Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Ottawa River timber trade
The Ottawa River timber trade known as the Ottawa Valley timber trade or Ottawa River lumber trade, was the nineteenth century production of wood products by Canada on areas of the Ottawa River destined for British and American markets. It was the major industry of the historical colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and it created an entrepreneur known as a lumber baron; the trade in squared timber and sawed lumber led to population growth and prosperity to communities in the Ottawa Valley the city of Bytown. The product was white pine; the industry lasted until around 1900 as both supplies decreased. The industry came about following Napoleon's 1806 Continental Blockade in Europe causing the United Kingdom to require a new source for timber for its navy and shipbuilding; the U. K.'s application of increasing preferential tariffs increased Canadian imports. The first part of the industry, the trade in squared timber lasted until about the 1850s; the transportation for the raw timber was first by means of floating down the Ottawa River, proved possible in 1806 by Philemon Wright.
Squared timber would be assembled into large rafts which held living quarters for men on their six week journey to Quebec City, which had large exporting facilities and easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The second part of the industry involved the trade of sawed lumber, the American lumber barons and lasted chiefly from about 1850 to 1900-1910; the Reciprocity Treaty caused a shift to American markets. The source of timber in Britain changed, where its access to timber in the Baltic region was restored, it no longer provided the protective tariffs. Entrepreneurs in the United States at that time began to build their operations near the Ottawa River, creating some of the world's largest sawmills at the time; these men, known as lumber barons, with names such as John Rudolphus Booth and Henry Franklin Bronson created mills which contributed to the prosperity and growth of Ottawa. The sawed lumber industry benefited from transportation improvements, first the Rideau Canal linking Ottawa with Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario, much railways that began to be created between Canadian cities.
Shortly after 1900, the last raft went down the Ottawa River. Supplies of pine were dwindling and there was a decreased demand. By this time, the United Kingdom was able to resume its supply from the Baltic Region and their policies the reduction in protectionism of their colonies led to a decrease in markets in the U. K. Shipbuilding turned towards steel. Before 1950 many operations began to discontinue, many mills were removed and the spoiled land began to be restored in Urban Renewal policies in Ottawa; the industry had contributed to population increases and economic growth of Ontario and Quebec. Upper and Lower Canada's major industry in terms of employment and value of the product was the timber trade; the largest supplier of square red and white pine to the British market originated from the Ottawa River and the Ottawa Valley had "rich red and white pine forests" Bytown, was a major lumber and sawmill centre of Canada. In 1806, Napoleon ordered a blockade to European ports, blocking Britain's access to timber required for the navy from the Baltic Sea.
The British naval shipyards were in need of lumber. British tariff concessions fostered the growth of the Canadian timber trade; the British government instituted the tariff on the importation of foreign timber in 1795 in need of alternate sources for its navy and to promote the industry in its North American colonies. The "Colonial Preference" was first 10 shillings per load, increasing to 25 in 1805 and after Napoleon's blockade ended, it was increased to 65 in 1814. In 1821 the tariff was reduced to 55 shillings and was abolished in 1842; the United Kingdom resumed its trade in Baltic timber. The change in Britain's tariff preferences was a result of Britain moving to Free Trade in 1840; the 1840s saw a gradual move from protectionism in Great BritainWhen the Ottawa River first began to be used for floating timber en route to markets, squared timber was the preference by the British for resawing, it "became the main export". Britain imported 15,000 loads of timber from Canada in 1805, from the colonies, 30,000 in 1807, nearly 300,000 in 1820.
The reciprocity treaty of 1854 allowed for duty-free export of Ottawa Valley's lumber into the United States. Both the market was changing, as well as the entrepreneurs running the businesses. An American September 30, 1869 statement showed that lumber was, by far Canada's biggest export to the U. S. Here are the top 3: lumber: 424,232,087 feet, $4,761,357. Iron, pig: 26,881 do, $536,662 sheep: 228,914, $524,639 Also in 1869, about a third of the lumber manufactured at Ottawa was shipped to foreign countries, the area employed 6000 men in cutting and rafting logs, about 5,500 in the preparation of squared timber for European markets, about 5,000 at the mills in Ottawa. Somewhere between 1848 and 1861, a large increase in the number of sawmills in "the town" had occurred: 1845: 601 houses and 3 saw mills 1848: 1019 houses and 2 saw mills 1861: 2104 dwellings and 12 saw millsHere is the production of some companies in 1873, M feet of lumber and number of employees and their 1875 address listed, where available.
J. R. Booth, 40, 400, Albert Island, Chaudier Bronsons & Weston, 40, 400, Victoria Island Gilmour & Co. 40, 500-1000, 22 Bank E. B. Eddy, 40, 1700 Perley
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica (Ottawa)
The Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Ottawa, Canada located on 385 Sussex Drive in the Lower Town neighbourhood. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1990; the site was home to the small wooden St. Jacques Church built in 1832; this structure was destroyed in 1841 to make way for a larger church, designed by local builder Antoine Robillard and Father John Francis Cannon who requested a Neo-classical design. However, in 1844, after the lower section was completed, the Oblate Fathers assumed stewardship of the parish and Father Pierre-Adrien Telmon was sent from France to finish the construction. Father Telmon decided to redesign the church into a Neo-Gothic structure, a style, growing in popularity; this resulted in the lower features, such as the main entrance, being Neo-Classical, while the upper portions of the structure are Neo-Gothic. The main structure was completed in 1846. In 1847, the church was designated the cathedral of Bytown and Joseph-Bruno Guigues was appointed the first bishop.
He is honoured with a lifesize statue at the southwest corner of the cathedral grounds. In 1859, Father Damase Dandurand, OMI, designed the two Gothic spires which were added to the west front in 1866. Earlier, in 1849-50, he designed the Archbishop's Palace and in 1862-63, added the choir loft. In 1879, Pope Leo XIII designated the cathedral as a minor basilica; the steeples are covered with tin, typical for French-Canadian churches, house a peal of bells. The exterior is reserved, but the interior is far more ornate, designed by Georges Buillon; the interior of the church is brightly painted and decorated with carved features, exquisite stained glass windows and hundreds of statues of various religious figures. Louis-Philippe Hébert completed thirty large wooden sculptures in the choir. At the end of the choir, the Holy Family is completed with saints John the Baptist and Patrick, the patron saints of French and Irish Catholics. James R. Bowes, designed new galleries and other improvements in 1875.
The Basilica is the oldest and largest church in Ottawa and the seat of the city's Roman Catholic archbishop. Its twin spires and gilded Madonna are identifiable from nearby Parliament Hill and the surrounding area; the church was last restored in the late 1990s. Services are held in both English. Governor General Georges Vanier and Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier both were given state funerals at the Cathedral. "1841-1843 - This Gothic revival structure is the oldest surviving church in Ottawa. Its twin steeples were erected in 1842. In 1848 it was named the Cathedral of the Diocese of Ottawa later was granted the title Basilica, its chief glory is its painted interior. Designated heritage property 1978." "On Dec 18 1999 the most reverend Marcel A Gervais, Archbishop of Ottawa reopened Notre Dame Cathedral. The Cathedral had been closed for renovations since the beginning of 1999 and work continued into the year 2000; this historic restoration was made possible through the generous gifts of anonymous donors, the Canada Millenium partnership program, the Ontario Government and the friends of the Cathedral.
We recognize the warm hospitality of the Sisters of Charity of Ottawa who welcomed the community at the Chapel of their Mother House while the Cathedral was closed." The first organ was inaugurated on March 1850 by Damis Paul, organist at Montreal's cathedral. The instrument had been installed in 1848 for Bishop Guigues' consecration. Joseph Casavant built an 18-stop instrument and placed it in a case, sculpted by Flavien Rochon in 1871; the instrument was restored by organ builder Louis Mitchell a few years later. Casavant's sons reconstructed the organ in 1892. At that time, it was pedal; the instrument used an electro-pneumatic action. The main section of the organ is located in the rear gallery while a second organ, a 17-stop choir organ over 3 manuals and pedal, is located in a gallery over the sanctuary. Both organs are played from the console located in the rear gallery; this instrument is considered one of the three outstanding instruments in the history of the Casavant firm, the others being the one in Notre Dame Basilica in Montreal and the one in St. Hyacinthe Cathedral.
The console was attached to the left organ case. From the beginning, the organ case was divided into two sections in order to free the magnificent stained-glass window. New stops were added in 1917. A second console, more modern, was installed in 1940 when a major renovation was undertaken and, in 1975, a revision of the electric action was carried out. In 1999, Guilbault-Thérien carried out a major renovation, replacing the second console, adding 7 more stops in order to achieve a better balance amongst the divisions while respecting the symphonic aesthetics of the instrument; the chancel organ still retains its original voicing. Composer Amédée Tremblay notably served as the church's organist from 1894-1920; the present titular organist is Jennifer Loveless. List of designated heritage properties in Ottawa Bibliography Official website Organ Specifications and Photos entre GCatholic.org entry Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica photos. Notre Dame Roman Catholic Basilica HistoricPlaces.ca
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
1985 Turkish embassy attack in Ottawa
On 12 March 1985, agents of the Armenian Revolutionary Army attacked the Turkish embassy in Ottawa, Canada. The storming of the embassy began shortly before 7 a.m. when three militants in a rented moving truck arrived at the embassy gate. They began shooting at the bulletproof security hut. Security officer Claude Brunelle, a 31-year-old student from the University of Ottawa, was on duty; as soon as the attack began, Brunelle called in the emergency code and left the hut to confront the gunmen. He took two shots in the chest, which killed him instantly. Using a powerful homemade bomb, the gunmen blasted open the heavy front door of the two-storey, Tudor-style home and embassy office on Wurtemberg Street, in the capital's embassy district about two kilometers east of Parliament Hill. Once inside, they began rounding up hostages, including the wife of the Turkish ambassador, his teen-age daughter and embassy staff members – at least 12 people. Ambassador Coşkun Kırca, a veteran career diplomat with United Nations experience, in Canada less than two years, escaped by leaping from the second floor window at the back of the embassy, breaking his right arm, right leg and pelvis.
The police response was immediate. Within three minutes, officers were on the scene. Four hours the gunmen released all hostages and surrendered – they tossed out their weapons and came out of the building with their hands up, asking only that they not be shot by police. Earlier, in telephone conversations with reporters, they demanded, in exchange for releasing their hostages, that Turkey acknowledge the 1915 Armenian holocaust and "return Armenian lands confiscated by Turkey"; the gunmen, who said they were members of the Armenian Revolutionary Army told Ottawa police they blasted their way into the Turkish embassy "to make Turkey pay for the Armenian genocide" of 1915. This was the third assault on Turkish diplomatic personnel in Ottawa by Armenian gunmen in three years: in April 1982, the embassy's commercial counsellor – Kani Güngör – was shot and critically injured in a parking garage; the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia took credit for the attack, which left the attaché paralyzed.
Four months in August 1982, the embassy's military attaché – Col. Atilla Altıkat – was shot to death as he drove to work; the Justice Commandos Against Armenian Genocide claimed responsibility. In addition, other attacks by Armenians on Turkish targets diplomats, occurred in other countries during 1973-1994; the attackers – Kevork Marachelian, 35, of LaSalle, Rafi Panos Titizian, 27, of Scarborough and Ohannes Noubarian, 30, of Montreal – were charged with first-degree murder of Brunelle during the assault on the Turkish Embassy. They faced charges of attacking the premises of a diplomat, endangering the life and liberty of Ambassador Coskun Kirca, setting off an explosion to get into the embassy and possessing grenades and shotguns. Chahe Philippe Arslanian, a lawyer for two of the accused, said that his clients were "not guilty". "It's evident that it was not a criminal act, but a political act," Arslanian told reporters. A year on October 14, 1986, the three men went on trial. An Ontario Supreme Court jury deliberated for 8½ hours before finding Noubarian and Titizian guilty of first-degree murder.
Justice David Watt imposed the mandatory sentence of life imprisonment with no possibility of parole for 25 years. After the jury gave its verdict and was dismissed, Noubarian told the court that what the three did "sprang from the national ideals we shared." "However, something undesirable and regrettable happened and Mr. Brunelle died, resulting in the clouding of our aims and our goals and resulting in our persecution and trial as simple criminals, but imprisoning individuals would not harm the Armenian cause. Individuals are mortal, but the Armenian nation lives and as long as it lives it will always demand its rights."In February 2005 the National Parole Board of Canada decided to allow one of the men, Marachelian, to visit his family for the first time in 20 years. The board granted him two visits over the following six months, during which he had to be accompanied by a corrections officer. Marachelian and Noubarian were released from prison on February 19, 2010. Rafi Titizian was released during April 2010 and sent to Armenia on the day of his release to join his family living in Armenia.
The attack on the Turkish Embassy was a major international embarrassment for Canada. For years, foreign diplomats in Ottawa had asked the Canadian government for better security, but to no avail. Turkey declared Ottawa to be one of the most dangerous places in the world for Turkish diplomats. Canada needed a unit, capable of defeating a determined and well-armed group of militants; this need was ignored until the March 1985, attack on the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa. The event changed the Canadian government's attitude toward militants and set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the creation of Joint Task Force Two. Claude Brunelle was awarded the Star of Courage for delaying the assailants long enough to allow the Turkish Ambassador to escape
Wellington Street (Ottawa)
Wellington Street is a major street in Ottawa, Canada. The street is notable for being the main street of the Parliamentary Precinct of the Parliament of Canada, it is one of the first two streets laid out in Bytown in 1826. The street runs from Booth Street to the Rideau Canal where it connects with Rideau Street and delimits the northern border of the downtown core, it is named after the Duke of Wellington, in recognition of his role in the creation of the Rideau Canal, therefore of Ottawa. Starting at its easternmost point, Wellington forms the northern edge of Confederation Square, south of which runs Elgin Street. West of Confederation Square, Parliament Hill can be found on its north side, while the Langevin Block, home of the Prime Minister's Office and of the Privy Council Office, the former American embassy and the Wellington Building can be found to the south. West of the intersection with Bank Street, are located the Confederation Building and the Justice Building, while the headquarters of the Bank of Canada can be found opposite the Hill.
Beyond Parliament Hill, the Supreme Court of Canada is situated west of the Justice building, opposite St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church; the East and West Memorial Buildings can be seen next standing east and west of Lyon Street and linked by the Memorial Arch. West of the Supreme Court is the National Library and Archives of Canada main building, with the Garden of the Provinces across the street. Between the Supreme Court and the National Library is a large open area, today a mix of parkland and large parking lots; until the 1970s, this was home to a cluster of temporary buildings, erected in the Second World War to provide much-needed office space. In the 1970s, there was a plan to build both a home for the National Gallery. A design competition was held for the National Gallery, but in the end, the government cancelled both projects. Wellington Street continues west past the Portage Bridge, north of the eastern half of the Lebreton Flats, becomes the Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway after crossing Booth Street at the Canadian War Museum.
West of the O-Train Bayview station, a separate segment is known as Wellington Street West, passes through the Hintonburg and Island Park neighbourhoods before becoming Richmond Road at Island Park Drive. Both sections of Wellington are four-lane historic urban arterial roads with a speed limit of 50 km/h, although the flow is even slower than that due to high pedestrian traffic. A number of proposals have been made to change the street's name, some as recent as 2010. From Bronson Avenue until Rideau Street, Wellington is known as Ottawa Road #34. From Western Avenue to Somerset Street, Wellington is known as Ottawa Road #36. Wellington Street from Bay Street to the Rideau Canal showing the prominent structures located along it. See Downtown Ottawa for a map of the entire area. "City of Ottawa map showing Wellington Street downtown". Accessed 15 November 2006 West Wellington Community Association, accessed 15 November 2006 List of Ottawa roads