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Bus rapid transit

Bus rapid transit called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. A BRT system includes roadways that are dedicated to buses, gives priority to buses at intersections where buses may interact with other traffic. BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of a metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system; the first BRT system in the world, was the Transitway system in Ottawa, which entered service in 1973. As of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems, accounting for 4,906 km of BRT lanes and about 32.2 million passengers every day, of which about 19.6 million passengers ride daily in Latin America, which has the most cities with BRT systems, with 54, led by Brazil with 21 cities. The Latin American countries with the most daily ridership are Brazil and Mexico. In the other regions and Iran stand out. TransJakarta is considered as the largest BRT network in the world with 251.2 kilometres of corridors connecting the Indonesian capital city.

Bus rapid transit takes its name from rail rapid transit, which describes a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right of way, multiple-car vehicles at short headways, longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, busways separated from traffic; the expression "BRT" is used in the Americas and China. The term transitway was originated in 1981 with the opening of the OC Transpo transitway in Ottawa, Canada. Critics have charged that the term "bus rapid transit" has sometimes been misapplied to systems that lack most or all the essential features which differentiate it from conventional bus services; the term "bus rapid transit creep" has been used to describe degraded levels of bus service which fall far short of the BRT Standard promoted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and other organizations. The first use of a protected busway was the East Side Trolley Tunnel in Rhode Island.

It was converted from trolley to bus use in 1948. However, the first BRT system in the world was the OC Transpo system in Canada. Introduced in 1973, the first element of its BRT system was dedicated bus lanes through the city centre, with platformed stops; the introduction of the first exclusive separate busways occurred in 1983. By 1996, all of the envisioned 31 km Transitway system was in operation; as of 2019, the central part of the Transitway has been converted to Light Rail Transit, due to the downtown section being operated beyond its designed capacity. The second BRT system in the world was the Rede Integrada de Transporte, implemented in Curitiba, Brazil, in 1974. Most of the elements that have become associated with BRT were innovations first suggested by Curitiba Mayor architect Jaime Lerner. Just dedicated bus lanes in the center of major arterial roads, in 1980 the Curitiba system added a feeder bus network and inter-zone connections, in 1992 introduced off-board fare collection, enclosed stations, platform-level boarding.

Other systems made further innovations, including platooning in Porto Alegre, passing lanes and express service in São Paulo. In the United States, BRT began in 1977, with Pittsburgh's South Busway, operating on 4.3 miles of exclusive lanes. Its success led to the Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway in 1983, a fuller BRT deployment including a dedicated busway of 9.1 miles, traffic signal preemption, peak service headway as low as two minutes. After the opening of the West Busway, 5.1 miles in length in 1990, Pittsburgh's Busway system is today over 18.5 miles long. In 1995, Ecuador, opened trolleybus BRT; the TransMilenio in Bogotá, opening in 2000, was the first BRT system to combine the best elements of Curitiba's BRT with other BRT advances, achieved the highest capacity and highest speed BRT system in the world. In January 2004 the first BRT in Southeast Asia, TransJakarta, opened in Indonesia; as of 2015, at 210 kilometres, it is the longest BRT system in the world. Africa's first BRT system was opened in Lagos, Nigeria, in March 2008 but is considered as a light BRT system by many people.

Johannesburg's BRT, Rea Vaya, was the first true BRT in Africa, in August 2009, carrying 16,000 daily passengers. Rea Vaya and MIO were the first two systems to combine full BRT with some services that operated in mixed traffic joined the BRT trunk infrastructure. BRT systems include most of the following features: Bus-only lanes make for faster travel and ensure that buses are not delayed by mixed traffic congestion. A median alignment bus-only keeps buses away from busy curb-side side conflicts, where cars and trucks are parking and turning. Separate rights of way may be used such as the elevated Xiamen BRT. Transit malls or'bus streets' may be created in city centers. Fare prepayment at the station, instead of on board the bus, eliminates the delay caused by passengers paying on board. P

List of extreme points of Japan

The extreme points of Japan include the coordinates that are farthest north, south and west in Japan, the ones that are at the highest and the lowest elevations in the country. Japan's northernmost point is disputed, because Japan considers it to be on Iturup, an island de facto governed by Russia; the southernmost point is Okinotorishima. The highest point in Japan is the summit of Mount Fuji at 3,776.24 m. At 150 m below sea level, the bottom of Hachinohe mine is the country's lowest point; the surface of Hachirōgata is Japan's lowest natural point at 4 m below sea level. With the exception of Cape Irizaki, the western-most location of Japan, all other extreme locations are uninhabited. Japan extends from 122 ° to 153 ° east longitude; the coordinates used in this article are sourced from Google Earth, which makes use of the World Geodetic System 84. The northernmost point that Japan claims lies on the disputed island of Iturup. Japan's claim to the three southern-most islands of the Kuril Islands is disputed by Russia, who de facto controls the islands.

This list provides the northernmost point as claimed by Japan as well as the northern-most undisputed point in Japan. The five main islands of Japan are Hokkaidō, Shikoku, Kyūshū and Okinawa. All of these points are accessible to the public. Northernmost pointCape Ōma, Ōma, Aomori PrefectureSouthernmost pointCape Shionomisaki, Wakayama PrefectureWesternmost pointCape Bishanohana, Yamaguchi PrefectureEasternmost pointCape Todogasaki, Iwate Prefecture Northernmost pointTanoura reclaimed area, Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka PrefectureSouthernmost pointCape Sata, Minamiōsumi, Kagoshima Prefecture 30°59′10″N 130°39′42″EWesternmost pointKōzakihana, Nagasaki Prefecture 33°12′51″N 129°33′18″EEasternmost pointCape Tsurumi, Saiki, Ōita Prefecture NorthernmostCape Hedo SouthernmostCape Arasaki EasternmostSetasaki WesternmostOosaki ^† Coordinates obtained from Google Earth. Google Earth makes use of the WGS84 geodetic reference system. ^‡ Although Japan claims this island as part of Hokkaido prefecture this territory is disputed and Iturup is under Russian administration.

Geography of Japan Japanese archipelago List of Japanese islands Extreme points of Asia Kuril Islands dispute

Ilaria Käslin

Ilaria Marina Käslin is a Swiss artistic gymnast. She competed at the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships from 2013 to 2015. Ilaria Käslin began her international career at the 2012 Junior European Championships, she competed in the team final with the Swiss team, contributing scores towards their 13th-place finish, qualified individually 15th into the all-around final. On finals day, she posted 12.833 on vault, 11.266 on bars, 13.333 on beam and 12.966 on floor to finish eighteenth. Käslin made her senior debut at the 2013 European Championships in Moscow, qualifying 18th into the all-around with a 51.499 and improving her final score to 53.632 to finish thirteenth overall. In early fall, she was named to the Swiss team for the 2013 World Championships in Antwerp. In qualifications, Käslin competed in the third subdivision and qualified to the all-around in twenty-fourth place, where she finished twenty-second with an overall score of 51.566. At the end of October, she competed at the Arthur Gander Memorial in Morges, where she performed on vault and beam to finish ninth overall.

She was named to the Swiss team for the Stuttgart World Cup at the end of November, contributing scores on all four pieces towards their fourth-place finish. Käslin performed at the World Challenge Cup in Osijek, Croatia in April, finishing 8th on bars and 6th on beam after falling. In May she competed at the European Championships in Sofia, contributing a 13.200 on bars, a 14.100 on beam and a 13.100 on floor towards the Swiss team's eighth-place finish. In August she competed at the Swiss Championships, winning gold on beam, bronze on floor, placing fourth all-around. In September, the Swiss team competed at a friendly meet against Germany and Romania, where Käslin contributed a 13.300 on bars and a 13.850 on beam. The Couch Gymnast commented, "She might be lacking a bit in difficulty but she makes up and more with her toe point and fluidity." She competed as part of the Swiss team at the World Championships in Nanning, where she qualified in 84th place, missing the all-around final. Käslin competed at the Arthur Gander Memorial in Chiasso in October, finishing in 6th place, at the Swiss Cup a few days where she teamed up with Pascal Bucher but failed to make team finals.

Two weeks she travelled to Barcelona for the Joaquim Blume Memorial, where she placed sixth all-around with a total score of 52.200. In November, Käslin competed at the Stuttgart World Cup where she helped her team to the bronze medal. In February she competed at the Austrian Open, helping her team to the silver medal and placing fifth individually. At the World Challenge Cup in Doha in March, she placed seventh on bars and won the bronze medal in the floor final with a score of 13.750. At the European Championships in April, her qualifying score put her in 31st place but she failed to advance to the all-around final as her teammates Giulia Steingruber and Jessica Diacci had qualified ahead of her. In May she performed at the World Challenge Cup in Varna, where she won bronze on beam and gold on floor. Käslin competed at the World Championships in Glasgow, where she posted an all-around score of 53.456 towards the Swiss team's 16th-place finish, ensuring them a spot at the Olympic test event in April 2016.

Individually Ilaria finished 46th all-around in qualification. Directly after the World Championships, Käslin headed to the Arthur Gander Memorial where she placed 5th went straight to compete at the Swiss Cup where she and Pablo Braegger teamed up to finish 4th. Käslin was named to the team to compete at the World Championships in Stuttgart, Germany alongside Giulia Steingruber, Stenfanie Siegenthaler, Anny Wu, Caterina Barloggio