wheels instead of the more common 15. It used a version of Jaguars IRS unit first seen on the E Type. The front suspension used double wishbones with coil springs and telescopic dampers, the car initially featured a 3781 cc version of Jaguars XK in-line six-cylinder engine. A9,1 compression ratio was standard, but an alternative 8,1 compression ratio was available as an option.
For the London Motor Show in October 1964 the enlarged 4,235 cc unit took over, triple SU carburettors were fitted, fed from an AC Delco air filter mounted ahead of the right hand front wheel. Transmission options were manual, manual with overdrive, automatic, or automatic with overdrive, many domestic market cars and almost all cars destined for the important North American markets left the factory with a Borg Warner automatic gear-box. The 4. 2-litre engines introduction was marked by an upgrade for buyers of the automatic cars. The power train was completed by a Thornton Powr-Lok limited-slip differential, stopping power for this heavy car came from power-assisted disc-brakes on all four wheels. Power-assisted steering was standard, the 4.2 cars receiving Marles Varamatic Bendix variable ratio steering boxes, designed by an Australian, for the London Motor Show in October 1966 the Mark X was renamed the Jaguar 420G. A limousine body was available on the standard wheelbase, a glass-topped partition and front bench seat replaced the separate chairs of standard cars.
Despite running for the length of time as the Mark X the 420G sold in less than a third of the numbers. This lack of popularity and the production of the smaller XJ6 resulted in the 420G being run out of production in 1970. Aside from the shape of the part of the coachwork there was no link with Daimler cars made before Daimler became a subsidiary. British Leylands Daimler DS420 was announced in June 1968, taller than the 420G the new car was nearly nineteen feet long and six feet six inches wide with majestic proportions. The rear compartment carried six people in comfort on the rear seats, sir William Lyons pointed out it was less than half the price of any of its competitors
Southwark Bridge is an arch bridge in London, for traffic linking the district of Southwark and the City across the River Thames. It has the lowest traffic utilisation of any bridge in central London, a previous bridge, designed by John Rennie, opened on the site in 1819 and was originally known as Queen Street Bridge, as shown on the 1818 John Snow Map of London. The bridge consisted of three large cast-iron spans supported by granite piers, the bridge was notable for having the longest cast iron span,240 feet, ever made. A new bridge on the site was designed by Ernest George and it was built by Sir William Arrol & Co. and opened in 1921. The bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation, the current bridge was given Grade II listed structure status in 1995. The south end is near the Tate Modern, the Clink Prison Museum, the Globe Theatre, below the bridge on the south side are some old steps, which were once used by Thames watermen as a place to moor their boats and wait for customers.
Below the bridge on the side is a pedestrian tunnel, part of the Queens Walk Embankment. Southwark Bridge appears in films, including Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. The cream painted houses on the side of the bridge, Anchor Terrace. In the 1964 Disney film Mary Poppins, the Banks family mistakenly think that George W. Banks has committed suicide by jumping off the bridge after he is fired from his job at the bank, Southwark Bridge at Structurae Southwark Bridge at Structurae
Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert
The gallery consists of two major sections, each more than 100 meters in length, and a smaller side gallery. The main sections are separated by a colonnade at the point where the Rue des Bouchers / Beenhouwersstraat crosses the gallery complex, at this point there is a discontinuity in the straight perspective of the gallery. This bend was introduced purposefully in order to make the perspective of the gallery, with its repetition of arches and windows. His idea, conceived in 1836, was authorized in February 1845. Construction started on May 6,1846 and it lasted for 18 months, and the 213 m passage was inaugurated on June 20,1847 by King Leopold and his two sons. In 1845 the Société named the three sections of the new passage the Galerie du Roi, Galerie de la Reine and Galerie du Prince, the ensemble, called the Passage Saint-Hubert has borne its present name since 1965. Under its motto Omnibus omnia, displayed in the fronton of its palace-like façade, brilliantly lit, it offered the luxury of outdoor cafés in Brussels inclement climate, in an ambiance of luxury retailers that brought to Brussels the true feel of a European capital.
In the premises of the journal, March 1,1896, a theatre inside the galleries, the Théâtre des Galeries Saint-Hubert, was designed by Cluysenaer and opened June 7,1847. It became one of three theaters of Brussels, playing operetta and revues. The interior was rebuilt in 1951, arcade galleries in Brussels Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert An account filled with detail. Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert Discovery guide with high quality pictures of the Royal Galeries of Saint-Hubert, panoramic photography virtual tour of the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert Galeries official website
Covered passages of Paris
The Covered Passage of Paris are an early form of shopping arcade built in Paris, France primarily during the first half of the 19th century. By the 1850s there were approximately 150 covered passages in Paris but this decreased greatly as a result of Haussmanns renovation of Paris, only a couple of dozen passages remain in the 21st century, all on the Right Bank. Originally, to keep the clean, each would have an artiste de décrottage at the entrance to clean the shoes of visitors. The passages were the subject of Walter Benjamins incomplete magnum-opus Passagenwerk which was posthumously published, the following table lists the covered passages that still exist and remain accessible to the public. Pariss top 10 hidden shopping passages, le charme parisien des passages couverts
Galleria Umberto I
Galleria Umberto I is a public shopping gallery in Naples, southern Italy. It is located directly across from the San Carlo opera house and it was built between 1887–1891, and was the cornerstone in the decades-long rebuilding of Naples — called the risanamento — that lasted until World War I. It was designed by Emanuele Rocco, who employed modern architectural elements reminiscent of the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, the Galleria was named for Umberto I, King of Italy at the time of construction. It was meant to combine businesses, shops and social life — public space — with private space in the apartments on the third floor, the Galleria is a high and spacious cross-shaped structure, surmounted by a glass dome braced by 16 metal ribs. Of the four iron and glass-vaulted wings, one fronts on via Toledo, still the main downtown thoroughfare and it has returned to being an active center of Neapolitan civic life after years of decay. The building is part of the UNESCO listing of the Historic Centre of Naples as a World Heritage Site.
The Galleria Umberto is the setting for The Gallery by the American writer John Horne Burns based on his experiences as an American soldier in Naples shortly after the liberation of the city
Saint Petersburg is Russias second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea. It is politically incorporated as a federal subject, situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 271703. In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, between 1713 and 1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the government bodies moved to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is one of the cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of consulates, international corporations, banks. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress, at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in a called Ingermanland.
A small town called Nyen grew up around it, Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and he intended to have Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea to the north, on May 1703121703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans, and soon replaced the fortress. On May 271703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia, tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate, Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712,9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war, he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the bank of the Neva, near the Peter.
However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan, by 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets, in 1716, Peter the Great appointed French Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, in 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre, the larger inner courtyard, the Cour dHonneur, has since 1986 contained Daniel Burens site-specific art piece Les Deux Plateaux, known as Les Colonnes de Buren. In 1830 the Cour dHonneur was enclosed to the north by what was probably the most famous of Pariss covered arcades, demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour dHonneur and the popular Palais-Royal Gardens. Originally called the Palais-Cardinal, the palace was the residence of Cardinal Richelieu. The architect Jacques Lemercier began his design in 1629, construction commenced in 1633 and was completed in 1639, upon Richelieus death in 1642 the palace became the property of the King and acquired the new name Palais-Royal. After Louis XIII died the year, it became the home of the Queen Mother Anne of Austria and her young sons Louis XIV and Philippe, duc dAnjou.
From 1649, the palace was the residence of the exiled Henrietta Maria and Henrietta Anne Stuart, the two had escaped England in the midst of the English Civil War and were sheltered by Henrietta Marias nephew, King Louis XIV. Henrietta Anne was married to Louis younger brother, Philippe de France, the following year the new duchesse dOrléans gave birth to a daughter, Marie Louise dOrléans, inside the palace. After their marriage, the became the main residence of the House of Orléans. The Duchess created the gardens of the palace, which were said to be among the most beautiful in Paris. Under the new couple, the Palais-Royal would become the social center of the capital. The court gatherings at the Palais-Royal were famed all around the capital as well as all of France and it was at these parties that the crème de la crème of French society came to see and be seen. Guests included the members of the royal family like the Queen Mother, Anne of Austria, the duchesse de Montpensier, the Princes de Condé.
Philippes favourites were frequent visitors, the palace was redecorated and new apartments were created for the maids and staff of the Duchess. After Henrietta Anne died in 1670 the Duke took a wife, the Princess Palatine. Saint-Cloud thus became the residence of her eldest son and the heir to the House of Orléans. For the convenience of the bride, new apartments were built and it was at this time that Philippe commissioned the gallery for his famous Orleans Collection of paintings, which was easily accessible to the public. The architect was Jules Hardouin-Mansart, and the cost of reconstruction was totaled to be 400,000 livres
A shopping arcade is a specific form serving the same purpose. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or malls, often accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters, as a single built structure, early shopping centers were often architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the shopping centre is used, especially in Europe, Australia. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America, outside of North America, shopping precinct and shopping arcade are used. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, malls are commonly referred to as shopping centres, the majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets.
Large examples include West Quay in Southampton, Manchester Arndale, Bullring Birmingham, Liverpool One, Trinity Leeds, Buchanan Galleries in Glasgow and these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year, there are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion and this represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajans Market in Rome located in Trajans Forum. Trajans Market was probably built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops.
Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, isfahans Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century. The 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehrans Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history, the oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is likely to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage, different rows specialized in different goods, such as Bakers Row or Fleshmongers Row. The Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris opened in 1628 and still runs today, the Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England opened in 1774 and still runs today. The Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798, the Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819