click links in text for more info


A by-law is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority. The higher authority a legislature or some other government body, establishes the degree of control that the by-laws may exercise. By-laws may be established by entities such as a business corporation, a neighborhood association, or depending on the jurisdiction, a municipality. In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, the local laws established by municipalities are referred to as bye-laws because their scope is regulated by the central governments of those nations. Accordingly, a bylaw enforcement officer is the Canadian equivalent of the American Code Enforcement Officer or Municipal Regulations Enforcement Officer. In the United States, the federal government and most state governments have no direct ability to regulate the single provisions of municipal law; as a result, terms such as code, ordinance, or regulation, if not law are more common.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary indicates that the origin of the word by-law is from the English word bilawe from Old Norse *bȳlǫg, from Old Norse bȳr town + lag-, lǫg law. The earliest use of the term, which originates from the Viking town law in the Danelaw, wherein by is the Old Norse word for a larger settlement as in Whitby and Derby. However, it is possible that this usage was forgotten and the word was "reinvented" in modern times through the use of the adverbial prefix by- giving the meaning of subsidiary law or side-law. In either case, it is incorrect to claim that the origin of the word is the prepositional phrase "by law." Municipal by-laws are public regulatory laws. The main difference between a by-law and a law passed by a national/federal or regional/state body is that a by-law is made by a non-sovereign body, which derives its authority from another governing body, can only be made on a limited range of matters. A local council or municipal government derives its power to pass laws through a law of the national or regional government which specifies what things the town or city may regulate through by-laws.

It is therefore a form of delegated legislation. Within its jurisdiction and specific to those areas mandated by the higher body, a municipal by-law is no different than any other law of the land, can be enforced with penalties, challenged in court and must comply with other laws of the land, such as the country's constitution. Municipal by-laws are enforcable through the public justice system, offenders can be charged with a criminal offence for breach of a by-law. Common by-laws include vehicle parking and stopping regulations, animal control and construction, noise and business regulation, management of public recreation areas. Under Article 94 of the Constitution of Japan, regional governments have limited autonomy and legislative powers to create by-laws. In practice, such powers are exercised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. By-laws therefore constitute part of the legal system subordinate to the Japanese constitution. In terms of its mandatory powers and effective, it is considered the lowest of all legislation possible.

Such powers are used to govern the following: Location of the seat of government of the prefecture Frequency of routine meetings Number of prefectural vice-governors and vice village leaders Number of staff attached to administrative bodies governed Placement of regional autonomous areas Regulation of certain municipal monies Placement and removal of public facilities Appointment of subordinate offices by the prefectural governor In the United Kingdom, by-laws are laws of local or limited application made by local councils or other bodies, using powers granted by an Act of Parliament, so are a form of delegated legislation. In Australian Law there are five types of by-law, they are established by statute: State government authorities create By-laws as a type of "statutory rule" under an empowering Act, are made by the State governor. Local government by-laws are the most prevalent type of by-law in Australia, control things from Parking and Alcohol in parks to fire regulations and zoning controls.

In New South Wales these by-laws are called ordinances and Zoning Controls are called Environmental Planning Instruments created under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act. Numerous specific institutions, including universities, are empowered to make by-laws by their establishing legislation. By-laws of a company or society are created as a contract among members, must be formally adopted and/or amended. Strata Title was developed in Australia and by-laws of body corporate are empowered by state legislation; these are the main type of by-law most people come into contact with on a regular basis as they control what people in Strata title housing can do in their own homes. The most well known of these is the "no pets in flats" rule. Corporate and organizational by-laws regulate only the organization to which they apply and are concerned with the operation of the organization, setting out the form, manner or procedure in which a company or organisation should be run. Corporate by-laws are drafted by a corporation's founders or directors under the authority of its Charter or Articles of Incorporation.

By-laws vary from organization to organization, but cover topics such as the purpose of the organization, who are its members, how directors are elected, how meetings are conducted, what officers the organization will have and a description of their duties. A common mnemonic device for remembering t

Grandia (video game)

Grandia is a role-playing video game, developed by Game Arts and published by ESP Software for the Sega Saturn console as the first game in their Grandia series. Released in Japan in 1997, the game was ported to the PlayStation in 1999, with an English version of the game appearing on the platform in North America in the following September by Sony Computer Entertainment, in Europe in 2000 by Ubi Soft; the game was produced by much of the same staff who worked on the company's previous role-playing endeavor, the Lunar series, including producer Yoichi Miyagi and composer Noriyuki Iwadare. Grandia is notable for its combat mechanics which have been carried over to future games within the franchise, has spawned an expansion disk and a spin-off title - both released in Japan. In celebration of the announcement of renewing development on Grandia Online, which acts as a prequel to Grandia, the game was re-released on Sony's PlayStation Network platform in Japan as a downloadable title on April 22, 2009 and in North America on February 25, 2010.

It was re-released in Europe on November 10, 2010. A high-definition remaster of the game was released in North America and Europe on August 16, 2019, together with Grandia II, for Nintendo Switch. GungHo Online Entertainment clarified that a Japanese release of the remasters will follow in the future; the game is set in a fantasy world of exploration. A young boy named Justin inherits a magic stone that leads him on a journey around the world to uncover the mystery of a long-lost civilization. Along the way, he meets other adventurers who join him on his quest, which draws the attention of the militaristic Garlyle Forces who seek to uncover the secrets of the past as well. Grandia received a positive critical response during its original release, was voted by readers of Japan's circulated Famitsu magazine as the 73rd greatest game of all time in a 2006 poll. Grandia's environments are depicted as three-dimensional maps, with characters represented by 2-D animated bitmap sprites; the camera is rotational and follows the party from an angled third-person perspective.

Grandia features a rotational party roster. The statistics of each party member increase each time they gain a new level by defeating enemies and earning experience points. Characters learn new abilities through the repeated use of spells. Once a particular weapon/magic spell is used a number of times in battle, its Skill Level is raised. Weapons are divided into different classes, including swords, axes and knives; each party member's potential abilities are listed on a Skill screen within the game's main menu, as well as the Skill requirements that must be met in order to learn them. The game encourages players to periodically switch between weapons; when a weapon or magic element levels up, permanent stat points are added to that character as well. For example, when a character's water skill levels up, they receive +1 HP as well as +2 MP. Monsters in Grandia wander around aimlessly until the party gets close. A battle begins. If the player manages to sneak up on the enemy and make contact from the rear, they gain a preemptive strike and attack first.

If an enemy touches a party member from behind, they get the first strike. Combat is shown from a third-person overhead view; the IP bar at the bottom right corner of the screen displays a row of icons, which represent all party members and enemies on the screen. When an icon drifts to the midpoint of the IP Bar, that character can choose their next action; the IP Bar shows the time it takes for enemies to attack. The story centers around an aspiring adventurer from Parm, he lives with his mother, Lilly, in their home in the upstairs floor of their family-owned restaurant. Justin's father vanished years ago on an adventure, his mother is worried that he will try to follow in her late husband's footsteps, yet Justin, a romanticist, insists that there are still uncharted parts of the world, despite general perception that the "End of the World" — an insurmountable stone wall found on a newly discovered continent — has closed the book on the age of adventuring. Other characters include a friend from his town who acts as a surrogate sister to Justin.

She serves as a living database of an ancient civilization. The game's main antagonist is the calculating leader of the Garlyle Forces. Despite appearing to be involved in the excavation of ruins for purely philanthropic reasons, he has his own agenda, his son and second-in-command is Colonel Mullen, a tactician, well liked by his subordinates. Alongside him is his aide-de-camp, Leen, a young soldier who has gained a special place in the military for reasons unknown. Nana and Mio are three female command

Melchor de Aguilera

Melchor de Aguilera was the Spanish governor of Cartagena, in what is now Colombia, between 1638 and 1641. Aguilera married Maria de Roche, daughter of an Irish exile, in Madrid, he was assigned to diplomatic and administrative positions in Italy and France before becoming governor of Cartagena de Indias. Their daughter Teresa married López de Mendizábal. In a report written on 24 August 1639, Aguilera estimated that when a slave trader arrived in Cartagena they had to pay bribes to more than thirty officials and guards, totalling about 14,000 pesos. A governor of Cartagena could make at least 30,000 pesos yearly by accepting bribes to permit illegal import of slaves. In 1639, Aguilera initiated construction of the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, an outstanding work of Spanish military engineering, undertaken by Juan Mejía del Valle. Due to bureaucratic delays the castle was only completed during the governorship of Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, who named the castle in honor of King Philip IV of Spain.

In 1640, Aguilera resolved to remove the intolerable infestation of pirates in the Providence Island colony on Santa Catalina island, now called Providencia Island. Taking advantage of having infantry from Castile and Portugal wintering in his port, he dispatched six hundred armed Spaniards from the fleet and the presidio, two hundred black and mulatto militiamen under the leadership of don Antonio Maldonado y Tejada, his Sergeant Major, in six small frigates and a galleon; the troops were landed on the island, a fierce fight ensued. The Spanish were forced to withdraw when a gale blew up and threatened their ships


Tofacitinib, sold under the brand Xeljanz among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and ulcerative colitis. Common side effects include diarrhea and high blood pressure. Serious side effects may include infections and pulmonary embolism. In 2019, the safety committee of the European Medicines Agency began a review of tofacitinib and recommended that doctors temporarily not prescribe the 10 mg twice-daily dose to people at high risk for pulmonary embolism; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration released warnings about the risk of blood clots, it is in the janus kinase inhibitor class and developed by the National Institutes of Health and Pfizer. In November 2012, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved tofacitinib citrate "to treat adults with moderately to active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to, or who are intolerant of, methotrexate." It was approved in Japan and others. It is marketed as Xeljanz in all regions except for Russia where it will be marketed as Jakvinus or Jaquinus.

In May 2018, the U. S. FDA approved tofacitinib citrate "for the treatment of adult patients in the U. S. with moderately to active ulcerative colitis." Tofacitinib citrate is the first oral JAK inhibitor approved for chronic use in ulcerative colitis. Tofacitinib was not approved by European regulatory agencies because of concerns over efficacy and safety, although by 2018 the Euro pean Commission had approved it. Animal studies with tofacitinib conducted prior to human trials showed some carcinogenesis and impairment of fertility; the most reported adverse reactions during the first three months in controlled clinical trials were upper respiratory tract infections, headache and nasopharyngitis. Tofacitinib is required by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration to have a boxed warning on its label about possible injury and death due to problems such as infections and other malignancies which can arise from use of this drug. Serious infections leading to hospitalization or death, including tuberculosis and bacterial, invasive fungal and other opportunistic infections, have occurred in patients receiving tofacitinib.

Epstein Barr Virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder has been observed at an increased rate in renal transplant patients treated with tofacitinib while on immunosuppressive medications. Patients are warned to avoid use of tofacitinib citrate during an "active serious infection, including localized infections." Doctors are advised to use it with caution in patients that may be at increased risk of gastrointestinal perforations. Laboratory monitoring is recommended due to potential changes in lymphocytes, hemoglobin, liver enzymes and lipids. Tofacitinib claims to have no contraindications, however doctors are advised to reduce the patient's dosage when combined with "potent inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4," such as ketoconazole), or one or more combined medications that result in both moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 and potent inhibition of CYP2C19 such as fluconazole. Furthermore, immunizations with live vaccines should be avoided by tofacitinib users. According to post-marketing research, tofacitinib may increase the risk for pulmonary embolism.

Prescribers should consider risk factors for pulmonary embolism before prescribing this medication. Risk factors include age, obesity and immobilization. Patients taking this medication, irrespective of indication or risk factors, should be monitored for signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism, it is an inhibitor of the enzyme janus kinase 1 and janus kinase 3, which means that it interferes with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which transmits extracellular information into the cell nucleus, influencing DNA transcription. In a mouse model of established arthritis, tofacitinib improved disease by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators and suppressing STAT1-dependent genes in joint tissue; this efficacy in this disease model correlated with the inhibition of both JAK1 and 3 signaling pathways, suggesting that tofacitinib may exert therapeutic benefit via pathways that are not exclusive to inhibition of JAK3. The potential significance of JAK3 inhibition was first discovered in the laboratory of John O'Shea, an immunologist at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.

In 1994, Pfizer was approached by the NIH to form a public-private partnership in order to evaluate and bring to market experimental compounds based on this research. Pfizer declined the partnership but agreed in 1996, after the elimination of an NIH policy dictating that the market price of a product resulting from such a partnership would need to be commensurate with the investment of public taxpayer revenue and the "health and safety needs of the public." Pfizer worked with O'Shea's laboratory to define the structure and function of JAK3 and its receptors, handled the drug discovery, preclinical development, clinical development of tofacitinib in-house. The drug was coded as CP-690,550 during development, its original recommended INN was tasocitinib, but, overruled during the INN approval process as being inoptimally differentiable from other existing INNs, so the name tofacitinib was proposed and became the INN. In November 2012, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved tofacitinib for treatment of rheumatoid a

The Day the Music Died

On February 3, 1959, American rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, "The Big Bopper" J. P. Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, together with pilot Roger Peterson; the event became known as "The Day the Music Died", after singer-songwriter Don McLean referred to it as such in his 1971 song "American Pie". At the time and his band, consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, were playing on the "Winter Dance Party" tour across the Midwest. Rising artists Valens and Dion and the Belmonts had joined the tour as well; the long journeys between venues on board the cold, uncomfortable tour buses adversely affected the performers, with cases of flu and frostbite. After stopping at Clear Lake to perform, frustrated by such conditions, Holly chose to charter a plane to reach their next venue in Moorhead, Minnesota. Richardson, suffering from flu, swapped places with Jennings, taking his seat on the plane, while Allsup lost his seat to Valens on a coin toss.

Soon after takeoff, late at night and in poor, wintry weather conditions, the pilot lost control of the light aircraft, a Beechcraft Bonanza, which subsequently crashed into a cornfield. Everyone on board was killed; the event has since been mentioned in various films. A number of monuments have been erected at the crash site and in Clear Lake, where an annual memorial concert is held at the Surf Ballroom, the venue that hosted the artists' last performance. Buddy Holly terminated his association with the Crickets in November 1958. For the start of the "Winter Dance Party" tour, he assembled a band consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, with the opening vocals of Frankie Sardo; the tour was set to cover 24 Midwestern cities in as many days. New hit artist Ritchie Valens, "The Big Bopper" J. P. Richardson and Dion DiMucci and his band The Belmonts joined the tour to promote their recordings and make an extra profit; the tour began in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on January 23, 1959 and the performance at Clear Lake on February 2 was the 11th of 24 scheduled locations.

The amount of travel soon became a logistical problem. The distances between venues had not been properly considered. General Artists Corporation, the organization that booked the tour received considerable criticism for their total disregard for the conditions they forced the touring musicians to endure: They didn't care, it was like they threw darts at a map... The tour from hell – that's what they named it – and it's not a bad name; the entire company of musicians traveled together in one bus, although the buses used for the tour were wholly inadequate, breaking down and being replaced frequently. Griggs estimates that five separate buses were used in the first 11 days of the tour – "reconditioned school buses, not good enough for school kids." The artists themselves were responsible for loading and unloading equipment at each stop, as no road crew assisted them. Adding to the disarray, the buses were not equipped for the weather, which consisted of waist-deep snow in several areas and varying temperatures from 20 °F to as low as −36 °F.

One bus had a heating system that broke down shortly after the tour began, in Wisconsin. Richardson and Valens began experiencing flu-like symptoms and drummer Bunch was hospitalized for frostbitten feet, after the tour bus broke down in the middle of the highway in subzero temperatures near Ironwood, Michigan; the musicians replaced that bus with another school bus, kept traveling. After Bunch was hospitalized, Carlo Mastrangelo of The Belmonts took over the drumming duties; when Dion and The Belmonts were performing, the drum seat was taken by either Holly. As Holly's group had been the backing band for all of the acts, Valens, DiMucci took turns playing drums for each other at the performances in Green Bay and Clear Lake, Iowa. On Monday, February 2, the tour arrived in Clear Lake, having driven 350 miles from the previous day's concert in Green Bay; the town had not been a scheduled stop, but the tour promoters, hoping to fill an open date, called the manager of the local Surf Ballroom, Carroll Anderson, offered him the show.

He accepted, they set the show for that night. By the time Holly arrived at the venue that evening, he was frustrated with the ongoing problems with the bus; the next scheduled destination after Clear Lake was Moorhead, Minnesota, a 365 miles drive north and northwest No let up after, in sight, as the following day, they were scheduled to travel back directly south to Sioux City, Iowa, a 325 miles trip. Holly chartered a plane to take himself and his band to Fargo, North Dakota, adjacent to Moorhead; the rest of the party would have picked him up in Moorhead, saving him the journey in the bus and leaving him time to get some rest. Anderson called Hubert Jerry Dwyer, owner of the Dwyer Flying Service, a company in Mason City, to charter the plane to fly to Hector Airport in Fargo, the closest one to Moorhead. Flight arrangements were made with Roger Peterson, a 21-year-old local pilot described as a "young married man who built his life around flying"; the flying service charged a fee of $36 per passenger for the flight on the 1947 single-engined, V-tailed Beechcraft 35 Bonanza, which could seat three passengers plus the pilot.

A popular misconception, originating from

Mary Josephine Donovan O'Sullivan

Mary Josephine Donovan O'Sullivan was Professor of History at Queens College, Galway from 1914 to 1957. She was born in Galway in 1887 and was educated at the Dominican College, Galway City, Republic of Ireland. In 1915 in Edinburgh she married Jeremiah O'Sullivan from County Tipperary, serving in the Royal Engineers at the time. Mary Josephine was editor of the Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society from November 1932 to January 1951, her main contribution to the history of Galway in the late medieval - early modern age was Old Galway, which examined the growth of the town, its culture and politics, its trade and its ruling families, The Tribes of Galway. Most of the first edition of the book was destroyed during The Blitz in London, was only reprinted in 1959 in Galway. From early in the 1900s she was an active member of the local women's Suffrage movement, she was a sister of John Thomas Donovan, late of the Indian Civil Service. All the following were published in the Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society The Lay School at Galway in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, p. 1-32, Vol. 15, Nos. i & ii Glimpses of the life of Galway merchants and mariners in the early seventeenth century, pp. 129–140, volume 15, Nos. iii & iv The fortification of Galway in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, pp. 1–47, volume 16, Nos. i & ii, 1-47 Barnabe Googe, Provost-Marshal of Connaught, 1582–1585, pp. 1–39, volume 18, Nos. i & ii Note on the St. Nicholas MSS. pp. 69–71, volume 18, Nos. i & ii The use of leisure in old Galway, pp. 99–120 volume 18, Nos. iii & iv Some documents relating to Galway, pp. 170–182, volume 18, Nos. iii & iv The wives of Ulick, 1st Earl of Clanricarde, pp. 174–183, volume 21, Nos. iii & iv Italian merchant bankers and the collection of papal revenues in Ireland in the thirteenth century, pp. 132–163, volume 22, Nos. iii & iv The Centenary of Galway College, lecture delivered on 19 November 1949, published in volume 51, 1999.

On the "Western Outpost":Local Government and Women's Suffrage in County Galway, 1898-1918, Mary Clancy, pp. 557–587, in "Galway:History and Society", 1996 Obituary: Mary J. Donovan O'Sullivan, G. A. H.-McC. Analecta Hibernica, No. 26, pp. xii-xiv Published by: The Irish Manuscripts Commission Ltd. Stable URL: "Donovan, Mary J.". Thom's Irish. Dublin: Alexander Thom and Son Ltd. 1923. P. 64 – via Wikisource. Emily Anderson Florence Moon James Lydon