A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered based on two aspects: by whether they can issue stock, or by whether they are formed to make a profit. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were abl
Son of Albert is the only studio album by Andrew Ridgeley. Released in May 1990, Ridgeley's effort was a sharp turn away from his former pop image with Wham! years earlier. Focusing more on guitars and drums, the critical reaction to Ridgeley's attempt at a solo record was mixed. After rather unimpressive sales from Son of Albert, Ridgeley quit playing music professionally. Two singles from the album, "Red Dress" and "Shake", were released in 1990 with little success. Another song, "Mexico", was dropped. Ridgeley's album is named as the son of Albert Ridgeley. In January 2018, a remastered and expanded edition of the album was released in the UK on Cherry Red Records. Entertainment Weekly praised the instrumental "verve" of the songs, but criticized it for lacking conviction: "Ridgeley seems to have redefined himself as a kick-in-the-pants rock & roller, but his songs still come out sounding like manufactured pop." All songs produced by Andrew Ridgeley and Gary Bromham, unless noted otherwise. The 2018 Expanded Edition includes the original album tracks from the vinyl, CD, Cassette release, plus extra bonus tracks.
Andrew Ridgeley: lead vocals, additional vocals, Spanish vocals on "Mexico", voice box Mary Cassidy, Lauren Fownes, Brie Howard, Miss Johnny, George Michael, Tessa Niles: additional vocals Gary Bromham, Dan McCafferty, Mark "Bobby" Robinson: Spanish vocals on "Mexico" Robert Ahwai, Gary Bromham, Phil Palmer: guitars Tony Barnard, Michael Cozzi: acoustic and electric guitar Hugh Burns: Spanish guitar on "Mexico", acoustic and electric guitars Gary Masters: keyboards Mark Feltham: harmonica Graham Edwards, Deon Estus, Davey Faragher, Jerry Ferguson, Paul Gray: bass Danny Thompson: Spanish vocals on "Mexico", electric bass, double bass Gary Bromham, Pat Torpey, Paul Ridgeley: drums Laurence Cottell, Dave O'Higgins, Paul Spong: horns Danny Cummings: percussion Richard Gibbs: voice box Engineered by Harvey Birrell, Jacques Erhardt, Gordon Fordyce, Paul Gomersall, Martyn "Max" Heyes, Russell Leahy, Gary Wilkinson, Perry Cleveland-Peck Mixed at Amazon Studios, Liverpool.
Christian Daniel Claus was a Commissioner of Indian Affairs and a prominent Loyalist during the American Revolution. He was born September 13, 1727 at Bönnigheim, Württemberg the son of Adam Frederic Claus and his wife Anna Dorothea, he arrived in America in 1749. In 1755 he was made a Deputy Secretary of Indian Affairs, he could speak their language. In September 1775, he was replaced as the deputy superintendent by Major John Campbell. In November, Daniel Claus sailed to London to appeal his case before the British House of Lords, he was given the post of deputy confined to working with the Iroquois refugees in Canada. In August, 1777, he was appointed as agent of the Six Nations Indians by Frederick Haldimand, he died November 1787 near Cardiff, Wales. Leighton, Douglas. "Claus, Christian Daniel". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IV. University of Toronto Press. Parsons, Phyllis Vibbard. "The Early Life of Daniel Claus". Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies.
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