Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
The gusle is a single-stringed musical instrument traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe. The instrument is always accompanied by singing; the gusle player holds the instrument vertically between his knees, with the left hand fingers on the strings. The strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a unique sound. Singing to the accompaniment of the Gusle as a part of Serbia's intangible cultural heritage was inscribed in 2018 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO. Gusle are indirectly important to the whole of Western civilization; the Homeric Iliad and the Odyssey are the considered foundational works of literature of Western civilization along with the Torah and the Christian Bible. As the verses pertain to a war and events long before the abjad script was known to the Greeks, it was proposed that Homeric hymns were sung, not written, were passed down through generations of singing epic bards, who were, like Homer blind.
This was proven as probable in the 19th century when the German classicist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the gusle tradition not far from Greece after observing a Serbian bard reciting a lengthy poem in a similar style. There is no consensus about the origin of the instrument. 6th-century Byzantine Greek historian Theophylact Simocatta wrote about "small lyres" brought by the Slavs who settled the Balkans. Others, such as F. Sachs, believe that the gusle has an Oriental origin, brought to Europe in the 10th century via the Islamic cultural wave. Arab travellers report evidence. Teodosije the Hilandarian wrote that Stefan Nemanjić entertained the Serbian nobility with musicians with drums and "gusle". Reliable written records about the gusle appear only in the 15th century. 16th-century travel memoirs mention the instrument in Serbia. In the 19th- and 20th century the instrument is mentioned in Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Albania where it is called Lahuta; the word Gusle comes from the Old Slavic word "gosl" for fiber.
The Old Slavic root morpheme gǫdsli is associated with gudalo/godalo. The exact origin of the nominations of the related concepts gusle, gadulka and gudalo, the latter as the name for the bow of the gusle could illuminate a more accurate assignment in the history of the Gusle after Walther Wünsch. In the parlance of the South Slavs, in addition to the plural antum Femininum "gusle" that has prevailed as a lexeme the older "gusli", found in the area of the middle Drinalaufs to Arilje and throughout Montenegro; the use of the morphemes / e / and / i / is in the same language as the same speaker, alternately it can be used in lyrics or everyday speech. The singular form "gusla" is found only in Eastern Serbia, west of the Timok, around Niš, Ivanjica, as well as in the area of the Zlatibor. On Korčula only "gusla" is in use; the term "gusle" by Alberto Fortis has been introduced into European literature. The Gusle is in Serbo-Croatian linguistic usage as Gusle, however, a plural tetantum Feminimum.
The gusle consists of a wooden sound box, the maple being considered as the best material, covered with an animal skin and a neck with an intricately carved head. A bow is pulled over the string/s, creating a dramatic and sharp sound and difficult to master; the string is made of thirty horsehairs. The instrument is held vertically with the left hand fingers on the neck; the strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a unique sound. The most common and traditional version is single-stringed, while a much less-common version is the two-stringed found in Bosanska Krajina and in Lika.. The varieties of the guslar music are based on cultural basis. There is minor differing characteristics of vocality in the regions of Southeast Europe; the design of the instrument is identical. The gusle instrumentally accompanies heroic songs in the Balkans; the Serbian gusle has one or two strings and is made of maple wood. A guslar is an individual capable of reproducing and composing poems about heroes and historical events to the accompaniment of this instrument in the decasyllable meter.
There are records of an instrument named gusle being played at the court of the 13th-century Serbian King Stefan Nemanjić, but it is not certain whether the term was used in its present-day meaning or it denoted some other kind of string instrument. Polish poets of the 17th century mentioned the gusle in their works. In a poem published in 1612, Kasper Miaskowski wrote that "the Serbian gusle and gaidas will overwhelm Shrove Tuesday". In the idyll named Śpiewacy, published in 1663, Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic used the phrase "to sing to the Serbian gusle". In some older Serbian books on literature it was stated that a Serbian guslar performed at the court of Władysław II Jagiełło in 1415; the ea
Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper and Istria. Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south; the hinterland ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south. Seventy-nine islands run parallel to the coast, the largest being Brač, Hvar; the largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Šibenik. The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity, it became a Roman province, as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region.
The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes which controlled most of it, the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, after World War II, SFR Yugoslavia took complete control over the area; the name Dalmatia derives from the name of the Dalmatae tribe, connected with the Illyrian word delme meaning "sheep". Its Latin form Dalmatia gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language, once dominant in the area, it is spelled Dalmàssia, in modern Italian Dalmazia; the modern Croatian spelling is Dalmacija, pronounced. Dalmatia is referenced in the New Testament at 2 Timothy 4:10, so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.
In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria in the north to modern-day Albania in the south. Dalmatia signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic coastal belt, Mediterranean climate, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic carbonate platform, karst geomorphology. Dalmatia is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law, its exact extent is therefore subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar: …the modern perception of Dalmatia is based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab island, geographically related to the Kvarner area and functionally to the Littoral–Gorski Kotar area, with the exception of the Bay of Kotor, annexed to another state after World War I; the southern part of Lika and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County.
From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik and Dubrovnik. "Dalmatia" is therefore perceived to extend to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times: The Bay of Kotor area in Montenegro. With the subdivision of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into oblasts in 1922, the whole of the Bay of Kotor from Sutorina to Sutomore was granted to the Zeta Oblast, so that the border of Dalmatia was formed at that point by the southern border of the former Republic of Ragusa; the Encyclopædia Britannica defines Dalmatia as extending "to the narrows of Kotor". Other sources, such as the Treccani encyclopedia and the "Rough Guide to Croatia" still include the Bay as being part of the region.
The island of Rab, along with the small islands of Sveti Grgur and Goli, were a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and are and culturally related to the region, but are today associated more with the Croatian Littoral, due to geographical vicinity and administrative expediency. Gračac municipality and northern Pag. A number of sources express the view that "from the modern-day administrative point of view", the extent of Dalmatia equates to the four southernmost counties of Croatia: Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva; this definition does not include the Bay of Kotor, nor the islands of Rab, Sveti Grgur, Goli. It excludes the northern part of the island of Pag, part of the Lika-Senj County. However, it includes the Gračac Municipality in Zadar County, not a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and is not traditionally associated with the region; the inhabitants of Dalmatia are culturally subdivided into two groups. The urban families of the coastal cities known as Fetivi, are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands.
The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, fr
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC; the instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use strings of catgut, metal, or some combination. While all harps have a neck and strings, frame harps have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while open harps, such as arch harps and bow harps, do not.
Modern harps vary in techniques used to extend the range and chromaticism of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note mid-performance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch. The pedal harp is a standard instrument in the orchestra of the Romantic music era and the contemporary music era; the earliest harps and lyres were found in Sumer, 3500 BC, several harps were found in burial pits and royal tombs in Ur. The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar can be seen adjacent to the Near East, in the wall paintings of ancient Egyptian tombs in the Nile Valley, which date from as early as 3000 BC; these murals show an instrument that resembles the hunter's bow, without the pillar that we find in modern harps. The chang flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 4000 BC, until the 17th century. Around 1900 BC arched harps in the Iraq–Iran region were replaced by angular harps with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the start of the Common Era, "robust, angular harps", which had become predominant in the Hellenistic world, were cherished in the Sasanian court.
In the last century of the Sasanian period, angular harps were redesigned to make them as light as possible. At the height of the Persian tradition of illustrated book production, such light harps were still depicted, although their use as musical instruments was reaching its end; the works of the Tamil Sangam literature describe the harp and its variants, as early as 200 BC. Variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment. Iconographic evidence in of the yaal appears in temple statues dated as early as 500 BC One of the Sangam works, the Kallaadam recounts how the first yaaḻ harp was inspired by an archer's bow, when he heard the musical sound of its twang. Another early South Asian harp was the ancient veena; some Samudragupta gold coins show of the mid-4th century AD show the king Samudragupta himself playing the instrument. The ancient veena survives today in the form of the saung harp still played there; the harp was popular in ancient China and neighboring regions, though harps are extinct in East Asia in the modern day.
The Chinese konghou harp is documented as early as the Spring and Autumn period, became extinct during the Ming Dynasty. A similar harp, the gonghu was played in ancient Korea, documented as early as the Goguryeo period. Harps are triangular and made of wood. Strings are made of gut or wire replaced in the modern day by nylon, or metal; the top end of each string is secured on the crossbar or neck, where each will have a tuning peg or similar device to adjust the pitch. From the crossbar, the string runs down to the sounding board on the resonating body, where it is secured with a knot, it is the distance between the tuning peg and the soundboard, as well as tension and weight of the string, which decide the pitch of the string. The body is hollow, when a taut string is plucked, the body resonates, projecting sound; the longest side of the harp is called the column or pillar, though some earlier harps, such as a "bow harp", lack a pillar. On most harps the sole purpose of the pillar is to hold up the neck against the great strain of the strings.
On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument. On harps of earlier design, a given string can play only a single note without retuning. In many cases this means such a harp can only play in one key at a time and must be manually retuned to play in another key. Various remedies to this limitation evolved: the addition of extra strings to cover chromatic notes, addition of small levers on the crossbar which when actuated raise the pitch of a string by a set interval, or use of pedals at the base of the instrument which change the pitch of a string when pressed with the foot; these solutions increase the versatility of a harp at the cost of adding complexity and expense. While the angle and bow harps held popularity
The Cretan lyra is a Greek pear-shaped, three-stringed bowed musical instrument, central to the traditional music of Crete and other islands in the Dodecanese and the Aegean Archipelago, in Greece. The Cretan lyra is considered to be the most popular surviving form of the medieval Byzantine lyra, an ancestor of most European bowed instruments; the lyra is held vertically on the player's lap, in the same way as a small viol, rather than being placed under the chin of the player like a violin. For normal right-handed playing, the player's right hand holds the bow; the strings are stopped by pressing the fingernails of the player's left hand against the side of the string, rather than by pressing the string against the fingerboard. This gives it a different tone from the violin. Older lyras have one string, not fingered and is used as a drone, playing the same note while tunes are played on the other two strings The Cretan lyra is related to the bowed Byzantine lyra, the ancestor of many European bowed instruments, to the rabāb, found in Islamic empires of that time.
The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the lyra as a typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun and the salandj. The Byzantine lyra spread westward through Europe with uncertain evolution. Bowed instruments similar to the Cretan lyra and direct descendants of the Byzantine lyra have continued to be played in many post-Byzantine regions until the present day with small changes, for example the Gadulka in Bulgaria, the bowed Calabrian lira in Italy and the Classical Kemenche in Istanbul, Turkey. With regard to the period of introduction of the bowed instrument in the island, there are four schools of thought: The Byzantine lyra was introduced after 961 AD, when the island was reconquered from Arabs by the Byzantine Empire under the command of Nikephoros Phokas. At that time, noble families from Constantinople were sent to settle on Crete to inject new life and replenish the Greek population, who introduced many Byzantine traditions from Constantinople.
The lyra was introduced from the islands of the Dodecanese, entered the island through the eastern town of Sitia, the neighbor of Kassos and Karpathos. The lyra was introduced into the island's traditions as a popular element of the Byzantine music and tradition, in a similar manner that lyra was introduced in other regions. By the local tradition, the Cretan lyra has been spontaneous developed in the island of Crete some time before the year 961 AD and after the Byzantine invasion of Nikephoros Phokas it's been adopted by the Byzantine panspermia among other treasures from Crete, to Istanbul, from there, spread east and west. Over the centuries and during the island's Venetian era, the violin exerted its influence on the music of Crete both under the organological and musical aspect, bringing about profound changes in the instrument's repertory, organology, musical language and performance practice. There are three major types of Cretan lyras: the lyraki, a small model of lyra identical to the Byzantine lyra, used only for the performance of dances the vrontolyra, which has a strong sound, ideal for accompaniment of songs the common lyra, popular in the island today.
The influence of the violin caused the transformation of many features of the old form of Cretan Lyra into the contemporary lyra, including its tuning, performance practice, repertory. In 1920, the viololyra was developed in an effort by local instrument manufacturers to give the sound and the technical possibilities of the violin to the old Byzantine lyraki. Twenty years a new combination of lyraki and violin gave birth to the common lyra. Other types include the four-stringed lyra. In 1990, Ross Daly designed a new type of Cretan lyra which incorporates elements of lyraki, the Byzantine lyra and the Indian sarangi; the result was a lyra with three playing strings of 29 cm in length, 18 sympathetic strings which resonate on Indian-styled jawari bridges. The Lyra has a body with a pear-shaped soundboard, or one, oval in shape, with two small semi-circular soundholes; the body and neck are carved out of one piece of aged wood. Traditionally the body's wood was sourced from trees growing in Crete such as walnut and asfadamos, the local plane tree.
The soundboard is carved with a shallower arch and is made of straight-grained softwood: traditionally the aged wooden beams of buildings and, ideally the 300-year-old wooden beams from Venetian ruins. In the past, the strings were made of the bow of horse-tail hair. In the past, the bow's arc had a series of spherical bells, gerakokoudouna, to provide rhythmic accompaniment to the melody when the bow was moving. Today, most lyras are played with violin bows. A method for the vibration analysis and characterization of the Cretan lyre top plates was reported in 2006; the old model of t
The rebab is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, the Far East. The bowed variety has a spike at the bottom to rest on the ground, is thus called a spike fiddle in certain areas, but plucked versions like the kabuli rebab exist; the Arabic rabāb is the earliest known bowed instrument and the parent of the medieval European rebec. The Arabic rabāb is the ancestor of all European bowed instruments, including the rebec and the lyra. Besides the spike fiddle variant, there exists a variant with a pear-shaped body, quite similar to the Byzantine lyra and the Cretan lyra; this latter variant travelled to western Europe in the 11th century, became the rebec. This article will only concentrate on the spike-fiddle rebab, which consists of a small rounded body, the front of, covered in a membrane such as parchment or sheepskin and has a long neck attached. There is a long thin neck with a pegbox at the end and there are one, two or three strings.
There is no fingerboard. The instrument is held upright, either resting on the lap or on the floor; the bow is more curved than that of the violin. The rebab, though valued for its voice-like tone, has a limited range, was replaced throughout much of the Arab world by the violin and kemenche; the Iraqi version of the instrument has four strings. The rebab is used in a wide variety of musical ensembles and genres, corresponding with its wide distribution, is built and played somewhat differently in different areas. Following the principle of construction in Iran, the rebab is a large instrument with a range similar to the viola da gamba, whereas versions of the instrument further west tend to be smaller and higher-pitched; the body varies from being ornately carved, as in Java, to simpler models such as the 2-string Egyptian "fiddle of the Nile." They may have a body made of half a coconut shell, while the more sophisticated versions have a metal soundbox, the front may be half-covered with beaten copper, half with cowskin.
The rebab was used, continues to be used, in Arabic Bedouin music as well traditional Iraqi music under the name "joza", named after the sound box material made of a coconut shell. There is a bowed instrument in Persian music named Kamanche which has similar shape and structure. For a famous Iranian singer and rebab player see Hassaan Egzaar Chenani; the spike fiddle variants are commonly used by many North and Central Asian ethnic groups and their diaspora around the world, such as the Huqin variety used by most ethnic groups of China, the khoochir and morin khuur of Mongolia, the Byzaanchy of Tuva, the Haegeum of Korea, kyl kiak of Kyrgyzstan, Saw sam sai of Thailand and many others. These are used in playing traditional folk tunes, but have become popular in arrangements of contemporary music, including such genres as classical and rock. In the Indonesian gamelan the rebab is an essential elaborating instrument, ornamenting the basic melody. A two-string bowed lute consisting of a wooden body, traditionally though now a single coconut shell, covered with fine stretched skin.
Two brass strings are tuned a fifth apart and the horse hair bow is tied loosely with the proper tension controlled by the players bow hand, contributing to the difficult technique. There are two per ensemble, one for pelog and one for slendro, never played together; the rebab does not have to conform to the scale of the other gamelan instruments and can be played in free time, finishing its phrases after the beat of the gong ageng. The rebab frequently plays the buka when it is part of the ensemble. In the eastern Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the Rebab is used in a healing ritual called "Main Puteri"; the musician healer is sometimes taken to hospitals in cases where doctors are unable to heal ailing patients. Margaret J. Kartomi: On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, University of Chicago Press, 1990 Turkish Rebab Master Ibrahim Metin Ugur Nay-Nava the encyclopedia of persian music instruments Rebab The Rebab Arabic rababa photo nuke.liuteriaetnica.it FERNWOOD, an American music group that uses a Rebab.
The Bargello known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo, is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. The word bargello appears to come from the late Latin bargillus, meaning "castle" or "fortified tower". During the Italian Middle Ages it was the name given to a military captain in charge of keeping peace and justice during riots and uproars. In Florence he was hired from a foreign city to prevent any appearance of favoritism on the part of the Captain; the position could be compared with that of a current Chief of police. The name Bargello was extended to the building, the office of the captain. Construction began in 1255; the palace was built to house first the Capitano del Popolo and in 1261, the'podestà', the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council. This Palazzo del Podestà, as it was called, is the oldest public building in Florence; this austere crenellated building served as model for the construction of the Palazzo Vecchio.
In 1574, the Medici dispensed with the function of the Podestà and housed the bargello, the police chief of Florence, in this building, hence its name. It was employed as a prison; when Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Peter Leopold was exiled, the makeshift Governor of Tuscany decided that the Bargello should no longer be a jail, it became a national museum. The original two-storey structure was built alongside the Volognana Tower in 1256; the third storey, which can be identified by the smaller blocks used to construct it, was added after the fire of 1323. The building is designed around an open courtyard with an external staircase leading to the second floor. An open well is found in the centre of the courtyard; the Bargello opened as a national museum in 1865, displaying the largest Italian collection of gothic and Renaissance sculptures. The museum houses masterpieces by Michelangelo, such as his Bacchus, Pitti Tondo and David-Apollo, its collection includes Donatello's David and St. George Tabernacle, Vincenzo Gemito's Pescatore, Jacopo Sansovino's Bacchus, Giambologna's Architecture and his Mercury and many works from the Della Robbia family.
Benvenuto Cellini is represented with his bronze bust of Cosimo I. There are a few works from the Baroque period, notably Gianlorenzo Bernini's 1636-7 Bust of Costanza Bonarelli; the museum has a fine collection of ceramics, tapestries, silver and coins. The lost right-hand panel of the Franks Casket is held by the museum, it features the competing designs for The Sacrifice of Isaac that were made by Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi to win the contest for the second set of doors of the Florence Baptistery. Honolulu Hale's interior courtyard and open ceiling were modeled after the Bargello; the Islamic Hall at the Bargello was set up in 1982 by Marco Spallanzani and Giovanni Curatola at the direction of Paola Barocchi and Giovanna Gaeta Bertelà the director. "Bargello National Museum". Ministry of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 14 August 2016