Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found
Berlingske, previously known as Berlingske Tidende, is a Danish national daily newspaper based in Copenhagen. First published on 3 January 1749, Berlingske is the oldest Danish newspaper still published, Berlingske was founded by Denmarks Royal Book Printer Ernst Henrich Berling and originally titled Kjøbenhavnske Danske Post-Tidender, the Berlingskes Politiske og Avertissements Tidende. The paper was supported by the Conservative Party, until 1903 it had the official right to publish news about the government. In 1936, the title was shortened to Berlingske Tidende. Mendel Levin Nathanson twice served as the editor-in-chief of the paper, the publisher is Det Berlingske Officin. The paper has a conservative stance and has no political affiliation, the paper is one of the big three broadsheet-quality newspapers in Denmark along with Jyllands-Posten and Politiken. Traditionally itself a broadsheet, Berlingske has been published in the format since 28 August 2006. It is the newspaper in the world to have won the World Press Photo Award four times.
It won the most prestigious award in Denmark, the Cavling prize. In addition, it was awarded the European Newspaper of the Year in the category of national newspaper by the European Newspapers Congress in 2012. P and this takeover saved the group from an impending bankruptcy caused by a long strike period as well as dwindling circulation and advertising revenues. In 2000, Det Berlingske Officin was acquired by the Norwegian industrial conglomerate Orkla Group, in 2006 Orkla Media was sold to the British Mecom Group. In January 2011, the title was abbreviated to Berlingske following a large-scale redesign of the newspapers web. In February 2015, Berlingske was acquired by the family-owned Belgian media company De Persgroep together with the rest of Mecom Group, in 1910 Berlingske Tidende had a circulation of 8,500 copies. During the last six months of 1957 the paper had a circulation of 157,932 copies on weekdays and it was the second best-selling newspaper in Denmark with a circulation of 149,000 copies in 2002.
The circulation of the paper was 142,000 copies in 2003, in 2004 the paper had a circulation of 129,000 copies. The circulation of Berlingske was 103,685 copies in 2008 and 103,221 copies in 2009 and it was 101,121 copies in 2010 and fell to 96,897 copies in 2011. List of newspapers in Denmark List of oldest companies Merrill, John C, the Worlds Great Dailies, Profiles of Fifty Newspapers. Berlingskes home website Berlingskes business news site
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool. The urbanisation and development of the town coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, in what became known as the Bolton Massacre,1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Football club Bolton Wanderers play home games at the Macron Stadium, Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.
Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, the first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling. It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors. The towns motto of Supera Moras means overcome difficulties, and is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the meaning literally. A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall, the Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west. It is claimed that Agricola built a fort at Blackrod by clearing land above the forest, evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Poitou and after 1100 and it became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby.
Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, a charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton became a town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house. In 1337 Flemish weavers settled and introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth, more Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Kerosene, known as paraffin, lamp oil and coal oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek, κηρός meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark and it is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. Liquid paraffin is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative, paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft and some rocket engines, in parts of Asia, where the price of kerosene is subsidized, it fuels outboard motors on small fishing boats. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day, to prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene.
For example, in the United States, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania requires that portable containers used at retail service stations be colored blue and it is miscible in petroleum solvents but immiscible in water. The American Society for Testing and Materials standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene, grades 1-K and 2-K, regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosenes major components are branched and straight chain alkanes and naphthenes, which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this range, such as alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume, the flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C, and its autoignition temperature is 220 °C. The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C. 1-K grade kerosene freezes around -40 °C, heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel fuel, its lower heating value is 43.1 MJ/kg, and its higher heating value is 46.2 MJ/kg.
In the United Kingdom, two grades of heating oil are defined, BS2869 Class C1 is the lightest grade used for lanterns, camping stoves, wick heaters, and mixed with gasoline in some vintage combustion engines as a substitute for tractor vaporising oil. BS2869 Class C2 is a heavier distillate, which is used as heating oil. Premium kerosene is sold in 5 or 20 liter containers from hardware, camping. Standard kerosene is usually dispensed in bulk by a tanker and is undyed and international standards define the properties of several grades of kerosene used for jet fuel. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for operation and safety, the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, was first written about in the 9th century by the Persian scholar Rāzi. In his Kitab al-Asrar, the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad, using an apparatus called an alembic, one method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride.
The distillation process was repeated until all most of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been removed, Kerosene was produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was distilled
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine and his mysterious death. Diesel was the subject of the 1942 film Diesel, Diesel was born in Paris, France in 1858 the second of three children of Elise and Theodor Diesel. His parents were Bavarian immigrants living in Paris, Theodor Diesel, a bookbinder by trade, left his home town of Augsburg, Bavaria, in 1848. He met his wife, a daughter of a Nuremberg merchant, in Paris in 1855, Rudolf Diesel spent his early childhood in France, but at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, his family was forced to leave, as were many other Germans. At the age of 14, Diesel wrote a letter to his parents saying that he wanted to become an engineer, after finishing his basic education at the top of his class in 1873, he enrolled at the newly founded Industrial School of Augsburg. Two years later, he received a scholarship from the Royal Bavarian Polytechnic of Munich, which he accepted against the wishes of his parents.
One of Diesels professors in Munich was Carl von Linde, Diesel was unable to graduate with his class in July 1879 because he fell ill with typhoid. While waiting for the next date, he gained practical engineering experience at the Gebrüder Sulzer Maschinenfabrik in Winterthur. Diesel became the director of the plant one year later, in 1883, Diesel married Martha Flasche, and continued to work for Linde, gaining numerous patents in both Germany and France. As he was not allowed to use the patents he developed while an employee of Lindes for his own purposes and he first worked with steam, his research into thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency leading him to build a steam engine using ammonia vapour. During tests, the engine exploded and almost killed him and he spent many months in a hospital, followed by health and eyesight problems. Diesel understood thermodynamics and the theoretical and practical constraints on fuel efficiency and he knew that as much as 90% of the energy available in the fuel is wasted in a steam engine.
His work in design was driven by the goal of much higher efficiency ratios. After experimenting with a Carnot Cycle engine, he developed his own approach, eventually, he obtained a patent for his design for a compression-ignition engine. In his engine, fuel was injected at the end of compression, from 1893 to 1897, Heinrich von Buz, director of MAN AG in Augsburg, gave Rudolf Diesel the opportunity to test and develop his ideas. Rudolf Diesel obtained patents for his design in Germany and other countries and he was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1978. In the evening of 29 September 1913, Diesel boarded the post office steamer Dresden in Antwerp on his way to a meeting of the Consolidated Diesel Manufacturing company in London. He took dinner on board the ship and retired to his cabin at about 10 p. m. leaving word to be called the morning at 6,15 a. m
Naval architecture known as naval engineering, is an engineering discipline dealing with the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation, preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage control rules, the word vessel includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. The principal elements of architecture are, Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected to while at rest in water. This involves computing buoyancy, and other properties, such as trim. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the hull and stern.
Resistance – resistance towards motion in water primarily caused due to flow of water around the hull, powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, engine types are mainly internal combustion. Some vessels are powered using nuclear or solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves, controllability – involves controlling and maintaining position and direction of the vessel. Arrangements involves concept design and access, fire protection, allocation of spaces, construction depends on the material used. Other joining techniques are used for materials like fibre reinforced plastic. Traditionally, naval architecture has been more craft than science, the suitability of a vessels shape was judged by looking at a half-model of a vessel or a prototype. Ungainly shapes or abrupt transitions were frowned on as being flawed and this included rigging, deck arrangements, and even fixtures.
Subjective descriptors such as ungainly and fine were used as a substitute for the precise terms used today. A vessel was, and still is described as having a ‘fair’ shape and these tools are used for static stability, dynamic stability, powering, hull development, structural analysis, green water modelling, and slamming analysis. Data is regularly shared in international conferences sponsored by RINA, Society of Naval Architects, computational Fluid Dynamics is being applied to predict the response of a floating body in a random sea
Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles
The new firm was founded on 12 January 2010. The headquarters is in Munich and the facilities are located in Kassel, Germany. The approval for the merger was given by the Bundeskartellamt on 22 February, the remit of the company is to manufacturing wheeled military vehicles. At the present, there are 370 employees working in the company, up to late 2012, the firm will have 1300 employees. The aim of the company is to bundle the partners military-technological know-how, MAN announced that they are planning a national and a European consolidation of the production of complete built military vehicles. The vehicles will be sold worldwide, the companies merged in May 2010 after gaining approval from the Bundeskartellamt, and hope to generate profits of up to €1 billion. The first public appearance of the RMMV was at IDEB2010, insiders are saying that the fusion of the both company divisions was a last minute rescue. So the main problem of MAN should be an insufficient linkage to other defense companies, as an result, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge bought in many components, like the driver cabin, from other firms.
Even the ailing sales network of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge will be responsible for a significant economic loss, according to this situation, the department was living from one job to another and never knew what comes or happens next. However, Rheinmetall is interested in the manufacturing of buses, in which MAN Nutzfahrzeuge is experienced, in October 2010, Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles agreed to cooperate with Timoney Technology, who would make independent suspension and transmission systems for new types of RMMV vehicles. The first example of this partnership is the Wisent, MAN LX and FX ranges of tactical trucks RMMV Survivor R medium weight protected wheeled vehicle. The Wisent armoured 8x8 truck The Boxer armoured fighting vehicle A new product idea is a bus for the Afghanistan mission which will be for the transportation of Bundeswehr soldiers. This vehicle will be the first developed product of the RMMV, series production of it will start in the late 2011. Up to this time the models will provide the model range.
Armored tracked vehicles like the Rheinmetall PHZ2000 and the Rheinmetall Puma are built by the Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH which is not a part of the RMMV joint venture. Rheinmetall AG, 51% MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, 49% Official website of the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG Military Division Official website of the Rheinmetall AG Corporate Sector Defence
Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as an engine or gas engine. In diesel engines, glow plugs may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, the original diesel engine operates on the constant pressure cycle of gradual combustion and produces no audible knock. Low-speed diesel engines can have an efficiency that exceeds 50%. Diesel engines may be designed as either two-stroke or four-stroke cycles and they were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later, in the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US increased.
According to the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France and 38% in the UK. The worlds largest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel, the definition of a Diesel engine to many has become an engine that uses compression ignition. To some it may be an engine that uses heavy fuel oil, to others an engine that does not use spark ignition. However the original cycle proposed by Rudolf Diesel in 1892 was a constant temperature cycle which would require higher compression than what is needed for compression ignition. Diesels idea was to compress the air so tightly that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion, to make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. Then in that case the pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres.
In years Diesel realized his original cycle would not work, Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application. Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion, now all that is mentioned is the compression must be high enough for ignition. In 1806 Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine, the Pyréolophore fuel system used a blast of air provided by a bellows to atomize Lycopodium
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in Central Thailand, over 14 million people live within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailands other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam—later renamed Thailand—during the late 19th century, the city grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailands politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a regional force in finance and business. It is a hub for transport and health care, and has emerged as a regional centre for the arts, fashion. The city is known for its vibrant street life and cultural landmarks.
The historic Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the scenes of Khaosan Road. Bangkok is among the top tourist destinations. It is named the most visited city in MasterCards Global Destination Cities Index, Bangkoks rapid growth amidst little urban planning and regulation has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure systems. The city has turned to public transport in an attempt to solve this major problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town gradually increased in importance. Bangkok initially served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, and became the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam.
After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly declared King Taksin established his capital at the town, in 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern banks Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom. The City Pillar was erected on 21 April, which is regarded as the date of foundation of the present city, Bangkoks economy gradually expanded through busy international trade, first with China, with Western merchants returning in the early-to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siams modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late 19th century, Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932